Sayama T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science |
Ono E.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science |
Takagi K.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd. |
Takada Y.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center |
And 12 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2012
Triterpene saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Saponins usually are glycosylated, which gives rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions. In the group A saponins of soybean (Glycine max), differences in the terminal sugar species located on the C-22 sugar chain of an aglycone core, soyasapogenol A, were observed to be under genetic control. Further genetic analyses and mapping revealed that the structural diversity of glycosylation was determined by multiple alleles of a single locus, Sg-1, and led to identification of a UDP-sugar-dependent glycosyltransferase gene (Glyma07g38460). Although their sequences are highly similar and both glycosylate the nonacetylated saponin A0-ag, the Sg-1a allele encodes the xylosyltransferase UGT73F4, whereas Sg-1b encodes the glucosyltransferase UGT73F2. Homology models and site-directed mutagenesis analyses showed that Ser-138 in Sg-1a and Gly-138 in Sg-1b proteins are crucial residues for their respective sugar donor specificities. Transgenic complementation tests followed by recombinant enzyme assays in vitro demonstrated that sg-10 is a loss-of-function allele of Sg-1. Considering that the terminal sugar species in the group A saponins are responsible for the strong bitterness and astringent aftertastes of soybean seeds, our findings herein provide useful tools to improve commercial properties of soybean products. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.
Satake H.,Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research |
Ono E.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd. |
Murata J.,Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013
Plant physiological, epidemiological, and food science studies have shed light on lignans as healthy diets for the reduction of the risk of lifestyle-related noncommunicable diseases and, thus, the demand for lignans has been rapidly increasing. However, the low efficiency and instability of lignan production via extraction from plant resources remain to be resolved, indicating the requirement for the development of new procedures for lignan production. The metabolic engineering of lignan-biosynthesizing plants is expected to be most promising for efficient, sustainable, and stable lignan production. This is supported by the recent verification of biosynthetic pathways of major dietary lignans and the exploration of lignan production via metabolic engineering using transiently gene-transfected or transgenic plants. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the biosynthetic pathways, biological activities, and metabolic engineering of lignans and also perspectives in metabolic engineering-based lignan production using transgenic plants for practical application. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Tsuruoka N.,Cerebos Pacific Ltd |
Beppu Y.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd |
Koda H.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd |
Doe N.,Kouiken Co. |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Diketopiperazines (DKPs) are naturally-occurring cyclic dipeptides with a small structure and are found in many organisms and in large amounts in some foods and beverages. We found that a chicken essence beverage, which is popular among Southeast Asians as a traditional remedy and a rich source of DKPs, inhibited the serotonin transporter (SERT) and suppressed serotonin uptake from rat brain synaptosomes, which prompted us to isolate and identify the active substance(s). We purified a SERT inhibitor from the chicken essence beverage and identified it as the DKP cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe). Interestingly, it was a naturally occurring dual inhibitor that inhibited both SERT and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro. The DKP increased extracellular levels of the cerebral monoamines serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex and acetylcholine in the ventral hippocampus of freely moving rats when administered orally. Moreover, cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe) significantly shortened escape latency in the water maze test in depressed mice previously subjected to a repeated open-space swimming task, which induces a depression-like state. Cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe) also significantly improved accuracy rates in a radial maze test in rats and increased step-through latencies in a passive avoidance test in mice with scopolamine-induced amnesia. These animal test results suggest that cyclo(L-Phe-L-Phe), which is present abundantly in some foods such as chicken essence, may abrogate the onset of depression and, thus, contribute to preventing the development of Alzheimer's disease and other dementia, because senile depression is a risk factor for dementia. © 2012 Tsuruoka et al.
Tomimori N.,Suntory Wellness Ltd. |
Tanaka Y.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd. |
Kitagawa Y.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd. |
Fujii W.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd. |
And 2 more authors.
