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Seoul, South Korea

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Seoul, South Korea

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PubMed | Supreme Prosecutors Office, University of Ulsan, Konkuk University and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of analytical toxicology | Year: 2016

Chemical castration involves administration of drugs to prevent pathological sexual behavior, reduce abnormal sexual drive and treat hormone-dependent cancers. Various drugs have been used for chemical castration; however, substantial interindividual variability and side effects are often observed. In this study, we proposed a useful monitoring method for the application of chemical castration agents using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). Testosterone, cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone, goserelin acetate, leuprolide acetate and triptorelin acetate were analyzed by UPLC-MS-MS. The target drugs were extracted from serum samples by double protein precipitation using methanol. Testosterone-1,2-d2 and buserelin acetate were used as internal standards. Parameters of analytical performance were evaluated, including imprecision, linearity, ion suppression and detection capabilities. Testosterone measurements were compared with the results of immunoassays. Serum specimens from 51 subjects who underwent chemical castration were analyzed. All drugs and testosterone were well extracted and separated using our method. The method was essentially free from potential interferences and ion suppression. Within-run and between-run imprecision values were <15%. The lower limits of quantification were 0.125 and 0.5-1.0 ng/mL for testosterone and other drugs, respectively. Good correlations with pre-existing immunoassays for testosterone measurement were observed. Sera from subjects who underwent androgen deprivation therapy showed variable levels of drugs. We successfully developed a UPLC-MS-MS-based monitoring method for chemical castration. The performance of our method was generally acceptable. This method may provide a novel monitoring strategy for chemical castration to enhance expected effects while reducing unwanted side effects.


Chung H.,Korea University | Park J.,Korea University | Lee S.,Korea University | Kang C.,Supreme Prosecutors Office
Digital Investigation | Year: 2012

The demand for cloud computing is increasing because of the popularity of digital devices and the wide use of the Internet. Among cloud computing services, most consumers use cloud storage services that provide mass storage. This is because these services give them various additional functions as well as storage. It is easy to access cloud storage services using smartphones. With increasing utilization, it is possible for malicious users to abuse cloud storage services. Therefore, a study on digital forensic investigation of cloud storage services is necessary. This paper proposes new procedure for investigating and analyzing the artifacts of all accessible devices, such as Windows system, Mac system, iPhone, and Android smartphone. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Office of Forensic Science Planning and Supreme Prosecutors Office
Type: | Journal: Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences | Year: 2016

Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants such as phentermine (PT) has been regulated by law enforcement authorities due to its euphorigenic and relaxing effects. Due to high potential for its abuse, reliable analytical methods were required to detect and identify PT and its metabolite in biological samples. Thus a dilute and shoot liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of PT, N-hydroxyphentermine (NHOPT) and mephentermine (MPT) in urine. A 5L aliquot of diluted urine was injected into the LC-MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was performed by reversed-phase C18 column with gradient elution for all analytes within 5min. Identification and quantification were based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection. Linear least-squares regression with a 1/x(2) weighting factor was used to generate a calibration curve and the assay was linear from 50 to 15000ng/mL (PT and MPT) and 5 to 750ng/mL (NHOPT). The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 8.9% while the intra- and inter-day accuracies ranged from -6.2% to 11.2%. The limits of quantification were 3.5ng/mL (PT), 1.5ng/mL (NHOPT) and 1.0ng/mL (MPT). Method validation requirements for selectivity, dilution integrity, matrix effect and stability were satisfied. The applicability of the developed method was examined by analyzing urine samples from drug abusers.


PubMed | Inha University and Supreme Prosecutors Office
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis | Year: 2016

In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. The genome sizes were 153,848bp (the Korean non-drug variety, Cheungsam) and 153,854bp (the African variety, Yoruba Nigeria). The genome structures were identical with 131 individual genes [86 protein-coding genes (PCGs), eight rRNA, and 37 tRNA genes]. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. sativa varieties, the cp genomes of C. sativa had conservative features similar to that of all known species in the order Rosales. To verify the position of C. sativa within the order Rosales, we conducted phylogenetic analysis by using concatenated sequences of all PCGs from 17 complete cp genomes. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. sativa, showed close relationship with the family Moraceae. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales.


Moon J.-Y.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Kwon W.,Supreme Prosecutors Office | Suh S.,Supreme Prosecutors Office | Cheong J.C.,Supreme Prosecutors Office | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Cannabis, or marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, has been shown to be responsible for suppressing the production and secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone. However, despite such findings in animals, the chronic effects of marijuana use on human endocrine systems have proved to be inconsistent. Here, we investigated the reference ranges of urinary levels of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) as well as their metabolic ratio of T/E in a Korean male population (n = 337), which would enable an evaluation of abnormal changes in steroid metabolism induced by habitually administered cannabis. The T/E ratio was significantly decreased in the marijuana group (n = 18), while the urinary testosterone concentrations were also tended to decrease. This study is the first to provide data for the reference values of two urinary androgens and T/E values among control Korean males, and, furthermore, suggests that the T/E ratio, though not testosterone levels, might be used to understand the suppression of human male gonadal function affected by smoking marijuana. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Park S.-M.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Park S.-M.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Park S.-Y.,Supreme Prosecutors Office | Kim J.-H.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | And 9 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2013

