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Pandey A.,SunRise University
2016 5th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization, ICRITO 2016: Trends and Future Directions | Year: 2016

Software metrics can be classified in to two categories of code metrics and architectural metrics [1,2]. Code metrics basically consider analysis of data structures and algorithms for determining the complexity of the program [3,4,5]. Whereas architectural metrics consider the mechanism how system is processing data within its components and any existing dependencies between the processed data for estimating the complexity [3,6]. In any pipelined RISC processor program is executed instruction after instruction and it is also possible to have program dependencies between them [7]. These dependencies are of two types, data dependencies and control dependencies [8,9,10,11]. Data dependencies can be resolved by forwarding the data between stages of the pipelined RISC processor. Stall can be induced between the instructions while resolving some of these data dependencies. Stall can also be induced between instructions during branch prediction. The proposed architectural metric considers all those cases which will affect the overall execution of the program by causing stall together with the count of statements actually executed, for estimating the overall software complexity. © 2016 IEEE.

Pandey A.,SunRise University
Proceedings of the International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies, ICICT 2016 | Year: 2017

A pipelined RISC architecture can be bifurcated in to five different stages, namely Instruction fetch, Instruction Decode, Execution, Memory and Write back. All of these stages work in a synchronous manner with each other and forward instructions to the next consecutive stage with each passing cycle. Each incoming instruction will first enter the Instruction fetch stage. Then it will be evaluated and carried to the final Write back stage, where its value is updated in the general purpose register set. Problem arises when consecutive instructions in the pipeline have data dependencies and the succeeding instruction does not get the correct value. As the value required by the succeeding instruction is being evaluated in the preceding instruction and is not been updated in the general purpose register set yet. This situation is referred as Data hazard. Further there exist another type of hazard in this type of pipelined architecture known as Control hazard. Control hazard arise due to inability of the processor to decide which instruction to be fetched next within time. In this paper we will study the different techniques to resolve these hazards. © 2016 IEEE.

Pandey A.,SunRise University
Proceedings of the International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies, ICICT 2016 | Year: 2017

Most of the processors available now days have a pipelined architecture. The pipelined processors are designed in a way that they can process more than one instructions in the same clock pulse. To achieve this phenomenon of multiple processing, the processors are designed to have multiple stages. These stages work together as single unit under common clock pulse to generate the effect of multiple processing. Generally we have Instruction fetch, Instruction decode, Execution, Memory and Wright back stages in a five stage pipelined RISC processor. Each of these stages works as a sub processor connected in the sequence. Such that with every clock pulse each of them process one instruction and forwards it to the next stage in the sequence. To understand the implementation of these concepts, in this paper we have materialized a working simulation of a pipelined RISC processor. © 2016 IEEE.

Jaiswal S.,Dr Vijay Kumar Foundation | Jaiswal S.,SunRise University | Babar V.P.,Dr Vijay Kumar Foundation | Kumar V.,Dr Vijay Kumar Foundation | Kumar V.,Shiv Nadar University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

We report results of ab initio calculations on Y-doped anion Sin clusters with n = 4-20. Our results suggest two growth behaviors in the intermediate range of n = 8 and 20: (1) There is the formation of linked clusters in which a metal atom links two subclusters and (2) where silicon atoms form a cage structure and the metal atom is inside the cage to produce endohedral cages of silicon clusters. The cluster structures have been identified by comparing the calculated spectra of the electronic states with the photoemission spectra on anion clusters. Our results suggest that in some cases a higher energy isomer may be present in experiments. We report the calculations of the infrared and Raman spectra as well as the dipole moments, electron affinity, and polarizability that could provide other ways of identifying the growth behavior in these clusters. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Hadda T.B.,University Mohammed Premier | Ali M.A.,SunRise University | Ali M.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Masand V.,Vidya Bharati College | And 3 more authors.
Medicinal Chemistry Research | Year: 2013

