New York City, NY, United States

SUNY College of Optometry
New York City, NY, United States

The State University of New York College of Optometry was established in 1971 as a result of a legislative mandate of New York in the United States. It is located in midtown Manhattan in New York City in what was originally the Aeolian Building, which was built in 1912 for the Aeolian Company, a piano manufacturer. It is a center for research on vision and the only school of optometry in New York.The College grants a professional degree, the Doctor of Optometry , and two academic degrees, the Master of Science in Vision Science and the Doctor of Philosophy in Vision Science. Continuing education courses for practicing optometrists are also provided by the College.The University Eye Center provides eye care, corrective lenses, and vision therapy to the public. The University Eye Center is one of the largest outpatient eye clinics in the country, with over 73,000 patient encounters in FY 2012-13.The Optometric Center of New York, established in 1956, is a foundation affiliated with the College to support vision science research, patient care, scholarships, and fellowships at the College and its clinical facilities.The College offers residencies to optometrists from around the world including specializations in subfields of optometry.The College enrolls between 80-100 optometry students per year in the professional degree program. About 20 of these students also seek an M.S. degree in Vision Science across the four years. The College also offers a Ph.D. in Vision Science and provides twelve graduate stipends per year.Research and graduate programs at the college are administered through the Graduate Center for Vision Research, which currently receives nearly $4,000,000 in annual funding for research grants. Clinical research is conducted through the Clinical Vision Research Center.The College is a member of the SUNY Eye Institute. Wikipedia.

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Verselis V.K.,Yeshiva University | Srinivas M.,SUNY College of Optometry
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2013

Gap junction channels and hemichannels formed by the connexin family of proteins play important roles in many aspects of tissue homeostasis in the brain and in other organs. In addition, connexin channels have been proposed as pharmacological targets in the treatment of a number of human disorders. In this review, we describe the connexin-subtype selectivity and specificity of pharmacological agents that are commonly used to modulate connexin channels. We also highlight recent progress made toward identifying new agents for connexin channels that act in a selective and specific manner. Finally, we discuss developing insights into possible mechanisms by which these agents modulate connexin channel function. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Current Pharmacology of Gap Junction Channels and Hemichannels'. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

News Article | October 13, 2016

Our new Illusions article in the November 2016 issue of Scientific American Mind features a brain conundrum as old as science itself. Galileo Galilei, who many view as the first scientist of the modern age, could not trust his own eyes. He noticed that when he viewed a moon of Jupiter with the huge planet in its background, the moon appeared smaller than when he viewed the same moon as a bright spot against the black night sky. Leonardo Da Vinci, too, noticed that precision of vision varied with darks versus lights (though he noticed the effect on the painter’s canvas). Hermann von Helmholtz, the venerable German Physicist-Physician, recognized that the effect must have something to do with the brain, as he pondered the Irradiation Illusion. In the article we describe some of the optical and neural effects that contribute to the superior size of light against dark in our eyes, as well as related brightness effects, such as in the illusion from Barton Anderson (University of Western Australia) and Jonathan Winawer (New York University) (see moving moon image above). We also discuss the neural underpinnings of these effects recently discovered by the labs of Jose-Manuel Alonso at SUNY College of Optometry, and David Fitzpatrick at the Max Planck Institute in Jupiter Florida, and the role they play in our everyday perception. But these contrast effects do not tell the whole story. The context of how light and dark interact across space matters too, as Edward Adelson’s (MIT) incredible Argyle family of illusions show (below). Here, we see that the a diamond shaded in gray will appear light or dark depending on its surround, as well as the distance to the surround. Contrast Is Not Enough Although contrast is critical to vision, Adelson demonstrates here that there are other unexplained ways that an object’s surface properties affect how we see light and dark. Adelson’s Argyle Illusion reveals that diamonds a1 and a2 appear very different in brightness although they are identical, whereas b1 and b2 appear more similar. The only difference between the top and bottom image is the gap between the vertical light and dark patterns, which for some unknown reason destroys the appearance of shading in the bottom image.

Benavente-Perez A.,SUNY College of Optometry | Nour A.,SUNY College of Optometry | Troilo D.,SUNY College of Optometry
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2012

