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Casanova C.,Superintendencia de Controle de Endemias | Colla-Jacques F.E.,University of Campinas | Hamilton J.G.C.,Keele University | Brazil R.P.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Shaw J.J.,University of Sao Paulo
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Its geographical expansion and the increase in the number of human cases has been linked to dispersion of Lutzomyia longipalpis into urban areas. To produce more accurate risk maps we investigated the geographic distribution and routes of expansion of the disease as well as chemotype populations of the vector.A database, containing the annual records of municipalities which had notified human and canine AVL cases as well as the presence of the vector, was compiled. The chemotypes of L. longipalpis populations from municipalities in different regions of São Paulo State were determined by Coupled Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry. From 1997 to June 2014, L. longipalpis has been reported in 166 municipalities, 148 of them in the Western region. A total of 106 municipalities were identified with transmission and 99 were located in the Western region, where all 2,204 autochthonous human cases occurred. Both the vector and the occurrence of human cases have expanded in a South-easterly direction, from the Western to central region, and from there, a further expansion to the North and the South. The (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of L. longipalpis is widely distributed in the Western region and the cembrene-1 population is restricted to the Eastern region.The maps in the present study show that there are two distinct epidemiological patterns of AVL in São Paulo State and that the expansion of human and canine AVL cases through the Western region has followed the same dispersion route of only one of the two species of the L. longipalpis complex, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B. Entomological vigilance based on the routes of dispersion and identification of the chemotype population could be used to identify at-risk areas and consequently define the priorities for control measures. © 2015 Casanova et al.

Piranda E.M.,Curso de Medicina Veterinaria | Faccini J.L.H.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pinter A.,Superintendencia de Controle de Endemias | Pacheco R.C.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | And 2 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

We evaluated if Rickettsia rickettsii-experimentally infected dogs could serve as amplifier hosts for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. In addition, we checked if Rh. sanguineus ticks that acquired Ri. rickettsii from dogs could transmit the bacterium to susceptible hosts (vector competence), and if these ticks could maintain the bacterium by transstadial and transovarial transmissions. Uninfected larvae, nymphs, and adults of Rh. sanguineus were allowed to feed upon three groups of dogs: groups 1 (G1) and 2 (G2) composed of Ri. rickettsii-infected dogs, infected intraperitoneally and via tick bites, respectively, and group 3 composed of uninfected dogs. After larval and nymphal feeding on rickettsemic dogs, 7.1-15.2% and 35.8-37.9% of the molted nymphs and adults, respectively, were shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to be infected by Ri. rickettsii, confirming that both G1 and G2 dogs were efficient sources of rickettsial infection (amplifier host), resulting in transstadial transmission of the agent. These infected nymphs and adults successfully transmitted Ri. rickettsii to guinea pigs, confirming vector competence after acquisition of the infection from rickettsemic dogs. Transovarial transmission of Ri. rickettsii was observed in engorged females that had been infected as nymphs by feeding on both G1 and G2 dogs, but not in engorged females that acquired the infection during adult feeding on these same dogs. In the first case, filial infection rates were generally <50%. No tick exposed to G3 dogs was infected by rickettsiae in this study. No substantial mortality difference was observed between Ri. rickettsii-infected tick groups (G1 and G2) and uninfected tick group (G3). Our results indicate that dogs can be amplifier hosts of Ri. rickettsii for Rh. sanguineus, although only a minority of immature ticks (<45%) should become infected. It appears that Rh. sanguineus, in the absence of horizontal transmission, would not maintain Ri. rickettsii through successive generations, possibly because of low filial infection rates. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Colla-Jacques F.E.,University of Campinas | Casanova C.,Superintendencia de Controle de Endemias | do Prado A.P.,University of Campinas
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2010

Canine American visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) cases have been recorded in Espírito Santo do Pinhal. The aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. Captures were made weekly over a period of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. A total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. The most abundant species were Nyssomyia whitmani and Pintomyia pessoai in the rural area, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. whitmani in the periurban area and Lu. longipalpis in the urban area. The highest species richness and greatest index species diversity were found in the rural area. The similarity index showed that urban and periurban areas were most alike. Lu. longipalpis was found in great numbers during both dry and humid periods. The presence of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi in the urban area indicates a high risk for the establishment of the disease in the region. A high abundance of Ny. whitmani and Pi. pessoai in the rural and periurban areas indicates the possibility of new cases of ACL occurring in and spreading to the periurban area of Espírito Santo do Pinhal.

Bourke B.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Foster P.G.,Natural History Museum in London | Bergo E.S.,Superintendencia de Controle de Endemias | Calado D.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Sallum M.A.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Acta Tropica | Year: 2010

Phylogenetic relationships among 21 species of mosquitoes in subgenus Nyssorhynchus were inferred from the nuclear white and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) genes. Bayesian phylogenetic methods found that none of the three Sections within Nyssorhynchus (Albimanus, Argyritarsis, Myzorhynchella) were supported in all analyses, although Myzorhynchella was found to be monophyletic at the combined genes. Within the Albimanus Section the monophyly of the Strodei Subgroup was strongly supported and within the Myzorhynchella Section Anopheles antunesi and An. lutzii formed a strongly supported monophyletic group. The epidemiologically significant Albitarsis Complex showed evidence of paraphyly (relative to An. lanei-Myzorhynchella) and discordance across gene trees, and the previously synonomized species of An. dunhami and An. goeldii were recovered as sister species. Finally, there was evidence of complexes in several species, including An. antunesi, An. deaneorum, and An. strodei. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Foster P.G.,Natural History Museum in London | Bergo E.S.,Superintendencia de Controle de Endemias | Bourke B.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Oliveira T.M.P.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Specimens of neotropical Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) were collected and identified morphologically. We amplified three genes for phylogenetic analysis-the single copy nuclear white and CAD genes, and the COI barcode region. Since we had multiple specimens for most species we were able to test how well the single or combined genes were able to corroborate morphologically defined species by placing the species into exclusive groups. We found that single genes, including the COI barcode region, were poor at confirming species, but that the three genes combined were able to do so much better. This has implications for species identification, species delimitation, and species discovery, and we caution that single genes are not enough. Higher level groupings were partially resolved with some well-supported groupings, whereas others were found to be either polyphyletic or paraphyletic. There were examples of known groups, such as the Myzorhynchella Section, which were poorly supported with single genes but were well supported with combined genes. From this we can infer that more sequence data will be needed in order to show more higher-level groupings with good support. We got unambiguously good support (0.94-1.0 Bayesian posterior probability) from all DNA-based analyses for a grouping of An. dunhami with An. nuneztovari and An. goeldii, and because of this and because of morphological similarities we propose that An. dunhami be included in the Nuneztovari Complex. We obtained phylogenetic corroboration for new species which had been recognised by morphological differences; these will need to be formally described and named. © 2013 Foster et al.

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