Clarkson, NY, United States

SUNY Downstate Medical Center

www.downstate.edu
Clarkson, NY, United States

SUNY Downstate Medical Center, located in central Brooklyn, New York, is the only academic medical center for health education, research, and patient care serving Brooklyn’s 2.5 million residents. As of Fall 2011, it had a total student body of 1,738 and approximately 8,000 faculty and staff.Downstate Medical Center comprises a College of Medicine, Colleges of Nursing and Health Related Professions, Schools of Graduate Studies and Public Health, and University Hospital of Brooklyn. It also includes a major research complex and biotechnology facilities.SUNY Downstate ranks eighth nationally in the number of alumni who are on the faculty of American medical schools. More physicians practicing in New York City graduated from Downstate than from any other medical school. With 1,040 residents , Downstate's residency program is the 16th largest in the country.SUNY Downstate Medical Center is the fourth largest employer in Brooklyn. Eighty-six percent of its employees are New York City residents; 68 percent live in Brooklyn. The medical center's total direct, indirect, and induced economic impact on New York State is in excess of $2 billion. SUNY Downstate Medical Center attracted close to $60 million in external research funding in 2011, which includes $26 million from federal sources. It ranks fourth among SUNY campuses in grant expenditures, and second among SUNY's academic health centers. Wikipedia.

SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

News Article | August 9, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Brooklyn, NY - Researchers at SUNY Downstate Medical Center are among the recipients of 19 awards from the National Science Foundation (NSF) made to cross-disciplinary teams from across the United States to conduct innovative research focused on neural and cognitive systems. Each award provides a research team with up to $1 million over two to four years. With their award, Stephen L. Macknik, PhD, and Susana Martinez-Conde, PhD, both professors of ophthalmology, neurology, and physiology and pharmacology at SUNY Downstate, will seek to restore vision by genetically modifying neurons in the brain and then stimulating them with light, a method called optogenetics. The Downstate researchers explain that evoking high-quality visual perception in a blind person, via direct microstimulation of the brain, poses great difficulties. One major obstacle has been that electrical stimulation of the brain typically affects neuronal populations that are mutually suppressive, which subverts proper neuronal signaling. The visual system has two antagonistic information channels that encode either the perception of whiteness, in "on" cells, or blackness, in "off" cells. Inappropriate coactivation of these two channels results in nullification of contrast, and deprived visual perception. It follows that high-quality prosthetic stimulation systems must avoid unwanted coactivation of mutually suppressive neurons, just as the natural visual system does. This is a challenge because the antagonistic neurons typically lie within microns of each other in the brain. To address this problem, Drs. Martinez-Conde and Macknik propose transformative advances in viral transfection and imaging methodology, computational theory, and cortical prosthetic neuroengineering design. The expected results and methodology will form the scientific basis to build a breakthrough neuroprosthetic, with transformative potential to further brain research in sensory, motor, and cognitive parts of the cortex, and advance human medicine. A news release on the National Science Foundation awards is available at the NSF website here: https:/ . The awards will contribute to NSF's investments in support of Understanding the Brain and the BRAIN Initiative, a coordinated research effort that seeks to accelerate the development of new neurotechnologies. To learn more about NSF investments in fundamental brain research, visit: https:/ . For more information about Dr. Martinez-Conde, please visit: http://www. or http://smc. . For Dr. Macknik, please see: http://www. or http://macknik. . The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2017, its budget is $7.5 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and other institutions. Each year, NSF receives more than 48,000 competitive proposals for funding and makes about 12,000 new funding awards. SUNY Downstate Medical Center, founded in 1860, was the first medical school in the United States to bring teaching out of the lecture hall and to the patient's bedside. A center of innovation and excellence in research and clinical service delivery, SUNY Downstate Medical Center comprises a College of Medicine, a College of Nursing, a College of Health Related Professions, a School of Graduate Studies, a School of Public Health, University Hospital of Brooklyn, and a multifaceted biotechnology initiative including the Downstate Biotechnology Incubator and BioBAT for early-stage and more mature companies, respectively. SUNY Downstate ranks twelfth nationally in the number of alumni who are on the faculty of American medical schools. More physicians practicing in New York City have graduated from SUNY Downstate than from any other medical school. For more information, visit http://www. .


