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Chuang J.C.,University of Southern California | Warner S.L.,SuperGen | Vollmer D.,SuperGen | Vankayalapati H.,SuperGen | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Methylation of CpG islands in promoter regions is often associated with gene silencing and aberrant DNA methylation occurs in most cancers, leading to the silencing of some tumor suppressor genes. Reversal of this abnormal hypermethylation by DNA methylation inhibitors is effective in reactivating methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes both in vitro and in vivo. Several DNA methylation inhibitors have been well studied; the most potent among them is 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), which can induce myelosuppression in patients. S110 is a dinucleotide consisting of 5-Aza-CdR followed by a deoxyguanosine, which we previously showed to be effective in vitro as a DNA methylation inhibitor while being less prone to deamination by cytidine deaminase, making it a promising alternative to 5-Aza-CdR. Here, we show that S110 is better tolerated than 5-Aza-CdR in mice and is as effective in vivo in inducing p16 expression, reducing DNA methylation at the p16 promoter region, and retarding tumor growth in human xenograft. We also show that S110 is effective by both i.p. and s.c. deliveries. S110 therefore is a promising new agent that acts similarly to 5-Aza-CdR and has better stability and less toxicity. ©2010 AACR.

Brown D.E.,University of Colorado at Boulder | McCoy M.W.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Pilonieta M.C.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Nix R.N.,University of Colorado at Boulder | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyper-inflammatory clinical syndrome associated with neoplastic disorders especially lymphoma, autoimmune conditions, and infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi. In both human and veterinary medicine, hemophagocytic histiocytic disorders are clinically important and frequently fatal. HLH in humans can be a primary (familial, autosomal recessive) or secondary (acquired) condition, with both types generally precipitated by an infectious agent. Previously, no mouse model for secondary HLH has been reported. Using Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium by oral gavage to mimic naturally-occurring infection in Sv129S6 mice, we characterized the clinical, hematologic and morphologic host responses to disease thereby describing an animal model with the clinicopathologic features of secondary HLH as set forth by the Histiocyte Society: fever, splenomegaly, cytopenias (anemia, thrombocytopenia), hemophagocytosis in bone marrow and spleen, hyperferritinemia, and hypofibrinogenemia. Disease severity correlates with high splenic and hepatic bacterial load, and we show disease course can be monitored and tracked in live animals. Whereby secondary HLH is known to occur in human patients with typhoid fever and other infectious diseases, our characterization of a viable natural disease model of secondary HLH offers an important means to elucidate pathogenesis of poorly understood mechanisms of secondary HLH and investigation of novel therapies. We characterize previously unreported secondary HLH in a chronic mouse model of typhoid fever, and novel changes in hematology including decreased tissue ferric iron storage that differs from classically described anemia of chronic disease. Our studies demonstrate S. Typhimurium infection of mice is a natural infectious disease model of secondary HLH that may have utility for elucidating disease pathogenesis and developing novel therapies. © 2010 Brown et al.

Umemoto T.,IM and T Research Inc. | Singh R.P.,IM and T Research Inc. | Xu Y.,IM and T Research Inc. | Xu Y.,SuperGen | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Versatile, safe, shelf-stable, and easy-to-handle fluorinating agents are strongly desired in both academic and industrial arenas, since fluorinated compounds have attracted considerable interest in many areas, such as drug discovery, due to the unique effects of fluorine atoms when incorporated into molecules. This article describes the synthesis, properties, and reactivity of many substituted and thermally stable phenylsulfur trifluorides, in particular, 4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethylphenylsulfur trifluoride (Fluolead, 1k), as a crystalline solid having surprisingly high stability on contact with water and superior utility as a deoxofluorinating agent compared to current reagents, such as DAST and its analogues. The roles of substiuents on 1k in thermal and hydrolytic stability, fluorination reactivity, and the high-yield fluorination mechanism it undergoes have been clarified. In addition to fluorinations of alcohols, aldehydes, and enolizable ketones, 1k smoothly converts non-enolizable carbonyls to CF2 groups, and carboxylic groups to CF3 groups, in high yields. 1k also converts C(=S) and CH3SC(=S)O groups to CF2 and CF3O groups, respectively, in high yields. In addition, 1k effects highly stereoselective deoxofluoro-arylsulfinylation of diols and amino alcohols to give fluoroalkyl arylsulfinates and arylsulfinamides, with complete inversion of configuration at fluorine and the simultaneous, selective formation of one conformational isomer at the sulfoxide sulfur atom. Considering the unique and diverse properties, relative safety, and ease of handling of 1k in addition to its convenient synthesis, it is expected to find considerable use as a novel fluorinating agent in both academic and industrial arenas. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

SuperGen | Date: 2011-03-14

Quinoline derivatives, particularly 4-anilinoquinoline derivatives, are provided. Such quinoline derivatives can be used for modulation of DNA methylation, such as effective inhibition of methylation of cytosine at the C-5 position, for example via selective inhibition of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Methods for synthesizing numerous 4-anilinoquinoline derivatives and for modulating DNA methylation are provided. Also provided are methods for formulating and administering these compounds or compositions to treat conditions such as cancer and hematological disorders.

The present invention provides protein kinase inhibitors comprising imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine and pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine compounds of the following structure (I) and (II): or a stereoisomer, prodrug or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R, R

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