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Tanaka Y.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd | Brugliera F.,Florigene Pty Ltd
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 30-hydroxylase (F30H) and flavonoid 30,50-hydroxylase (F3050H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F30H and F3050H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3050Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3050H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3050H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3050H and F30H in delphinidinproducing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Des Gachons C.P.,Monell Chemical Senses Center | Mura E.,Monell Chemical Senses Center | Mura E.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd | Speziale C.,Monell Chemical Senses Center | And 6 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2012

In most cultures, people ingest a variety of astringent foods and beverages during meals, but the reasons for this practice are unclear. Many popular beliefs and heuristics, such as high tannin wines should be balanced with fatty foods, for example 'red wine with red meat', suggest that astringents such as pickles, sorbets, wines, and teas 'cleanse' the palate while eating. Oral astringents elicit 'dry, rough' sensations [1], in part, by breaking down mucinous lubricating proteins in saliva [2,3]. The introduction of oral lubricants, including fats, partially diminishes strong astringent sensations [4,5]. Thus, it appears that astringency and fattiness can oppose each other perceptually on an oral rheological spectrum. Most teas, wines, and 'palate cleansers', however, are only mildly astringent and an explanation of how they could oppose the fattiness of meals is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that weakly astringent stimuli can elicit strong sensations after repeated sampling. Astringency builds with exposures [6] to an asymptotic level determined by the structure and concentration of the compound. We also establish that multiple sips of a mild astringent solution, similar to a wine or tea, decrease oral fat sensations elicited by fatty food consumption when astringent and fatty stimuli alternate, mimicking the patterning that occurs during a real meal. Consequently, we reveal a principle underlying the international practice of 'palate cleansing'. Repeatedly alternating samples of astringent beverages with fatty foods yielded ratings of fattiness and astringency that were lower than if rinsing with water or if presented alone without alternation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Satake H.,Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research | Ono E.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd | Murata J.,Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Plant physiological, epidemiological, and food science studies have shed light on lignans as healthy diets for the reduction of the risk of lifestyle-related noncommunicable diseases and, thus, the demand for lignans has been rapidly increasing. However, the low efficiency and instability of lignan production via extraction from plant resources remain to be resolved, indicating the requirement for the development of new procedures for lignan production. The metabolic engineering of lignan-biosynthesizing plants is expected to be most promising for efficient, sustainable, and stable lignan production. This is supported by the recent verification of biosynthetic pathways of major dietary lignans and the exploration of lignan production via metabolic engineering using transiently gene-transfected or transgenic plants. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the biosynthetic pathways, biological activities, and metabolic engineering of lignans and also perspectives in metabolic engineering-based lignan production using transgenic plants for practical application. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Akanuma Y.,Michigan State University | Akanuma Y.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd | Selke S.E.M.,Michigan State University | Auras R.,Michigan State University
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2014

Purpose: This study provides a preliminary comparison of the environmental burdens of three different pathways for production of bio-based purified terephthalic acid (PTA), suitable for the production of 100 % bio-based poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET. These pathways are through (1) muconic acid originating in wheat stover; (2) isobutanol originating in corn; and (3) benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) originating in poplar. The goal is to point out what areas of these processes are the largest environmental contributors and hence are the most critical for development of accurate primary data, as well as to indicate which of these pathways looks most promising, from an environmental viewpoint, for production of 100 % bio-based PET. Methods: Because much of the needed life cycle information to produce PTA is currently not available, inventory data for each scenario for the production of PTA were estimated based on the chemistry involved. In the impact analysis stage, the inventory data were classified and characterized with a focus on several environmental midpoint categories. SimaPro 7.3.3 software was used as the main computational software and Impact 2002+ v2.1 was used as the life cycle impact assessment methodology in this attributional life cycle assessment. Results and discussion: Valuable preliminary environmental impact data including identification of critical steps in the process were obtained. The global warming value of PET synthesized through the muconic acid scenario was 1.6 times larger than that of the scenario of PET synthesized through BTX even after a limited Monte Carlo simulation of 1,000 runs. Conclusions: Among the three scenarios for producing PET, PET synthesized through BTX looked the most promising to pursue for production of bio-based PET with lower environmental burdens. This work also indicated that the first production steps of producing PET through any of the evaluated scenarios (from biomass to the first intermediate) are responsible for the largest environmental burden and should be further characterized since they were the dominant processes in many impact categories. © 2014 Springer-Verlag. Source

Nakahara K.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd | Kageyama N.,Suntory Liquors Ltd | Nagami K.,Suntory Business Expert Ltd
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Malted barley was treated with saturated steam at temperatures ranging from 180 to 220 °C, that is, high temperature and high pressure steam (HHS), and a control sample exposed to saturated liquid water in the same temperature range. The malt treated in steam was extracted with water (70 °C) for 15 min after drying. Vanillin which gave beer preferable flavor was detected in all malt extracts, both after treatment with steam and in effluent from malt exposed to liquid water. Hydrolysis of ingredients in the malt occurred even in steam. The treatment of natural products in HHS could be a new thermal technique to provide a special ingredient for food industry, for example, malt for beer. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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