Purpose. We evaluated the effect of imposing negative and positive defocus simultaneously on the eye growth and refractive state of the common marmoset, a New World primate that compensates for either negative and positive defocus when they are imposed individually. Methods. Ten marmosets were reared with multizone contact lenses of alternating powers (-5 diopters [D]/+5 D), 50:50 ratio for average pupil of 2.80 mm over the right eye (experimental) and plano over the fellow eye (control) from 10 to 12 weeks. The effects on refraction (mean spherical equivalent [MSE]) and vitreous chamber depth (VC) were measured and compared to untreated, and -5 D and +5 D single vision contact lens-reared marmosets. Results. Over the course of the treatment, pupil diameters ranged from 2.26 to 2.76 mm, leading to 1.5 times greater exposure to negative than positive power zones. Despite this, at different intervals during treatment, treated eyes were on average relatively more hyperopic and smaller than controls (experimental-control [exp-con] mean MSE ± SE + 1.44 ± 0.45 D, mean VC ± SE -0.05 ± 0.02 mm) and the effects were similar to those in marmosets raised on +5 D single vision contact lenses (exp-con mean MSE ± SE + 1.62 ± 0.44 D. mean VC ± SE -0.06 ± 0.03 mm). Six weeks into treatment, the interocular growth rates in multizone animals were already lower than in -5 D-treated animals (multizone -1.0 ± 0.1 μm/ day, -5 D + 2.1 ± 0.9 μm/day) and did not change significantly throughout treatment. Conclusions. Imposing hyperopic and myopic defocus simultaneously using concentric contact lenses resulted in relatively smaller and less myopic eyes, despite treated eyes being exposed to a greater percentage of negative defocus. Exposing the retina to combined dioptric powers with multifocal lenses that include positive defocus might be an effective treatment to control myopia development or progression. © 2012 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

Harrison S.,SUNY College of Optometry | Backus B.,SUNY College of Optometry
Journal of Vision | Year: 2010

The direction of rotation of a wire-frame (Necker) cube, which is perceptually bistable, can be trained to depend on stimulus location (Q. Haijiang, J. A. Saunders, R. W. Stone, & B. T. Backus, 2006). However, it is not known which aspects of "location" are important to this learning. We therefore explored "location" in a series of experiments that separately assessed testing venue, location relative to the observer, and location in the retinal image as types of location signal that could potentially be recruited by the visual system. Subjects were trained using wire-frame cubes with rotation direction disambiguated by depth cues. Training cubes were presented at two locations, rotating in opposite directions. On interleaved test trials, ambiguous monocular cubes were presented at the same two locations. The extent to which test cubes were perceived to rotate according to the trained location-rotation contingency was our measure of location-cue recruitment. We found that only retinal position was recruited as a cue for apparent rotation direction. Furthermore, the learned retinal location cue was robust to ocular transfer. Our findings are consistent with a relatively low-level site of learning, such as MT. © ARVO.

Bass S.J.,SUNY College of Optometry
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: The prognosis of success with vision therapy in refractive “amblyopia” associated with the syndrome of myelinated nerve fibers (MRNF), optic disc hypoplasia, and myopia is reported to be poorer than that of anisomyopic amblyopia without these features. The reason for the poorer prognosis has not been well understood. The purpose of this study was to perform spectral domain (SD) ocular coherence tomography (OCT) to determine if there is a structural etiology that may explain the poorer prognosis. CASE REPORTS: Case 1 was a 12-year-old male patient with anisometropic “amblyopia” in the right eye, MRNF denser superiorly, a hypoplastic disc, and a myopic fundus with a flat intact macula. The OCT demonstrated an attenuated photoreceptor integrity line (PIL) in the macula. Case 2 was a 10-year-old male patient with a constant left esotropia, MRNF denser superiorly, a hypoplastic disc, and a myopic fundus with a flat intact macula. The OCT demonstrated an absent PIL. Case 3 was a 58-year-old female patient with a history of diabetic retinopathy OU, long-standing reduced vision in the right eye, MRNF denser superiorly, optic nerve hypoplasia, and a myopic fundus with an intact macula. The OCT demonstrated an absent PIL in the macula. CONCLUSIONS: This case series identifies three patients with the syndrome of MRNF, optic nerve hypoplasia, and anisomyopia in one eye with reduced vision and reports OCT findings using SD-OCT systems. All three patients demonstrated an absence or attenuation of the photoreceptor integrity line (PIL) in the macula in the affected eye. To our knowledge, there is no known association between this syndrome and abnormality of the PIL reported in the literature. Patients with this syndrome may have a guarded prognosis in the success of vision therapy. © 2016 American Academy of Optometry

Rosenfield M.,SUNY College of Optometry
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics | Year: 2011

Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is the combination of eye and vision problems associated with the use of computers. In modern western society the use of computers for both vocational and avocational activities is almost universal. However, CVS may have a significant impact not only on visual comfort but also occupational productivity since between 64% and 90% of computer users experience visual symptoms which may include eyestrain, headaches, ocular discomfort, dry eye, diplopia and blurred vision either at near or when looking into the distance after prolonged computer use. This paper reviews the principal ocular causes for this condition, namely oculomotor anomalies and dry eye. Accommodation and vergence responses to electronic screens appear to be similar to those found when viewing printed materials, whereas the prevalence of dry eye symptoms is greater during computer operation. The latter is probably due to a decrease in blink rate and blink amplitude, as well as increased corneal exposure resulting from the monitor frequently being positioned in primary gaze. However, the efficacy of proposed treatments to reduce symptoms of CVS is unproven. A better understanding of the physiology underlying CVS is critical to allow more accurate diagnosis and treatment. This will enable practitioners to optimize visual comfort and efficiency during computer operation. © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