In this study, we have amalgamated computational methodologies, viz. Petra, Osiris and Molinspiration (POM) to identify pharmacophores and antipharmacophores for antibacterial/antiviral activities of some 2-pyrazolines derivatives. Lipophilicity and the presence of tautomerism process are the major factors that govern the orientation to antibacterial and/or antiviral activity. On other hand, it was observed that these compounds have two different active sites and can inhibit both antiviral and antibacterial strains. Further, we have carried out receptor-based electrostatic analysis to confirm the electronic, steric and hydrophobic requirements for future modifications. The analyses provide substantial idea about the structural features responsible for their combined antibacterial/antiviral activity and provide guidelines for further modifications, with the aim of improving the activity and selectivity of designed drugs targeting HIV and tuberculosis microorganisms. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Yoon Y.K.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ali M.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ali M.A.,New Drug Discovery Research | Ali M.A.,SunRise University | And 5 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

A total of 15 novel benzimidazole derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their SIRT1 and SIRT2 inhibitory activity. All compounds showed better inhibition on SIRT2 as compared to SIRT1. Among these, compound 5j displayed the best inhibitory activity for SIRT1 (IC50 = 58.43 μM) as well as for SIRT2 (IC50 = 45.12 μM). Cell cytotoxicity assays also showed that compound 5j possesses good antitumor activity against two different cancer cell lines derived from breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468). A simple structure-activity-relationship (SAR) study of the newly synthesized benzimidazole derivatives was also discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wei A.C.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ali M.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ali M.A.,New Drug Discovery Research | Ali M.A.,SunRise University | And 4 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2013

A series of fourteen dispiropyrrolidines were synthesized using [3+2]-cycloaddition reactions and were screened for their antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in HTS (High Throughput Screen). Most of the compounds showed moderate to good activity with MIC of less than 20 μM. Compound 4′-(4-bromophenyl)-1′- methyldispiro[acenaphthylene-1,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,2″-indane]-2, 1″(1H)-dione (4c) was found to be the most active with MIC of 12.50 μM. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sivakumar S.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Ranjith Kumar R.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Ashraf Ali M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ashraf Ali M.,New Drug Discovery Research | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides generated in situ from acenaphthenequinone and α-amino acids viz. 1,3-thiazolone-4-carboxylic acid and piperidine-2-carboxylic acid to a series of 1-methyl-3,5-bis[(E)- arylmethylidene]tetrahydro-4(1H)-pyridinones afforded novel spiro[5.2″] acenaphthene-1″-onespiro[6.3′]-5′-arylmethylidene-1′- methylpiperidin-4′-one-7-aryltetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-c] [1,3]thiazoles and spiro[2.2″]acenaphthene-1″-onespiro[3.3′]-5′- arylmethylidene-1′-methylpiperidin-4′-one-4- aryloctahydroindolizines respectively in quantitative yields. These compounds were evaluated for their AChE inhibitory activity and compound 3c was found to be the most potent with IC50 1.86 μmol/L. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Jeyachandran V.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Kumar R.R.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Ali M.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ali M.A.,New Drug Discovery Research | And 2 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2013

A library of novel 5-amino-2,7-diaryl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]thiophene-4,6- dicarbonitriles have been synthesized regioselectively in good yields through the one-pot domino reactions of 5-aryldihydro-3(2H)-thiophenones, malononitrile and aromatic aldehydes in the presence of morpholine. This transformation presumably involves Knoevenagel condensation-Michael addition-intramolecular Thorpe-Ziegler cyclization-Tautomerization-Elimination sequence of reactions. These compounds were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and 5-amino-2,7-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]thiophene-4,6- dicarbonitrile was found to be the most potent against AChE with IC50 4.16 μmol/L. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ashraf Ali M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ismail R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Choon T.S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Kumar R.S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2012

Pyrrolothiazolyloxindole analogues share vital pharmacological properties, considered useful in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was synthesis and evaluate pyralothiazolyloxindole analogues if possess acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The easily accessible one-pot synthesis of these compounds resulted to be significantly less difficult and expensive than that of donepezil. Several compounds possess anti-cholinesterase activity in the order of micro and sub-micromolar. Particularly, compound 6a was the most potent inhibitors of the series against acetyl cholinesterase enzyme with IC 50 0.11 μmol/L. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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