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Wang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang X.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang X.,Supervision and Testing Center for Vegetable and Fruit Quality | Wang F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2012

This study determined concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) in 127 rhizosphere soils and 127 vegetable samples collected from Shaoguan, south China. The Chinese National Standard and the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) were used to compare the risk of these toxic metals through vegetable consumption in four zones, including three industrial polluted zones (P1, P2 and P3) and one non-polluted zone (P4). Results showed that in three industrial zones, the levels of Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Zn in vegetable rhizosphere soils exceeded the Chinese National Standard (GB15618-1995) by 9.09%, 87.9%, 8.08%, 32.3% and 18.2%, respectively, and Cd was the major pollution source. Mean contents of tested heavy metals in vegetables in three industrial zones (P1, P2 and P3) were significantly higher than that in the non-polluted zone (P4), and the levels of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in vegetables of three industrial zones exceeded the Chinese National Standard (GB 2762-2005) by 33.9%, 35.4%, 42.5% and 9.4%, respectively. The THQ of vegetables in four zones occurred at 0.13 - 1.2 for Pb, 0.28 - 4.0 for Cd, 0.55 - 2.3 for As, 0.0048 - 0.030 for Hg, and 0.064 - 0.11 for Zn. All THQ values in the non-polluted Danxia town (P4) were below the FAO/WHO permissible limit (THQ < 1). In contrast, the THQ of Cd in the industrial polluted Shaoguan Smelting Plant (P1) and Fankou Pb and Zn Mine (P2), and that of As in Shaoguan Smelting Plant (P1) and Plastics Factory (P3) exceeded the FAO/WHO permissible limit (THQ > 1). Our work suggests that the exposure risk of relevant heavy metals through vegetable consumption was higher to children compared with mid-ages and aged people. Toxic metal contamination through consumption of vegetable grown around the industrial zones imposed a great health risk on local inhabitant. Source

Sun F.F.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Sun F.F.,Supervision and Testing Center for Vegetable and Fruit Quality | Wang F.H.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang F.H.,Supervision and Testing Center for Vegetable and Fruit Quality | And 10 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) is largely attributed to consumption of vegetables grown in polluted soils. In China, guidelines set for Cd in soils are uniform for different crops and diverse soil types, but not risk based. A high-density sampling of 711 paired soil and vegetables was carried out across Guangdong, South China. We aimed to model the transfer of Cd from soil to leafy, rootstalk and fruit vegetables, and to set regional guidelines of Cd [total and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) -extractable] in soil for vegetable safe production. RESULTS: Both total and DTPA-extractable Cd concentrations in soil were good predictors for Cd in vegetables. The transfer of Cd in soil to vegetables could be estimated by nonlinear models, with better fit when using DTPA-extractable Cd than total Cd in soil. The calculated thresholds of soil total Cd were 2.42, 0.94 and 1.57mgkg-1 whereas those of soil DTPA-extractable Cd were 1.08, 0.33 and 0.63mgkg-1 for leafy, rootstalk and fruit vegetable fields in Guangdong, respectively, all higher than the national soil Cd threshold. CONCLUSION: Cadmium-contaminated risk for vegetable production in Guangdong province might have been over-estimated according to the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soil. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

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