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Aim: Surgical site infection (SSI) and wound dehiscence are dreaded complications following laparotomy in general surgical patients, and can potentially occur more often in various comorbid states. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has a positive effect of on open and complicated wounds and so has been used for at-risk surgical incisions with the aim of redistributing lateral tension and holding incision edges together. The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of wound complications following laparotomy in high-risk general surgical patients with a clean incision treated with closed-incision negative-pressure therapy (ciNPT) with those receiving conventional care. Method: A retrospective review was performed of the hospital medical records of patients who underwent laparotomy between 1 October 2010 and 31 March 2012. Records of 69 patients who received ciNPT and 112 who were managed by adherent gauze dressings were included in the final analysis. Results: Two (2.9%) patients in the ciNPT group and 23 (20.5%) in the non-NPWT group developed a wound complication following laparotomy (P < 0.0009). The relative risk (RR) was 0.14 (0.03–0.58), suggesting that infection is less likely to occur in ciNPT-treated incisions, compared with gauze dressings. Conclusion: ciNPT was associated with a positive clinical outcome and was a safe and effective method of postsurgical management in our general surgery patients considered to have risk of developing wound complications following laparotomy. © 2016 The Authors. Colorectal Disease published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland

Linitis plastica (LP), a subset of gastric adenocarcinoma (GA), has been considered as a fatal disease with few management options. Little evidence has been reported regarding the role for surgical therapy in treating LP. A retrospective review of GA patients with LP from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database (2004-2009) was performed. 29,440 patients with GA were identified, of whom 948 (3.2%) had LP. After matching for American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) stage, LP patients had significantly worse 5-year disease specific survival (DSS) compared with GA (6 vs 34%, P < 0.001). For potentially resectable LP patients (i.e., stage I-III), 5-year DSS was 0 per cent for no treatment and for radiation therapy alone, 18 per cent for both and surgery and radiation, and 20 per cent for surgery alone(P < 0.001). LP is a marker of poor survival in patients with GA. However, surgical resection provides the best oncologic outcomes in these patients with a 20 per cent 5-year DSS in patients with loco-regional disease.

Nanninga G.L.,Surgery | de Leur K.,Surgery | Panneman M.J.M.,Consumer and Safety Institute | van der Elst M.,Surgery | Hartholt K.A.,Surgery
Age and Ageing | Year: 2014

Background: age-related issues are expected to rise in the coming decades. Osteoporosis, falls and fractures are major public health issues among elderly. Pelvic fractures are associated with a serious morbidity and hospitalisation rate. We therefore performed a study to determine trends in incidence and age-specific rates of pelvic fracture-related hospitalisations among elderly (≥65 years).Methods: a secular trend analysis of all hospitalisations due to a pelvic fracture among older adults, using the National Medical Registration, 1986-2011, The Netherlands.Results: the total number of hospitalisations due to a pelvic fracture increased from 887 in 1986 to 2,013 admissions in 2011 (127% increase). The overall age-adjusted incidence rate increased from 5.19 in 1986 to 7.14 per 10,000 population in 2011 (37.5% increase). The incidence rate increased with age and was higher for females. The Percentual Annual Change was 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9;1.5) for older males, and 1.0% (95% CI: 0.9;1.2) for females, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay decreased between 1991 and 2011 to 12.0 days (53.4% decrease). The total number of hospital-bed-days decreased from 29,002 days in 1991 to 17,283 days in 2011 (40.4% decrease), despite an increase in absolute number of admissions.Conclusion: absolute numbers and incidence rates of pelvic fractures are increasing among the older Dutch population. Considering the fact the general population is growing older, an increasing number of elderly suffer from pelvic fractures. Attention on osteoporosis screening and prevention of falls in elderly remains important, in order to limit-related healthcare costs in the future. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.