Brooklyn, NY - Researchers at SUNY Downstate Medical Center's School of Public Health have determined that two stressful work characteristics, low job control and "job strain" -- that is, high-demand, low-control work -- have been increasing in the U.S. since 2002. The findings were presented at the Seventh International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) Conference on Work Environment and Cardiovascular Diseases, in Varese, Italy, by Paul A. Landsbergis, PhD, EdD, MPH, associate professor in the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, and earlier by lead author and SUNY Downstate Doctor of Public Health candidate Stephanie Myers at SUNY Downstate Research Day in Brooklyn, NY. Dr. Landsbergis said, "We determined that two stressful work characteristics, low job control, and 'job strain,' or high-demand, low-control work, have been increasing in the U.S. since 2002. Both of these job stressors are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or CVD." He continued, "This may help to explain why the years-long declines in the incidence of CVD and mortality from CVD have slowed." Dr. Landsbergis added, "We also found an increase in 'work-family conflict,' which likely reflects increasing burdens faced by working parents in the U.S." This is the first analysis looking at trends in work characteristics over 12 years using Quality of Work Life (QWL) surveys developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The four surveys analyzed (2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014) are based on representative samples of the U.S. employed population. The full reference for the ICOH presentation is: Myers S, Govindarajulu U, Joseph M, Landsbergis P. Trends in Work Characteristics, 2002-2014: Findings from the U.S. National NIOSH Quality of Work Life surveys (poster). 7th ICOH International Conference on Work Environment and Cardiovascular Diseases, May 4, 2017, Varese, Italy. The abstract of the findings is published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 2017, Vol. 24(2S) 4-6; DOI: 10.1177/2047487317698913, on page 51. SUNY Downstate Medical Center, founded in 1860, was the first medical school in the United States to bring teaching out of the lecture hall and to the patient's bedside. A center of innovation and excellence in research and clinical service delivery, SUNY Downstate Medical Center comprises a College of Medicine, College of Nursing, College of Health Related Professions, a School of Graduate Studies, a School of Public Health, University Hospital of Brooklyn, and a multifaceted biotechnology initiative including the Downstate Biotechnology Incubator and BioBAT for early-stage and more mature companies, respectively. SUNY Downstate ranks twelfth nationally in the number of alumni who are on the faculty of American medical schools. More physicians practicing in New York City have graduated from SUNY Downstate than from any other medical school. For more information, visit http://www. .


News Article | May 26, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Researchers at SUNY Downstate Medical Center's School of Public Health have determined that two stressful work characteristics, low job control and "job strain" -- that is, high-demand, low-control work -- have been increasing in the U.S. since 2002. The findings were presented at the Seventh International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) Conference on Work Environment and Cardiovascular Diseases, in Varese, Italy, by Paul A. Landsbergis, PhD, EdD, MPH, associate professor in the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, and earlier by lead author and SUNY Downstate Doctor of Public Health candidate Stephanie Myers at SUNY Downstate Research Day in Brooklyn, NY. Dr. Landsbergis said, "We determined that two stressful work characteristics, low job control, and 'job strain,' or high-demand, low-control work, have been increasing in the U.S. since 2002. Both of these job stressors are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or CVD." He continued, "This may help to explain why the years-long declines in the incidence of CVD and mortality from CVD have slowed." Dr. Landsbergis added, "We also found an increase in 'work-family conflict,' which likely reflects increasing burdens faced by working parents in the U.S." This is the first analysis looking at trends in work characteristics over 12 years using Quality of Work Life (QWL) surveys developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The four surveys analyzed (2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014) are based on representative samples of the U.S. employed population.


