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Sacramento, CA, United States

Ensminger M.,Surface Water Protection Program | Bergin R.,Surface Water Protection Program | Spurlock F.,Surface Water Protection Program | Goh K.S.,Surface Water Protection Program
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

The California's San Joaquin River and its tributaries including Orestimba (ORC) and Del Puerto (DPC) Creeks are listed on the 2006 US EPA Clean Water Act §303(d) list for pesticide impairment. From December 2007 through June 2008, water and sediment samples were collected from both creeks in Stanislaus County to determine concentrations of organophosphorus (OP) and pyrethroid insecticides and to identify toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca. OPs were detected in almost half (10 of 21) of the water samples, at concentrations from 0.005 to 0.912 μg L -1. Diazinon was the most frequently detected OP, followed by chlorpyrifos and dimethoate. Two water samples were toxic to C. dubia; based on median lethal concentrations (LC 50), chlorpyrifos was likely the cause of this toxicity. Pyrethroids were detected more frequently in sediment samples (18 detections) than in water samples (three detections). Pyrethroid concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.005 to 0.021 μg L -1. These concentrations were well below reported C. dubia LC 50s, and toxicity was not observed in laboratory bioassays. Cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in sediment samples at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 74.4 ng g -1, dry weight. At DPC, all but one sediment sample caused 100% toxicity to H. azteca. Based on estimated toxicity units (TUs), bifenthrin was likely responsible for this toxicity and λ-cyhalothrin also contributed. At ORC, survival of H. azteca was significantly reduced in four of the 11 sediment samples. However, pyrethroids were detected in only two of these samples. Based on TUs, bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin likely contributed to the toxicity. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

Ensminger M.P.,Surface Water Protection Program | Budd R.,Surface Water Protection Program | Kelley K.C.,Surface Water Protection Program | Goh K.S.,Surface Water Protection Program
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

Urban pesticide use has a direct impact on surface water quality. To determine the extent of pesticide contamination, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation initiated a multi-area urban monitoring program in 2008. Water and sediment samples were collected at sites unaffected by agricultural inputs in three areas: Sacramento (SAC), San Francisco Bay (SFB), and Orange County (OC). Samples were analyzed for up to 64 pesticides or degradates. Multiple detections were common; 50 % of the water samples contained five or more pesticides. Statewide, the most frequently detected insecticides in water were bifenthrin, imidacloprid, fipronil, fipronil sulfone, fipronil desulfinyl, carbaryl, and malathion. Bifenthrin was the most common contaminant in sediment samples. Key differences by area: OC had more pesticides detected than SAC or SFB with higher concentrations of fipronil, whereas SAC had higher concentrations of bifenthrin. The most frequently detected herbicides were 2,4-D, triclopyr, dicamba, diuron, and pendimethalin. Key differences by area: OC and SFB had higher concentrations of triclopyr, whereas SAC had higher concentrations of 2,4-D and dicamba. Detection frequency, number of pesticides per sample, and pesticide concentration increased during rainstorm events. In water samples, all of the bifenthrin, malathion, fipronil, permethrin, and λ-cyhalothrin detections, and most of the fipronil sulfone and cyfluthrin detections were above their lowest US EPA aquatic benchmark. Diuron was the only herbicide that was detected above its lowest benchmark. Based on the number of pesticides and exceedances of aquatic benchmarks or the high number of sediment toxicity units, pesticides are abundant in California surface waters. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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