Perez-Mora N.,Medical Science Research | Goren A.,University Of Rome rconi | Velasco C.,Surgery | Bermudez F.,Business Development
Dermatologic Therapy | Year: 2014

Acute telogen effluvium (ATE) is often associated with female androgenetic alopecia (FAA), but predictive factors of ATE-FAA association and clinical factors or therapies that may influence the progression of ATE to chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) have not been reported. We have identified predictive factors of ATE-FAA association and retrospectively evaluated the impact of therapies on the progression to CTE. Conclusions are as follows: (i) Triggering cause is a significant independent factor that predicts association of ATE with FAA. (ii) Triggering causes with higher risk of concurrent FAA are severe diet, iron deficiency, and thyroid dysfunction. (iii) Patients suffering ATE may benefit from different therapeutic approaches (depending on which is the triggering cause) to prevent or treat the association with FAA. (iv) Minoxidil use shows a trend to lower the percentage of progression to CTE. (v) Apart from treating the precipitating cause, the different additional oral treatments used have not shown any correlation with progression to CTE. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Krueger D.,TU Munich | Michel K.,TU Munich | Zeller F.,Surgery | Demir I.E.,TU Munich | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2016

Knowledge on basic features of epithelial functions in the human intestine is scarce. We used Ussing chamber techniques to record basal tissue resistance (R-basal) and short circuit currents (ISC; secretion) under basal conditions (ISC-basal) and after electrical field stimulation (ISC-EFS) of nerves in 2221 resectates from 435 patients. ISC-EFS was TTX-sensitive and of comparable magnitude in the small and large intestine. ISC-EFS or R-basal were not influenced by the patients' age, sex or disease pathologies (cancer, polyps, diverticulitis). Ion substitution, bumetanide or adenylate cyclase inhibition studies suggested that ISC-EFS depended on epithelial cAMP-driven chloride and bicarbonate secretion but not on amiloride-sensitive sodium absorption. Although atropine-sensitive cholinergic components prevailed for ISC-EFS of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, PG97-269-sensitive [vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor1 antagonist] VIPergic together with l-NAME-sensitive nitrergic components dominated the ISC-EFS in colonic preparations. Differences in numbers of cholinergic or VIPergic neurons, sensitivity of epithelial muscarinic or VIP receptors, or stimulus frequency-dependent transmitter release were not responsible for the region-specific transmitter contribution to ISC-EFS. Instead, the low atropine-sensitivity of ISC-EFS in the colon was the result of high cholinesterase activity because neostigmine revealed cholinergic components. Colonic ISC-EFS remained unchanged after tachykinin, P2X, P2Y or A1 and A2 receptor blockade. R-basal was smaller and ISC-basal was higher in the small intestine. TTX and bumetanide decreased ISC-basal in all regions, suggesting nerve-dependent secretory tone. ISC-basal was atropine-sensitive in the small intestine and PG97-269-sensitive in the large intestine. This comprehensive study reveals novel insights into region-specific nerve-mediated secretion in the human small and large intestine. © 2016 The Physiological Society.

Schemann M.,TU Munich | Hafsi N.,TU Munich | Michel K.,TU Munich | Kober O.I.,Glaxosmithkline | And 7 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

Background & Aims: β3 Adrenoceptor (β3-AR) is expressed on adipocytes and enteric neurons. GW427353 is a human selective β3-AR agonist with visceral analgesic effects. Some of its effects may involve release of somatostatin (SST) and actions on enteric neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the mode of action of GW427353 in human submucous neurons. Methods: Voltage sensitive dye imaging was used to record from human submucous neurons. SST release from human primary adipocytes was measured with enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect adiponectin, β3-AR, SST, SST2 receptors, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and protein gene product 9.5. Results: Confocal imaging showed cytoplasmic β3-AR labeling in somata of submucous neurons and nerve varicosities. GW427353 had no direct postsynaptic actions but decreased fast synaptic input to submucous neurons. Tissue perfusion with GW427353 reduced nicotine-evoked neuronal spike frequency, an effect prevented by the β3-AR antagonist SR-59230 and the SST2-receptor antagonist CYN154806 and mimicked by the SST2 receptor agonist octreotide. Adipocytes expressed adiponectin, β3-AR, and SST. TH-positive fibers were in close proximity to adipocytes. Submucous neurons expressed SST2 receptors. Human primary adipocytes released SST in response to GW427353 in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect abolished by SR-59230. Conclusions: Inhibitory action of GW427353 involves release of SST which stimulates inhibitory SST2 receptors on human submucous neurons. Adipocytes are a potential source for SST. β3-AR activation may be a promising approach to reduce enteric neuron hyperexcitability. The action of GW427353 may be the neurophysiologic correlate of its beneficial effect in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. © 2010 AGA Institute.