The NYS-ITRP is a research training program focused on building HIV research capacity in the former Soviet Union, combining resources from SUNY Downstate, SUNY Albany, and multiple training units throughout New York State. The organization began their work in 1994, addressing similar HIV epidemic conditions in the newly independent nations of Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland. "While HIV incidence is declining globally, Eastern Europe and Central Asia are regions where HIV infections continue to rise," says Distinguished Service Professor Jack DeHovitz, MD, MPH, MHCDS, FACP, the director of the program. "This new grant, combined with a similar grant awarded to the NYS-ITRP for Kazakhstan in 2016, places SUNY Downstate and its affiliates as a leader in HIV research training in the region," DeHovitz says. The program is the only HIV research training in Eastern Europe and Central Asia supported by the National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Center. Despite notable improvements in responding to the epidemic, access to antiretroviral therapy remains low and institutional barriers impede access to care by substance users. Ukraine, the largest country in Europe, is home to the continent's most volatile HIV epidemic with an adult prevalence of 1.1%. It has experienced multiple crises since it emerged from the Soviet Union in 1991 including two revolutions, the 2014 Crimean invasion, and the ongoing war in east and southern Ukraine. Independence from the Soviet Union also coincided with the emergence of an IDU epidemic. It has been estimated that this country of 45.5 million now has over 300,000 injection drug users, contributing to large increases in both HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The program will work in collaboration with the School of Public Health of National Ukraine Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (SPH NaUKMA) and a research-focused nongovernmental organization, the Ukrainian Institute on Public Health Policy (UIPHP). Training opportunities developed through this funding include the recruitment and training of HIV Research Scholars, and graduates will receive enhanced training in implementation science, biostatistics, epidemiology, and behavioral health. SUNY Downstate Medical Center, founded in 1860, was the first medical school in the United States to bring teaching out of the lecture hall and to the patient's bedside. A center of innovation and excellence in research and clinical service delivery, SUNY Downstate Medical Center comprises a College of Medicine, College of Nursing, College of Health Related Professions, a School of Graduate Studies, a School of Public Health, University Hospital of Brooklyn, and a multifaceted biotechnology initiative including the Downstate Biotechnology Incubator and BioBAT for early-stage and more mature companies, respectively. SUNY Downstate ranks twelfth nationally in the number of alumni who are on the faculty of American medical schools. More physicians practicing in New York City have graduated from SUNY Downstate than from any other medical school. For more information, visit www.downstate.edu. This news release was issued on behalf of Newswise(TM). For more information, visit http://www.newswise.com. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/amid-russia-conflict-and-drug-epidemic-suny-downstate-researchers-battle-hiv-in-ukraine-300472414.html


Martinez-Conde S.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center | Macknik S.L.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2017

Scientists have pondered the perceptual effects of ocular motion, and those of its counterpart, ocular stillness, for over 200 years. The unremitting ‘trembling of the eye’ that occurs even during gaze fixation was first noted by Jurin in 1738. In 1794, Erasmus Darwin documented that gaze fixation produces perceptual fading, a phenomenon rediscovered in 1804 by Ignaz Paul Vital Troxler. Studies in the twentieth century established that Jurin’s ‘eye trembling’ consisted of three main types of ‘fixational’ eye movements, now called microsaccades (or fixational saccades), drifts and tremor. Yet, owing to the constant and minute nature of these motions, the study of their perceptual and physiological consequences has met significant technological challenges. Studies starting in the 1950s and continuing in the present have attempted to study vision during retinal stabilization—a technique that consists on shifting any and all visual stimuli presented to the eye in such a way as to nullify all concurrent eye movements—providing a tantalizing glimpse of vision in the absence of change. No research to date has achieved perfect retinal stabilization, however, and so other work has devised substitute ways to counteract eye motion, such as by studying the perception of afterimages or of the entoptic images formed by retinal vessels, which are completely stable with respect to the eye. Yet other research has taken the alternative tack to control eye motion by behavioural instruction to fix one’s gaze or to keep one’s gaze still, during concurrent physiological and/or psychophysical measurements. Here, we review the existing data—from historical and contemporary studies that have aimed to nullify or minimize eye motion—on the perceptual and physiological consequences of perfect versus imperfect fixation. We also discuss the accuracy, quality and stability of ocular fixation, and the bottom–up and top–down influences that affect fixation behaviour. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Smith S.S.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Neuroscience | Year: 2013

It is well-known that the onset of puberty is associated with changes in mood as well as cognition. Stress can have an impact on these outcomes, which in many cases, can be more influential in females, suggesting that gender differences exist. The adolescent period is a vulnerable time for the onset of certain psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders, depression and eating disorders, which are also more prevalent in females. One factor which may contribute to stress-triggered anxiety at puberty is the GABAA receptor (GABAR), which is known to play a pivotal role in anxiety. Expression of α4βδ GABARs increases on the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells at the onset of puberty in the hippocampus, part of the limbic circuitry which governs emotion. This receptor is a sensitive target for the stress steroid 3α-OH-5[α]β-pregnan-20-one or [allo]pregnanolone, which paradoxically reduces inhibition and increases anxiety during the pubertal period (post-natal day ~35-44) of female mice in contrast to its usual effect to enhance inhibition and reduce anxiety. Spatial learning and synaptic plasticity are also adversely impacted at puberty, likely a result of increased expression of α4βδ GABARs on the dendritic spines of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are essential for consolidation of memory. This review will focus on the role of these receptors in mediating behavioral changes at puberty. Stress-mediated changes in mood and cognition in early adolescence may have relevance for the expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. © 2012 IBRO.


