Dharān Bāzār, Nepal
Dharān Bāzār, Nepal

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Shrestha R.,BP Koirala Institute of Health science BPKIHS | Nepal A.K.,BP Koirala Institute of Health science BPKIHS | Nepal A.K.,Sunsari Technical College | Lal Das B.K.,BP Koirala Institute of Health science BPKIHS | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Background: Tobacco consumption is one of the leading causes of oral submucous fibrosis, oral cancer and even premature death. The present study was designed to compare the biochemical parameters and non- enzymatic antioxidant status and the lipid peroxidation products in pan masala tobacco users as compared with age-matched non-user controls. Methods: Pan masala and tobacco users of age 33.2±9.94 years and age-matched controls (31.2±4.73 years) were enrolled for the study. Plasma levels of vitamin E, vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, uric acid, glucose, urea, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) were measured by standard methods. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated as a measure of lipid peroxidation. Results: In the pan masala tobacco users, as compared to the controls, the level of vitamin C (68.5±5.9 vs 97.9±9.03 μmol/L, p≤0.05) vitamin E (18.4±5.3 vs 97.9±9.03 μmol/L, p≤0.001), albumin (37.5±7.01 vs 44.3±9.99 g/L, p≤0.001), and malondialdehyde (10.8±1.29 vs 1.72±1.15 nmol/ml, p≤0.001) were found to be significantly altered. Malondialdehyde was significantly correlated with vitamin E (r=1.00, p<0.001) and vitamin C (r =1.00, p<0.001) in pan masala tobacco users. Serum levels of AST (31.0±16.77 IU) and ALT (36.7±31.3 IU) in the pan masala tobacco users were significantly raised as compared to the controls (AST, 25.2±9.51 IU, p=0.038; ALT, 26.2±17.9 IU, p=0.038). Conclusion: These findings suggest that pan masala tobacco users are in a state of oxidative stress promoting cellular damage. Non-enzymatic antioxidants are depleted in pan masala tobacco users with subsequent alteration in the biochemical parameters. Supplementation of antioxidants may prevent oxidative damage in pan masala tobacco users.


Khanal S.,Sunsari Technical College | Ibrahim M.I.B.M.,Qatar University | Shankar P.R.,KIST Medical College
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Academic detailing is rarely practised in developing countries. A randomized control trial on healthcare service was conducted to evaluate the impact of academic detailing programme on the adherence of primary healthcare providers in Banke district, Nepal, to childhood diarrhoea treatment guidelines recommended by World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund (WHO/UNICEF). The participants (N=209) were systematically divided into control and intervention groups. Four different academic detailing sessions on childhood diarrhoea management were given to participants in the intervention group. At baseline, 6% of the participants in the control and 8.3% in the intervention group were adhering to the treatment guidelines which significantly (p<0.05) increased among participants in the intervention (65.1%) than in the control group (16.0%) at the first follow-up. At the second follow-up, 69.7% of participants in the intervention group were adhering to the guidelines, which was significantly (p<0.05) greater than those in the control group (19.0%). Data also showed significant improvement in prescribing pattern of the participants in the intervention group compared to the control group. Therefore, academic detailing can be used for promoting adherence to treatment guidelines in developing countries, like Nepal. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.


Khanal S.,Sunsari Technical College | Dahal B.,Sunsari Technical College | Pun N.T.,Sunsari Technical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Nepal is one of the developing countries having many limitations in providing the quality health services to its population. In many countries, improvement in patients' adherence to the pharmacotherapy had been one of major outcome of quality pharmaceutical services. Till date, very less thing has been done in this area in Nepal; so it seems mandatory to improve the patient adherence to the treatment plans. Adherence to the medical therapy can be explained by the extent of the behavioral coincidence to the medication and non-medication regimen by a patient whereas compliance and concordance are two different models of patient adherence to the therapy. Compliance model suggests that patients have been brought responsible for being unable to follow 'doctor's order and concordance tempts to measure the degree of agreement between patient and his or her clinician about the nature of illness and the best possible therapy for the welfare of the patient. Non-adherence to the therapy may lead to different problems as consequences of non-adherence in four different level-individual, institutional, societal and national levels. Although some programs like, "Direct Observation Treatment, Short-course (DOTS) for tuberculosis, implementation of antiretroviral treatment schedules for HIV patients and pediatric vaccination models," are the examples of attention towards the cases of noncompliance in Nepal. It has long been faced its limitations in the forms of either untrained manpower or lack of good documentation of patients' adherence to therapy or high illiteracy rate or unaffordibility of patients to their treatment or lack of pharmaceutical care services.


Banerjee J.,Sunsari Technical College | Mariappan G.,Himalayan Pharmacy Institute | Nepal A.K.,Sunsari Technical College
International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2014

Thiazoles the five member ring system with two hetro atoms (S, N) in the heterocyclic ring at 1, 3 positions. Thiazoles are useful structural units in the field of medicinal chemistry and have been reported to exhibit a variety of biological activity. Thiazoles are a class of organic compounds related to azoles with a common thiazole functional group. Some substituted amino phenylthiazoles are synthesized by reacting thiourea and I2 which were further reacted with 2, choloro-N-substituted phenyl acetamide to yield N-(substituted phenyl)-2-(4-phenyl thiazole-2-ylamino)- acetamide. (PTZ1-5). The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of IR, 1HNMR, Mass spectral and. All the spectral data were consistent with the assigned structure. The synthesized compounds were investigated for antibacterial activity by cup plate method against four strains of bacteria. All the synthesized compounds exhibited mild to good antibacterial activities. Among the synthesized compounds, PTZ5 showed promising actions against all strains of bacteria, the compounds were further screened for local anesthetics activity talking lidocaine as standard, and all the compounds showed moderate activities. © 2014, International Journal Of Pharmacy and Technology. All rights reserved.


Parajuli R.,Sunsari Technical College | Banerjee J.,Sunsari Technical College | Khanal H.,Central Campus of Technology
Oriental Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

A series of novel pyrazolone derivative were synthesized by two different schemes (scheme-1 by the reaction of phenyl hydrazine and ethyl acetoacetate with substituted benzaldehydes PYR-1 to PYR-4) and (by the reaction of synthesized chalcone with phenyl hydrazine PYR-5) and characterised with its physical parameters (M.P, colour, %yield, solubility etc.). The entire synthesized compound was tested for their antimicrobial activity against Grampositive and Gram-negative strains of bacteria and brimeshrimp bioassay was conducted for evaluation of cytotoxic activity The Investigation of antimicrobial screening data revealed that most of the tested compounds showed moderate to good antimicrobial activity. And cytotoxicity activity of compounds was also found to be satisfactory.

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