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Zhang L.,National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center | Lv J.,Supreme Technology | Liao C.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2012

Xuanwei and Fuyuan, located in the Yunnan province in southwest of China, are known to have a strikingly high incidence of lung cancer. Among the many factors that have been explored, the association between lung cancer and trace elements has not received enough attention. In this study, dietary samples were collected from 60 families of the lung cancer and control groups and abundances of 14 trace elements were determined using inductively coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy. Accuracy and sensitivity of the method were demonstrated by analyzing national standard reference materials. The results showed that the dietary intake of the trace elements contributed 96.6% of total intake. Among the 14 elements tested, cadmium and titanium were found to be present at a significantly higher level in the food consumed by the cancer group than by the control group. The intake of selenium by the population living in the areas is much lower than what it should be, with the people in the cancer group experiencing even more severe selenium deficiency. In addition, in both groups, the intakes of several essential elements (iron, copper, and zinc) from food and the drinking water were found to be significantly lower than required according to the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes. The present study of the relationship between trace element intakes of lung cancer cases and controls provides important information urgently needed for the assessment of lung cancer risk of healthy subjects. The study also gives rational dietary suggestions to local residents which is important to the early diagnosis and pretreatment of lung cancer. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Zhang L.,National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center | Lv J.,Supreme Technology | Sun S.,Chinese PLA General Hospital
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2012

The concentrations of trace elements are closely related to tumor genesis, progression, and therapy. In order to establish the extent to which trace elements apply to lung cancer, 15 trace elements were determined in 60 lung tissue samples from residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, two counties with extremely high lung cancer incidences in Yunnan province, China. The results indicated that the levels of V, Fe, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, Se, and Pb in the lung cancer tissues were significantly different from those in benign tissues. Among the eight elements, the levels of V, Fe, Zn, and Cd in the lung cancer tissues were lower than those in the benign tissues, while those of Ni, Cu, Se, and Pb were higher. Multiple conditional logistic regression showed that among the 15 elements, Cu, Pb (β∈>∈0, OR∈>∈1), and Zn (β∈< ∈0, OR∈<∈1) were closely related to the lung cancer. Cu and Pb were classified as risk factors for local lung cancer and Zn was identified as a protective factor. The results obtained will provide dietary suggestions in terms of how to reduce lung cancer risks by appropriately balancing the intakes of certain trace elements especially for individuals who are from those two counties. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Zhang L.,National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center | Chen R.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Lv J.,Supreme Technology
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2016

Beijing, is the political, economic and cultural center of China. Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, located close to Beijing are also two mega-cities with huge population. The rapid economic development in the three cities in the last decades has caused severe air pollution problems, especially airborne PAHs pollution, in both gaseous and particulate phases, which has resulted in considerable harm to the health of local residents. In this study, a total of 671 air samples were collected in the three cities and reference site, and four national air quality background sites. Concentrations and seasonal variations were discussed to describe the pollution status and identify possible sources. The results showed that concentrations of BaP, a PAH that serves as an indicator of PAH pollution, exceeded the Chinese national standard by 4–12 times. PAH concentrations varied significantly in different seasons, with similar trends in the three cities. The toxic equivalents quantity (i.e., quantity of total PAHs with an equivalent toxicity to BaP) ranged from 13.35 to 22.54 ng/m3 during the central heating period of winter and spring. These concentrations greatly exceeded the Chinese national standards for 24-h average (2.5 ng/m3) and annual average (1.0 ng/m3) concentrations of BaP. Two ratios that are indicative of PAH source, Pyr/BaP and BaP/BghiP, revealed that high percentages of the PAH pollution were contributed by coal combustion. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Cai Y.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | Lv J.,Supreme Technology | Zhang W.,Shandong Academy of Sciences | Zhang L.,National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2012

Xuanwei and Fuyuan are located in the southwest of China and have the highest lung cancer incidence in China, possibly even highest in the world. Dietary samples were collected from these two counties and the contamination status of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. PAH components, food constituents, dietary exposure level, as well as spatial difference, were studied in the different groups. The percentage of dietary intake to total intake of PAHs was calculated and the relationship between the dietary intake of PAHs and the abnormal lung cancer incidence was primarily discussed. The results showed that rice and potatoes were the main foods of the local residents in Xuanwei and Fuyuan. The daily exposure doses of Bap (benzo[a]pyrene), total PAHs, and TEQs (toxic equivalents) based on Bap toxicity in two counties were estimated to be 458 ng d -1, 14532 ng d -1, and 896 ng d -1, respectively, which were much less than those in other cities reported previously. The lower ingestion amount of food with a relatively higher content of PAHs, such as meat and fish, could account for the lower exposure doses. PAHs with less than 4 rings occupied a high percentage of the total PAHs in food samples. The exposure doses varied significantly among different sites and even different families at the same site. Dietary exposure was not the main exposure route of PAHs at most sites. It appears that there was not a direct relationship between dietary exposure and the lung cancer incidence. However, high ratios of dietary intake to total PAHs intake (1.33%-70.61%) were found in several areas and rational diet suggestions should be given in these areas in the future. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zhang L.,National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center | Lv J.,Supreme Technology
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

Sediment and soil samples from Tingjiang, the biggest river in Fujian province, southeast China, were collected to assess the potential metallic pollution. Microwave-assisted digestion and ICP-MS were employed to determine the metal concentrations in two soil and three sediment samples from the basin. The distribution, the pollution status of thirteen element pollutions and the effluence from a metallurgy factory were investigated; the risk assessment was performed with two methods: the index of geo-accumulation and the ecological risk index. The index of geo-accumulation indicated the pollution status existed in the order of Cd > Cu = Mn > Zn = Se > Co = As > Pb > Ni > Cr = U > Th > Tl in the soil and Cd > Cu > As > Se > U > Co = Zn > Pb > Mn > Th > Ni = Tl > Cr in the sediment. The potential ecological risk index suggested the pollution existed in the soil in the order Cd > As > Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr and Cd > Cu > As > Pb > Zn > Cr in the sediment. Cd, Cu were identified as the main pollution factors, which coincided well with the possible influence from the metallurgy factory. The Risk Index values were 380 in the soil, 1,283 in the downstream sediment separately, which revealed that serious pollution and high ecological risks in some areas in this basin. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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