In forensic science, identifying a tissue where a forensic specimen was originated is one of the principal challenges. Messenger RNA (mRNA) profile clearly reveals tissue-specific gene expression patterns that many attempts have been made to use RNA for forensic tissue identification. To systematically investigate the body-fluid-specific expression of mRNAs and find novel mRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification, we performed DNA microarray experiment with 24 Korean body fluid samples. Shannon entropy and Q-values were calculated for each gene, and 137 body-fluid-specific candidate genes were selected. By applying more stringent criteria, we further selected 28 candidate genes and validated them by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. As a result, we suggest a novel combination of four body-fluid-specific mRNA makers: PPBP for blood, FDCSP for saliva, MSMB for semen and MSLN for vaginal secretion. Multiplex qRT-PCR assay was designed using the four mRNA markers and DNA/RNA co-extraction method was tested for forensic use. This study will provide a thorough examination of body-fluid-specifically expressed mRNAs, which will enlarge the possibility of practical use of RNA for forensic purpose. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Supreme Prosecutors Office and Korea Institute of Science and Technology
Type: | Journal: The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology | Year: 2014

Cannabis, or marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, has been shown to be responsible for suppressing the production and secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone. However, despite such findings in animals, the chronic effects of marijuana use on human endocrine systems have proved to be inconsistent. Here, we investigated the reference ranges of urinary levels of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) as well as their metabolic ratio of T/E in a Korean male population (n=337), which would enable an evaluation of abnormal changes in steroid metabolism induced by habitually administered cannabis. The T/E ratio was significantly decreased in the marijuana group (n=18), while the urinary testosterone concentrations were also tended to decrease. This study is the first to provide data for the reference values of two urinary androgens and T/E values among control Korean males, and, furthermore, suggests that the T/E ratio, though not testosterone levels, might be used to understand the suppression of human male gonadal function affected by smoking marijuana.


Aboud M.,Florida International University | Oh H.H.,Supreme Prosecutors Office | Mccord B.,Florida International University
Electrophoresis | Year: 2013

In this paper, a rapid thermal cycling procedure is combined with a direct amplification from a paper punch, permitting a high-speed amplification of a 7-locus multiplex that requires no extraction step. When coupled with a short 1.8 cm microfluidic electrophoresis system, the entire procedure from paper punch to genotype can be completed in under 25 min. The paper describes selection and optimization of enzyme, direct amplification conditions, the reproducibility of the procedure, and concordance with standard forensic genotyping methods. The procedure utilizes a small high-speed thermal cycler and microfluidic device along with a small laptop and is highly portable. Overall, this technique should provide a useful and reliable procedure for rapid determination of identity of individuals retained at checkpoints as well as a quick method for preliminary identification of individuals at remote locations following mass disasters. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Lee S.Y.,Kyung Hee University | Park N.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Jeong E.-K.,Kyung Hee University | Wi J.-W.,Kyung Hee University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2012

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) were compared for their capacity to metabolite identification, sensitivity, and speed of analysis for propofol and its metabolites in urine samples. Acidic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization procedures were applied for GC/MS analysis. The LC/MS analysis used a simple sample pretreatment based on centrifugation and dilution. Propofol and four metabolites were successfully analyzed by GC/MS following TMS derivatization. One compound, . di-isopropanolphenol was tentatively characterized as a new metabolite observed for the first time in human urine. The TMS derivatization greatly improved the chromatographic properties and detection sensitivity, especially for hydroxylated metabolites. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) of propofol were about 325 and 0.51. ng/mL for the GC/MS scan mode and selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, respectively. In addition, five conjugated propofol metabolites were successfully analyzed by LC-MS/MS in negative ion mode. The detection sensitivity for these conjugated metabolites could be greatly enhanced by the addition of triethylamine to the mobile phase without any loss of LC resolution capacity. The LLOQs of propofol-glucuronide (PG) were about 1.17 and 2.01. ng/mL for the LC-MS-selected ion monitoring (SIM) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, respectively. Both GC/MS and LC/MS methods sensitively detected nine metabolites of propofol and could be used to provide complementary data for the reasonable propofol metabolism study. Urinary excretion profiles for propofol and its metabolites following administration to human were suggested based on the total ion chromatograms obtained by GC/MS and LC/MS methods, respectively. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


PubMed | Yonsei University and Supreme Prosecutors Office
Type: | Journal: Forensic science international | Year: 2015

Benzodiazepines and zolpidem are generally prescribed as sedative, hypnotics, anxiolytics or anticonvulsants. These drugs, however, are frequently misused in drug-facilitated crime. Therefore, a rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for identification and quantification of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using deuterium labeled internal standards (IS). Urine samples (120 L) mixed with 80 L of the IS solution were centrifuged. An aliquot (5 L) of the sample solution was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system for analysis. The mobile phases consisted of water and acetonitrile containing 2mM ammonium trifluoroacetate and 0.2% acetic acid. The analytical column was a Zorbax SB-C18 (100 mm 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 m, Agilent). The separation and detection of 18 analytes were achieved within 10 min. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 0.5-20 ng/mL (zolpidem), 1.0-40 ng/mL (flurazepam and temazepam), 2.5-100 ng/mL (7-aminoclonazepam, 1-hydroxymidazolam, midazolam, flunitrazepam and alprazolam), 5.0-200 ng/mL (zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid, -hydroxyalprazolam, oxazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, diazepam and -hydroxytriazolam), 10-400 ng/mL (lorazepam and desalkylflurazepam) and 10-100 ng/mL (N-desmethylflunitrazepam) with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) above 0.9971. The dilution integrity of the analytes was examined for supplementation of short linear range. Dilution precision and accuracy were tested using two, four and ten-folds dilutions and they ranged from 3.7 to 14.4% and -12.8 to 12.5%, respectively. The process efficiency for this method was 63.0-104.6%. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 11.8% and 9.1%, while intra- and inter-day accuracies were less than -10.0 to 8.2%, respectively. The lower limits of quantification were lower than 10 ng/mL for each analyte. The applicability of the developed method was successfully verified with human urine samples from drug users (n=21). Direct urine sample injection and optimized mobile phases were introduced for simple sample preparation and high-sensitivity with the desired separation.

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