Lee B.B.,SUNY College of Optometry | Lee B.B.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Martin P.R.,University of Sydney | Grunert U.,University of Sydney
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research | Year: 2010

The general principles of retinal organization are now well known. It may seem surprising that retinal organization in the primate, which has a complex visual behavioral repertoire, appears relatively simple. In this review, we primarily consider retinal structure and function in primate species. Photoreceptor distribution and connectivity are considered as are connectivity in the outer and inner retina. One key issue is the specificity of retinal connections; we suggest that the retina shows connectional specificity but this is seldom complete, and we consider here the functional consequences of imprecise wiring. Finally, we consider how retinal systems can be linked to psychophysical descriptions of different channels, chromatic and luminance, which are proposed to exist in the primate visual system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Benavente-Perez A.,SUNY College of Optometry | Nour A.,SUNY College of Optometry | Troilo D.,SUNY College of Optometry
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: Bifocal contact lenses were used to impose hyperopic and myopic defocus on the peripheral retina of marmosets. Eye growth and refractive state were compared with untreated animals and those treated with single-vision or multizone contact lenses from earlier studies.METHODS: Thirty juvenile marmosets wore one of three experimental annular bifocal contact lens designs on their right eyes and a plano contact lens on the left eye as a control for 10 weeks from 70 days of age (10 marmosets/group). The experimental designs had plano center zones (1.5 or 3 mm) and +5 diopters [D] or -5 D in the periphery (referred to as +5 D/1.5 mm, +5 D/3 mm and -5 D/3 mm). We measured the central and peripheral mean spherical refractive error (MSE), vitreous chamber depth (VC), pupil diameter (PD), calculated eye growth, and myopia progression rates prior to and during treatment. The results were compared with age-matched untreated (N=25), single-vision positive (N=19), negative (N=16), and +5/-5 D multizone lens-reared marmosets (N=10).RESULTS: At the end of treatment, animals in the -5 D/3 mm group had larger (P<0.01) and more myopic eyes (P<0.05) than animals in the +5 D/1.5 mm group. There was a dose-dependent relationship between the peripheral treatment zone area and the treatment-induced changes in eye growth and refractive state. Pretreatment ocular growth rates and baseline peripheral refraction accounted for 40% of the induced refraction and axial growth rate changes.CONCLUSIONS: Eye growth and refractive state can be manipulated by altering peripheral retinal defocus. Imposing peripheral hyperopic defocus produces axial myopia, whereas peripheral myopic defocus produces axial hyperopia. The effects are smaller than using single-vision contact lenses that impose full-field defocus, but support the use of bifocal or multifocal contact lenses as an effective treatment for myopia control. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

Giesel M.,SUNY College of Optometry | Zaidi Q.,SUNY College of Optometry
Journal of Vision | Year: 2013

People often make rapid visual judgments of the properties of surfaces they are going to walk on or touch. How do they do this when the interactions of illumination geometry with 3-D material structure and object shape result in images that inverse optics algorithms cannot resolve without externally imposed constraints? A possibly effective strategy would be to use heuristics based on information that can be gleaned rapidly from retinal images. By using perceptual scaling of a large sample of images, combined with correspondence and canonical correlation analyses, we discovered that material properties, such as roughness, thickness, and undulations, are characterized by specific scales of luminance variations. Using movies, we demonstrate that observers' percepts of these 3-D qualities vary continuously as a function of the relative energy in corresponding 2-D frequency bands. In addition, we show that judgments of roughness, thickness, and undulations are predictably altered by adaptation to dynamic noise at the corresponding scales. These results establish that the scale of local 3-D structure is critical in perceiving material properties, and that relative contrast at particular spatial frequencies is important for perceiving the critical 3-D structure from shading cues, so that cortical mechanisms for estimating material properties could be constructed by combining the parallel outputs of sets of frequency-selective neurons. These results also provide methods for remote sensing of material properties in machine vision, and rapid synthesis, editing and transfer of material properties for computer graphics and animation.

Thiagarajan P.,SUNY College of Optometry | Ciuffreda K.J.,SUNY College of Optometry
Brain Injury | Year: 2014

Objective: To evaluate a range of objective measures of versional eye movements before and after oculomotor training (OMT) in individuals with mTBI. The results were compared with placebo (P) training. Methods: Twelve individuals with mTBI (mean age = 29 ± 3 years) having oculomotor-based near-vision symptoms participated in the study. Versional eye movements were recorded objectively before and after OMT (fixation, predictable saccades, simulated reading) and P training (6 weeks each, two sessions/week, 45 minutes/session). Results: Following OMT, there was a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the horizontal fixational error. Saccadic gain increased both horizontally and vertically (p < 0.05). The saccade ratio for the simulated reading, multiple-line paradigm reduced significantly (p < 0.05). None of the measures changed significantly following the P training. Conclusions: The versional-based OMT had a significant, positive effect on most aspects of versional tracking. These findings are suggestive of improved rhythmicity, accuracy and sequencing of saccades following OMT in mTBI as a result of oculomotor learning. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

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