Bergold P.J.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Experimental Neurology | Year: 2016

Traumatic brain injury rapidly induces inflammation. This inflammation is produced both by endogenous brain cells and circulating inflammatory cells that enter from the brain. Together they drive the inflammatory response through a wide variety of bioactive lipids, cytokines and chemokines. A large number of drugs with anti-inflammatory action have been tested in both preclinical studies and in clinical trials. These drugs either have known anti-inflammatory action or inhibit the inflammatory response through unknown mechanisms. The results of these preclinical studies and clinical trials are reviewed. Recommendations are suggested on how to improve preclinical testing of drugs to make them more relevant to evaluate for clinical trials. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Smith S.S.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Frontiers in Neural Circuits | Year: 2013

The onset of puberty is associated with alterations in mood as well as changes in cognitive function, which can be more pronounced in females. Puberty onset in female mice is associated with increased expression of α4βδ γ-amino-butyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors (GABARs) in CA1 hippocampus. These receptors, which normally have low expression in this central nervous system (CNS) site, emerge along the apical dendrites as well as on the dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons, adjacent to excitatory synapses where they underlie a tonic inhibition that shunts excitatory current and impairs activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, the trigger for synaptic plasticity. As would be expected, α4βδ expression at puberty also prevents long-term potentiation (LTP), an in vitro model of learning which is a function of network activity, induced by theta burst stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals to the CA1 hippocampus. The expression of these receptors also impairs spatial learning in a hippocampal-dependent task. These impairments are not seen in δ knock-out (-/-) mice, implicating α4βδ GABARs. α4βδ GABARs are also a sensitive target for steroids such as THP ([allo]pregnanolone or 3α-OH-5α[β]-pregnan-20-one), which are dependent upon the polarity of GABAergic current. It is well-known that THP can increase depolarizing current gated by α4βδ GABARs, but more recent data suggest that THP can reduce hyperpolarizing current by accelerating receptor desensitization. At puberty, THP reduces the hyperpolarizing GABAergic current, which removes the shunting inhibition that impairs synaptic plasticity and learning at this time. However, THP, a stress steroid, also increases anxiety, via its action at α4βδ GABARs because it is not seen in δ-/- mice. These findings will be discussed as well as their relevance to changes in mood and cognition at puberty, which can be a critical period for certain types of learning and when anxiety disorders and mood swings can emerge. © 2013 Smith.


Baird A.E.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2010

Evidence for a genetic basis for stroke comes from twin and family studies and from the occurrence of a number of uncommon monogenic disorders, but the contribution of genetic factors identified for stroke so far is small. Advances in genetics and genomics may permit new insights. In recent genome-wide association studies, a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with specific stroke subtypes and major stroke risk factors such as diabetes and atrial fibrillation. These await replication. Studies of messenger ribonucleic acid expression have also shown promise for the development of genomic signatures for stroke classification. Stroke and coronary heart disease share some features of pathophysiology, risk, and treatment, and their genetic and genomic bases also appear to overlap. © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Quadros E.V.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2010

The haematological and neurological consequences of cobalamin deficiency define the essential role of this vitamin in key metabolic reactions. The identification of cubilin-amnionless as the receptors for intestinal absorption of intrinsic factor-bound cobalamin and the plasma membrane receptor for cellular uptake of transcobalamin bound cobalamin have provided a clearer understanding of the absorption and cellular uptake of this vitamin. As the genes involved in the intracellular processing of cobalamins and genetic defects of these pathways are identified, the metabolic disposition of cobalamins and the proteins involved are being recognized. The synthesis of methylcobalamin and 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, their utilization in conjunction with methionine synthase and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively, and the metabolic consequences of defects in these pathways could provide insights into the clinical presentation of cobalamin deficiency. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Loading SUNY Downstate Medical Center collaborators
Loading SUNY Downstate Medical Center collaborators