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Mainz, Germany

Oelsner A.,Surface Concept GmbH | Rohmer M.,University of Kaiserslautern | Schneider C.,University of Kaiserslautern | Bayer D.,University of Kaiserslautern | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena

The present work enlightens the developments in time- and energy resolved photoemission electron microscopy over the past few years. We describe basic principles of the technique and demonstrate different applications. An energy- and time-filtering photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) for real-time spectroscopic imaging can be realized either by a retarding field or hemispherical energy analyzer or by using time-of-flight optics with a delay line detector. The latter method has the advantage of no data loss at all as all randomly incoming particles are measured not only by position but also by time. This is of particular interest for pump-probe experiments in the femtosecond and attosecond time scale where space charge processes drastically limit the maximum number of photoemitted electrons per laser pulse. This work focuses particularly on time-of-flight analysis using a novel delay line detector. Time and energy resolved PEEM instruments with delay line detectors enable 4D imaging (x, y, Δt, EKin) on a true counting basis. This allows a broad range of applications from real-time observation of dynamic phenomena at surfaces to fs time-of-flight spectro-microscopy and even aberration correction. By now, these time-of-flight analysis instruments achieve intrinsic time resolutions of 108 ps absolute and 13.5 ps relative. Very high permanent measurement speeds of more than 4 million events per second in random detection regimes have been realized using a standard USB2.0 interface. By means of this performance, the time-resolved PEEM technique enables to display evolutions of spatially resolved (<25 nm) and temporal sliced images life on any modern computer. The method allows dynamics investigations of variable electrical, magnetic, and optical near fields at surfaces and great prospects in dynamical adaptive photoelectron optics. For dynamical processes in the ps time scale such as magnetic domain wall movements, the time resolution of the delay line detectors even allows to be used directly for real-time experiments as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Nepijko S.A.,University of Mainz | Nepijko S.A.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Krasyuk A.,Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics | Oelsner A.,Surface Concept GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Microscopy

By example of a Permalloy particle (40 × 40 μm 2 size, 30 nm thickness) we demonstrate a procedure to quantitatively investigate the dynamics of magnetic stray fields during ultrafast magnetization reversal. The measurements have been performed in a time-resolving photoemission electron microscope using the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. In the particle under investigation, we have observed a flux-closure-dominated magnetic ground structure, minimizing the magnetic stray field outside the sample. A fast magnetic field pulse introduced changes in the micromagnetic structure accompanied with an incomplete flux closure. As a result, stray fields arise along the edges of domains, which cause a change of contrast and an image deformation of the particles geometry (curvature of its edge). The magnetic stray fields are calculated from a deformation of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) images taken after the magnetic field pulse in a 1 ns interval. These measurements reveal a decrease of magnetic stray fields with time. An estimate of the lower limit of the domain wall velocity yields about 2 × 10 3 m s -1. © 2010 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2010 Royal Microscopical Society. Source

Plucinski L.,Julich Research Center | Oelsner A.,Surface Concept GmbH | Matthes F.,Julich Research Center | Schneider C.M.,Julich Research Center
Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena

Photoelectron spectrometers usually allow detection of either spin-resolved energy-distribution curves (EDCs) at single emission angle, or 2D angle-vs.-energy images without spin-resolution. We have combined the two detection schemes into one spectrometer system which permits simultaneous detection of a 1D spin-resolved EDC and a 2D angular map. A state-of-the-art hemispherical analyzer is used as an energy filter. Its original scintillator detector has been replaced by a delay-line-detector (DLD), and part of the electron beam is allowed to pass through to reach the spin-polarized low energy electron diffraction (SPLEED) spin-detector mounted subsequently. The electron-optics between DLD and SPLEED contains a 90° deflector to feature simultaneous detection of in-plane and out-of-plane spin components. These electron-optics have been optimized for high transmission to reduce acquisition times in the spin-resolved mode. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Shavorskiy A.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Neppl S.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Slaughter D.S.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Cryan J.P.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | And 27 more authors.
Review of Scientific Instruments

An apparatus for sub-nanosecond time-resolved ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies with pulsed and constant wave X-ray light sources is presented. A differentially pumped hemispherical electron analyzer is equipped with a delay-line detector that simultaneously records the position and arrival time of every single electron at the exit aperture of the hemisphere with ∼ 0.1 mm spatial resolution and ?150 ps temporal accuracy. The kinetic energies of the photoelectrons are encoded in the hit positions along the dispersive axis of the two-dimensional detector. Pumpprobe time-delays are provided by the electron arrival times relative to the pump pulse timing. An average time-resolution of (780 ± 20) ps (FWHM) is demonstrated for a hemisphere pass energy Ep = 150 eV and an electron kinetic energy range KE = 503-508 eV. The time-resolution of the setup is limited by the electron time-of-flight (TOF) spread related to the electron trajectory distribution within the analyzer hemisphere and within the electrostatic lens system that images the interaction volume onto the hemisphere entrance slit. The TOF spread for electrons with KE = 430 eV varies between ∼ 9 ns at a pass energy of 50 eV and ∼1 ns at pass energies between 200 eV and 400 eV. The correlation between the retarding ratio and the TOF spread is evaluated by means of both analytical descriptions of the electron trajectories within the analyzer hemisphere and computer simulations of the entire trajectories including the electrostatic lens system. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the by far dominant contribution to the TOF spread is acquired within the hemisphere. However, both experiment and computer simulations show that the lens system indirectly affects the time resolution of the setup to a significant extent by inducing a strong dependence of the angular spread of electron trajectories entering the hemisphere on the retarding ratio. The scaling of the angular spread with the retarding ratio can be well approximated by applying Liouville's theorem of constant emittance to the electron trajectories inside the lens system. The performance of the setup is demonstrated by characterizing the laser fluence-dependent transient surface photovoltage response of a laser-excited Si(100) sample. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Chew S.H.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Chew S.H.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics | Sumann F.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics | Spath C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 14 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters

We report on the imaging of plasmonic structures by time-of-flight- photoemission electron microscopy (ToF-PEEM) in combination with extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulses from a high harmonic generation source. Characterization of lithographically fabricated Au structures using these ultrashort XUV pulses by ToF-PEEM shows a spatial resolution of ∼200 nm. Energy-filtered imaging of the secondary electrons resulting in reduced chromatic aberrations as well as microspectroscopic identification of core and valence band electronic states have been successfully proven. We also find that the fast valence band electrons are not influenced by space charge effects, which is essentially important for attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscopy realization. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. Source

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