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Milan, Italy

Rosenfeld R.M.,New York University | Shiffman R.N.,Yale University | Robertson P.,Surgery Academy
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (United States)

Background. Guidelines translate best evidence into best practice. A well-crafted guideline promotes quality by reducing health care variations, improving diagnostic accuracy, promoting effective therapy, and discouraging ineffective- or potentially harmful-interventions. Despite a plethora of published guidelines, methodology is often poorly defined and varies greatly within and among organizations. Purpose. The third edition of this manual describes the principles and practices used successfully by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation to produce quality-driven, evidence-based guidelines using efficient and transparent methodology for actionable recommendations with multidisciplinary applicability. The development process emphasizes a logical sequence of key action statements supported by amplifying text, action statement profiles, and recommendation grades linking action to evidence. New material in this edition includes standards for trustworthy guidelines, updated classification of evidence levels, increased patient and public involvement, assessing confidence in the evidence, documenting differences of opinion, expanded discussion of conflict of interest, and use of computerized decision support for crafting actionable recommendations. Conclusion. As clinical practice guidelines become more prominent as a key metric of quality health care, organizations must develop efficient production strategies that balance rigor and pragmatism. Equally important, clinicians must become savvy in understanding what guidelines are-and are not-and how they are best used to improve care. The information in this manual should help clinicians and organizations achieve these goals. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2013. Source

Hou B.,Surgery Academy
Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University

To explore the clinical significance of miRNA-216a expression in pancreatic cancer. Fourteen patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy and 6 patients with benign pancreas lesions were examined for miR-216a expressions in the tumor or lesion tissues using Agilent Human miRNA Microarray (V12.0). The relationship between miR-216a expressions and the clinicopathological features of the patients was analyzed. The expression of miRNA-216a was significantly lower in pancreatic cancer than in benign pancreas lesions (P=0.000). The expression of miRNA-216a was significantly correlated with the T stage of the tumor (P=0.002), but not with the patients' age, gender, smoking status, tumor stage, lymph node metastases, distant metastasis, tumor differentiation, nerve invasion, vessel invasion or serum CA19-9 level (P>0.05). The down-regulated expression of miR-216a in pancreatic cancer suggests the involvement of miR-216a in the tumorigenesis and development of pancreatic cancer. miR-216a may potentially serve as a novel tumor marker and also a prognostic factor for pancreatic cancer. Source

Marcus C.L.,American Academy of Sleep Medicine | Brooks L.J.,The American College | Jones J.,Surgery Academy | Schechter M.S.,Genentech

OBJECTIVE: This technical report describes the procedures involved in developing recommendations on the management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). METHODS: The literature from 1999 through 2011 was evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 3166 titles were reviewed, of which 350 provided relevant data. Most articles were level II through IV. The prevalence of OSAS ranged from 0% to 5.7%, with obesity being an independent risk factor. OSAS was associated with cardiovascular, growth, and neurobehavioral abnormalities and possibly inflammation. Most diagnostic screening tests had low sensitivity and specificity. Treatment of OSAS resulted in improvements in behavior and attention and likely improvement in cognitive abilities. Primary treatment is adenotonsillectomy (AT). Data were insuf ficient to recommend specific surgical techniques; however, children undergoing partial tonsillectomy should be monitored for possible recurrence of OSAS. Although OSAS improved postoperatively, the proportion of patients who had residual OSAS ranged from 13% to 29% in lowrisk populations to 73% when obese children were included and stricter polysomnographic criteria were used. Nevertheless, OSAS may improve after AT even in obese children, thus supporting surgery as a reasonable initial treatment. A significant number of obese patients required intubation or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) postoperatively, which reinforces the need for inpatient observation. CPAP was effective in the treatment of OSAS, but adherence is a major barrier. For this reason, CPAP is not recommended as fi rst-line therapy for OSAS when AT is an option. Intranasal steroids may ameliorate mild OSAS, but follow-up is needed. Data were insufficient to recommend rapid maxillary expansion. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Frodel J.,Surgery Academy
Facial Plastic Surgery

Facial trauma commonly includes injury to the nose and perinasal area. In this review, we will focus on the sequelae of severe nasal trauma and provide examples of correction of the severely deviated nose, the severely collapsed nose, and revision of a traumatic deformity after prior rhinoplasty. We will then discuss coexistent deformities of perinasal regions in addition to functional and posttraumatic nasal correction, including posttraumatic periorbital deformities. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. Source

Significant complications still occur after abdominoplasty, the rate varies widely in different series. This variation suggests that there is a lot of scope for improvement. This paper reviews the various complications and also the technical improvements reported in the last 20 years. The root cause of each complication is analysed and preventive steps are suggested based on the literature and the authorfs own personal series with very low complication rates. Proper case selection, risk stratified prophylaxis of thromboembolism, initial synchronous liposuction, flap elevation at the Scarpa fascia level, discontinuous incremental flap dissection, vascular preservation and obliteration of the sub.flap space by multiple sutures emerge as the strongest preventive factors. It is proposed that most of the complications of abdominoplasty are preventable and that it is possible to greatly enhance the aesthetic and safety profile of this surgery. Source

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