Sung J.,Surgery | Skoog S.,Surgery
Pediatric Nephrology | Year: 2012

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the most common uropathy affecting children. Compared to children without VUR, those with VUR have a higher rate of pyelonephritis and renal scarring following urinary tract infection (UTI). Options for treatment include observation with or without antibiotic prophylaxis and surgical repair. Surgical intervention may be necessary in patients with persistent reflux, renal scarring, and recurrent or breakthrough febrile UTI. Both open and endoscopic approaches to reflux correction are successful and reduce the occurrence of febrile UTI. Estimated success rates of open and endoscopic reflux correction are 98.1% (95% CI 95.1, 99.1) and 83.0% (95% CI 69.1, 91.4), respectively. Factors that affect the success of endoscopic injection include pre-operative reflux grade and presence of functional or anatomic bladder abnormalities including voiding dysfunction and duplicated collecting systems. Few studies have evaluated the long-term outcomes of endoscopic injection, and with variable results. In patients treated endoscopically, recurrent febrile UTI occurred in 0-21%, new renal damage in 9-12%, and recurrent reflux in 17-47.6% of treated ureters with at least 1 year follow-up. These studies highlight the need for standardized outcome reporting and longer follow-up after endoscopic treatment. © IPNA 2011.

This small study in Essex has shown that MSF is seen as a tool with the potential to identify learning needs and help participants change their behaviour. However, while it is seen as a tool with potential it has not been shown to have significant educational impact on established GPs. Trainees have been able to take advantage of a clear-cut system; a well-researched and designed tool and an opportunity to discuss findings, educational needs and plans with another doctor who has observed their work. Even so, the process does not appear to be good at identifying and encouraging changes in clinical behaviour. This suggests that the nMRCGP tool may need to be revised. Established GPs will need to develop a trusted tool and a recognised pathway to encourage them to make best use of the MSF process.

Schwartz A.J.,Surgery
Journal of Arthroplasty | Year: 2012

The purpose of this multicenter study is to determine the utility of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) count and differential for evaluating periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in patients with a failed unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). A total of 259 patients undergoing revision of a failed UKA were reviewed; 28 (10.8%) met the study criteria for PJI. The optimal cutoff values were 27 mm/h for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 14 mg/L for the C-reactive protein, 6200/. μL for the synovial fluid WBC count, and 60% for the differential. These tests are useful for diagnosing PJI after UKA with optimal cutoff values that are similar to those used for total knee arthroplasty; however, the optimal synovial WBC count was found to be somewhat higher, which may be related to the unresurfaced compartments. In addition, we found that nearly half of patients had suboptimal evaluation for PJI. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

Lopater J.,Surgery | Hartung O.,Surgery | Bretelle F.,Surgery | Bastide C.,Surgery
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2011

Background: Angiomyolipoma can worsen during pregnancy. Inferior vena cava thrombus of renal angiomyolipoma during pregnancy is rare, and threatens to cause massive emboli. We report a case of vena cava tumor thrombectomy during the second trimester of pregnancy with delayed renal tumorectomy. Case: A 34-year-old woman with bilateral known angiomyolipomas presented asymptomatic at 30 weeks of gestation with an inferior vena cava thrombus at renal follow-up ultrasonography. Retro-hepatic thrombus had fatty signal on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The woman had renal vein and vena cava tumor initial thrombectomy, and had normal cesarean delivery at 39 weeks of gestation. The tumor was treated by postpartum right partial nephrectomy. Conclusion: Successful angiomyolipoma isolated thrombectomy during pregnancy with delayed partial nephrectomy is possible. Angiomyolipoma needs follow-up during pregnancy with repeated renal ultrasonography. © 2011 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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