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New York City, NY, United States

The State University of New York College of Optometry was established in 1971 as a result of a legislative mandate of New York in the United States. It is located in midtown Manhattan in New York City in what was originally the Aeolian Building, which was built in 1912 for the Aeolian Company, a piano manufacturer. It is a center for research on vision and the only school of optometry in New York.The College grants a professional degree, the Doctor of Optometry , and two academic degrees, the Master of Science in Vision Science and the Doctor of Philosophy in Vision Science. Continuing education courses for practicing optometrists are also provided by the College.The University Eye Center provides eye care, corrective lenses, and vision therapy to the public. The University Eye Center is one of the largest outpatient eye clinics in the country, with over 73,000 patient encounters in FY 2012-13.The Optometric Center of New York, established in 1956, is a foundation affiliated with the College to support vision science research, patient care, scholarships, and fellowships at the College and its clinical facilities.The College offers residencies to optometrists from around the world including specializations in subfields of optometry.The College enrolls between 80-100 optometry students per year in the professional degree program. About 20 of these students also seek an M.S. degree in Vision Science across the four years. The College also offers a Ph.D. in Vision Science and provides twelve graduate stipends per year.Research and graduate programs at the college are administered through the Graduate Center for Vision Research, which currently receives nearly $4,000,000 in annual funding for research grants. Clinical research is conducted through the Clinical Vision Research Center.The College is a member of the SUNY Eye Institute. Wikipedia.

Rosenfield M.,SUNY College of Optometry
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics | Year: 2011

Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is the combination of eye and vision problems associated with the use of computers. In modern western society the use of computers for both vocational and avocational activities is almost universal. However, CVS may have a significant impact not only on visual comfort but also occupational productivity since between 64% and 90% of computer users experience visual symptoms which may include eyestrain, headaches, ocular discomfort, dry eye, diplopia and blurred vision either at near or when looking into the distance after prolonged computer use. This paper reviews the principal ocular causes for this condition, namely oculomotor anomalies and dry eye. Accommodation and vergence responses to electronic screens appear to be similar to those found when viewing printed materials, whereas the prevalence of dry eye symptoms is greater during computer operation. The latter is probably due to a decrease in blink rate and blink amplitude, as well as increased corneal exposure resulting from the monitor frequently being positioned in primary gaze. However, the efficacy of proposed treatments to reduce symptoms of CVS is unproven. A better understanding of the physiology underlying CVS is critical to allow more accurate diagnosis and treatment. This will enable practitioners to optimize visual comfort and efficiency during computer operation. © 2011 The College of Optometrists. Source

Harrison S.J.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Backus B.T.,SUNY College of Optometry
Vision Research | Year: 2014

Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning procedures can be used to bias the appearance of physical stimuli. Under natural conditions this form of perceptual learning could cause perception to become more accurate by changing prior belief to be in accord with what is statistically likely. However, for learning to be of functional significance, it must last until similar stimuli are encountered again. Here, we used the apparent rotation direction of a revolving wire frame (Necker) cube to test whether a learned perceptual bias is long lasting. Apparent rotation direction was trained to have a different bias at two different retinal locations by interleaving the presentation of ambiguous cubes with presentation of cubes that were disambiguated by disparity and occlusion cues. Four groups of eight subjects were subsequently tested either 1, 7, 14, or 28. days after initial training, respectively, using a counter-conditioning procedure. All four groups showed incomplete re-learning of the reversed contingency relationship during their second session. One group repeated the counter-conditioning and showed an increase in the reverse bias, showing that the first counter-conditioning session also had a long-lasting effect. The fact that the original learning was still evident four weeks after the initial training is consistent with the operation of a mechanism that ordinarily would improve the accuracy and efficiency of perception. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lee B.B.,SUNY College of Optometry | Lee B.B.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Martin P.R.,University of Sydney | Grunert U.,University of Sydney
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research | Year: 2010

The general principles of retinal organization are now well known. It may seem surprising that retinal organization in the primate, which has a complex visual behavioral repertoire, appears relatively simple. In this review, we primarily consider retinal structure and function in primate species. Photoreceptor distribution and connectivity are considered as are connectivity in the outer and inner retina. One key issue is the specificity of retinal connections; we suggest that the retina shows connectional specificity but this is seldom complete, and we consider here the functional consequences of imprecise wiring. Finally, we consider how retinal systems can be linked to psychophysical descriptions of different channels, chromatic and luminance, which are proposed to exist in the primate visual system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Di Luca M.,Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics | Ernst M.O.,Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics | Backus B.T.,SUNY College of Optometry
Current Biology | Year: 2010

How does the brain construct a percept from sensory signals? One approach to this fundamental question is to investigate perceptual learning as induced by exposure to statistical regularities in sensory signals [1-7]. Recent studies showed that exposure to novel correlations between sensory signals can cause a signal to have new perceptual effects [2, 3]. In those studies, however, the signals were clearly visible. The automaticity of the learning was therefore difficult to determine. Here we investigate whether learning of this sort, which causes new effects on appearance, can be low level and automatic by employing a visual signal whose perceptual consequences were made invisible - a vertical disparity gradient masked by other depth cues. This approach excluded high-level influences such as attention or consciousness. Our stimulus for probing perceptual appearance was a rotating cylinder. During exposure, we introduced a new contingency between the invisible signal and the rotation direction of the cylinder. When subsequently presenting an ambiguously rotating version of the cylinder, we found that the invisible signal influenced the perceived rotation direction. This demonstrates that perception can rapidly undergo "structure learning" by automatically picking up novel contingencies between sensory signals, thus automatically recruiting signals for novel uses during the construction of a percept. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Harrison S.J.,SUNY College of Optometry | Backus B.T.,SUNY College of Optometry
Vision Research | Year: 2010

Visual appearance depends upon the resolution of ambiguities that arise when 2D retinal images are interpreted as 3D scenes. This resolution may be characterized as a form of Bayesian perceptual inference, whereby retinal sense data combine with prior belief to yield an interpretation. Under this framework, the prior reflects environmental statistics, so an efficient system should learn by changing its prior after exposure to new statistics. We conjectured that a prior would only be modified when sense data contain disambiguating information, such that it is clear what bias is appropriate. This conjecture was tested by using a perceptually bistable stimulus, a rotating wire-frame cube, as a sensitive indicator of changes in the prior for 3D rotation direction, and by carefully matching perceptual experience of ambiguous and unambiguous versions of the stimulus across three groups of observers. We show for the first time that changes in the prior-observed as a change in bias that resists reverse learning the next day-is affected more by ambiguous stimuli than by disambiguated stimuli. Thus, contrary to our conjecture, modification of the prior occurred preferentially when the observer actively resolved ambiguity rather than when the observer was exposed to environmental contingencies. We propose that resolving stimuli that are not easily interpreted by existing visual rules must be a valid method for establishing useful perceptual biases in the natural world. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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