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition | Year: 2013
A single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group and multiple oral dose study was conducted in 48 healthy subjects to investigate the pharmacokinetics and safety of multiple oral doses of sesame lignans (sesamin and episesamin). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups. Each subject was administered 50 mg of sesame lignans (sesamin/episesamin = 1/1) or placebo once daily for 28 days. The pharmacokinetics of the sesame lignans were investigated using 10 of the 24 subjects in the sesame lignans group. No serious adverse events were observed in this study. Sesamin was absorbed with a peak plasma concentration at 5.0 h. The plasma concentration of the main metabolite, SC-1, reached a peak at 5.0 h and decreased rapidly with a terminal half-life of 2.4 h. Episesamin was also absorbed with a peak plasma concentration at 5.0 h and decreased with a terminal half-life of 7.1 h. The plasma concentration of the main metabolite, EC-1, reached a peak at 5.0 h and decreased rapidly with a terminal half-life of 3.4 h. The plasma concentrations of sesamin and episesamin reached a steady state by day 7. Sesame lignans were confirmed to be safe and tolerable in healthy subjects. The results of the pharmacokinetic study demonstrate that no accumulation was observed following multiple 50 mg doses of sesame lignans. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Des Gachons C.P.,Monell Chemical Senses Center |
Mura E.,Monell Chemical Senses Center |
Mura E.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd |
Speziale C.,Monell Chemical Senses Center |
And 6 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2012
In most cultures, people ingest a variety of astringent foods and beverages during meals, but the reasons for this practice are unclear. Many popular beliefs and heuristics, such as high tannin wines should be balanced with fatty foods, for example 'red wine with red meat', suggest that astringents such as pickles, sorbets, wines, and teas 'cleanse' the palate while eating. Oral astringents elicit 'dry, rough' sensations , in part, by breaking down mucinous lubricating proteins in saliva [2,3]. The introduction of oral lubricants, including fats, partially diminishes strong astringent sensations [4,5]. Thus, it appears that astringency and fattiness can oppose each other perceptually on an oral rheological spectrum. Most teas, wines, and 'palate cleansers', however, are only mildly astringent and an explanation of how they could oppose the fattiness of meals is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that weakly astringent stimuli can elicit strong sensations after repeated sampling. Astringency builds with exposures  to an asymptotic level determined by the structure and concentration of the compound. We also establish that multiple sips of a mild astringent solution, similar to a wine or tea, decrease oral fat sensations elicited by fatty food consumption when astringent and fatty stimuli alternate, mimicking the patterning that occurs during a real meal. Consequently, we reveal a principle underlying the international practice of 'palate cleansing'. Repeatedly alternating samples of astringent beverages with fatty foods yielded ratings of fattiness and astringency that were lower than if rinsing with water or if presented alone without alternation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nakahara K.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd |
Kageyama N.,Suntory Liquors Ltd |
Nagami K.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012
Malted barley was treated with saturated steam at temperatures ranging from 180 to 220 °C, that is, high temperature and high pressure steam (HHS), and a control sample exposed to saturated liquid water in the same temperature range. The malt treated in steam was extracted with water (70 °C) for 15 min after drying. Vanillin which gave beer preferable flavor was detected in all malt extracts, both after treatment with steam and in effluent from malt exposed to liquid water. Hydrolysis of ingredients in the malt occurred even in steam. The treatment of natural products in HHS could be a new thermal technique to provide a special ingredient for food industry, for example, malt for beer. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Tanaka Y.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd |
Brugliera F.,Florigene Pty Ltd
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2013
Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 30-hydroxylase (F30H) and flavonoid 30,50-hydroxylase (F3050H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F30H and F3050H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3050Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3050H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3050H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3050H and F30H in delphinidinproducing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Tanaka Y.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd.
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013
Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.
Ishiguro K.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd. |
Taniguchi M.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd. |
Tanaka Y.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd.
Journal of Plant Research | Year: 2012
The enzymes flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) play an important role in flower color by determining the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of anthocyanins, the major floral pigments. F3′5′H is necessary for biosynthesis of the delphinidin-based anthocyanins that confer a violet or blue color to most plants. Antirrhinum majus does not produce delphinidin and lacks violet flower colour while A. kelloggii produces violet flowers containing delphinidin. To understand the cause of this inter-specific difference in the Antirrhinum genus, we isolated one F3′H and two F3′5′H homologues from the A. kelloggii petal cDNA library. Their amino acid sequences showed high identities to F3′Hs and F3′5′Hs of closely related species. Transgenic petunia expressing these genes had elevated amounts of cyanidin and delphinidin respectively, and flower color changes in the transgenics reflected the type of accumulated anthocyanidins. The results indicate that the homologs encode F3′H and F3′5′H, respectively, and that the ancestor of A. majus lost F3′5′H activity after its speciation from the ancestor of A. kelloggii. © 2011 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.
Akanuma Y.,Michigan State University |
Akanuma Y.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd |
Selke S.E.M.,Michigan State University |
Auras R.,Michigan State University
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2014
Purpose: This study provides a preliminary comparison of the environmental burdens of three different pathways for production of bio-based purified terephthalic acid (PTA), suitable for the production of 100 % bio-based poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET. These pathways are through (1) muconic acid originating in wheat stover; (2) isobutanol originating in corn; and (3) benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) originating in poplar. The goal is to point out what areas of these processes are the largest environmental contributors and hence are the most critical for development of accurate primary data, as well as to indicate which of these pathways looks most promising, from an environmental viewpoint, for production of 100 % bio-based PET. Methods: Because much of the needed life cycle information to produce PTA is currently not available, inventory data for each scenario for the production of PTA were estimated based on the chemistry involved. In the impact analysis stage, the inventory data were classified and characterized with a focus on several environmental midpoint categories. SimaPro 7.3.3 software was used as the main computational software and Impact 2002+ v2.1 was used as the life cycle impact assessment methodology in this attributional life cycle assessment. Results and discussion: Valuable preliminary environmental impact data including identification of critical steps in the process were obtained. The global warming value of PET synthesized through the muconic acid scenario was 1.6 times larger than that of the scenario of PET synthesized through BTX even after a limited Monte Carlo simulation of 1,000 runs. Conclusions: Among the three scenarios for producing PET, PET synthesized through BTX looked the most promising to pursue for production of bio-based PET with lower environmental burdens. This work also indicated that the first production steps of producing PET through any of the evaluated scenarios (from biomass to the first intermediate) are responsible for the largest environmental burden and should be further characterized since they were the dominant processes in many impact categories. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.