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Hata K.,Gifu University | Hata K.,Sunplanet Co. | Kubota M.,Gifu University | Shimizu M.,Gifu University | And 7 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2012

Obese people and diabetic patients are known to be high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), suggesting need of a new preclinical animal model, by which to extensively study the diverse mechanisms, therapy and prevention. The present study aimed to determine whether experimental obese and diabetic mice produced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment are susceptible to azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumorigenesis using early biomarkers, aberrant crypts foci (ACF) and β-catenin-accumulated crypts (BCACs), of colorectal carcinogenesis. Male Crj:CD-1 (ICR) newborns were daily given four subcutaneous injections of MSG (2 mg/g body wt) to induce diabetes and obesity. They were then given four intraperitoneal injections of AOM (15 mg/kg body wt) or saline (0.1 ml saline/10 g body wt). Ten weeks after the last injection of AOM, the MSG-AOM mice had a significant increase in the multiplicity of BCAC (13.83 ± 7.44, P < 0.002), but not ACF (78.00 ± 11.20), when compare to the Saline-AOM mice (5.45 ± 1.86 of BCAC and 69.27 ± 8.06 of ACF). Serum biochemical profile of the MSG-treated mice with or without AOM showed hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesteremia and hyperglycemia. The mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R, P<0.01) was increased in the MSG-AOM mice, when compared with the mice given AOM alone. IGF-1R was immunohistochemically expressed in the BCAC, but not ACF, in the AOM-treated mice. Our findings suggest that the MSG mice are highly susceptible to AOM-induced colorectal carcinogenesis, suggesting potential utility of our MSG-AOM mice for further investigation of the possible underlying events that affect the positive association between obese/diabetes and CRC. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Saikusa K.,Yokohama City University | Saikusa K.,Hiroshima University | Nagadoi A.,Yokohama City University | Hara K.,Yokohama City University | And 5 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

The histone H2A/H2B dimer is a component of nucleosome core particles (NCPs). The structure of the dimer at the atomic level has not yet been revealed. A possible reason for this is that the dimer has three intrinsically disordered tail regions: the N-and C-termini of H2A and the N-terminus of H2B. To investigate the role of the tail regions of the H2A/H2B dimer structure, we characterized behaviors of the H2A/H2B mutant dimers, in which these functionally important disordered regions were depleted, using mass spectrometry (MS). After verifying that the acetylation of Lys residues in the tail regions had little effect on the gas-phase conformations of the wild-type dimer, we prepared two histone H2A/H2B dimer mutants: an H2A/H2B dimer depleted of both N-termini (dN-H2A/dN-H2B) and a dimer with the N-and C-termini of H2A and the N-terminus of H2B depleted (dNC-H2A/dN-H2B). We analyzed these mutants using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). With IM-MS, reduced structural diversity was observed for each of the tail-truncated H2A/H2B mutants. In addition, global HDX-MS proved that the dimer mutant dNC-H2A/dN-H2B was susceptible to deuteration, suggesting that its structure in solution was somewhat loosened. A partial relaxation of the mutant's structure was demonstrated also by IM-MS. In this study, we characterized the relationship between the tail lengths and the conformations of the H2A/H2B dimer in solution and gas phases, and demonstrated, using mass spectrometry, that disordered tail regions play an important role in stabilizing the conformation of the core region of the dimer in both phases. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Yasuda Y.,Gifu University | Shimizu M.,Gifu University | Shirakami Y.,Gifu University | Sakai H.,Gifu University | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Science | Year: 2010

Obesity and related metabolic abnormalities are risk factors for colorectal cancer. A state of chronic inflammation and adipocytokine imbalance may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Statins, which are commonly used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, are known to possess anti-inflammatory effects. Statins also exert chemopreventive properties against various cancers. The present study examined the effects of pitavastatin, a recently developed lipophilic statin, on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated colonic premalignant lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) obese mice. Male db/db mice were administrated weekly subcutaneous injections of AOM (15 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks and then were subsequently fed a diet containing 1 ppm or 10 ppm pitavastatin for 8 weeks. Feeding with either dose of pitavastatin significantly reduced the number of colonic premalignant lesions, β-catenin accumulated crypts, by inhibiting proliferation and the surrounding inflammation. Pitavastatin increased the serum levels of adiponectin while conversely decreasing the serum levels of total cholesterol, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, and leptin. Pitavastatin also caused a significant increase in the expression of phosphorylated form of the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) protein on the colonic mucosa of AOM-treated mice. In addition, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-18, and COX-2 mRNAs on the colonic mucosa of AOM-treated mice were decreased by treatment with this agent. These findings suggest that pitavastatin attenuates chronic inflammation and improves the imbalance of adipocytokines, both of which are caused by the presence of excess adipose tissues, thereby preventing the development of colonic premalignancies in an obesity-related colon cancer model. Therefore, some types of statins, including pitavastatin, may be a useful chemoprevention modality for colon cancer in obese individuals. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association. Source

Mano Y.,Eisai Co. | Kita K.,Sunplanet Co. | Kusano K.,Eisai Co.
Bioanalysis | Year: 2015

Background: A novel microsampling device, MitraTM, was evaluated for bioanalysis of E6005 and its O-desmethylated metabolite in human whole blood using an UPLC-MS. Results: A constant volume of blood samples was absorbed onto the tip of Mitra, the analytes were extracted by various solvents and then detected by UPLC-MS. Recovery of the analytes was high in acetonitrile-water (1:1, v/v) but was dependent on hematocrit (Hct) without sonication process, which led to biased accuracy at low and high Hcts. Inclusion of sonication process in extraction improved recovery at high Hct to yield acceptable accuracy across Hcts. Conclusion: Optimization of extraction process to achieve high recovery regardless of Hct is critical in accurate bioanalysis via Mitra. © 2015 Future Science Ltd. Source

Mano Y.,Eisai Co. | Ishii T.,Sunplanet Co. | Hotta K.,Eisai Co. | Kusano K.,Eisai Co.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2015

E6005, a novel phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, is currently under clinical development for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. As ER-392710 (M11), a hydrolyzed metabolite, is a main metabolite, a simultaneous assay method for quantification of E6005 and M11 in human plasma has been developed and validated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). E6005, M11, and each deuterium-labeled compound used as internal standard were extracted from 100. μL human plasma by solid phase extraction then chromatographed on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100. mm. ×. 2.1. mm i.d., 1.7. μm) under gradient elution. The analytes were detected by selected reaction monitoring in the positive ion mode with the mass transition of m/. z 473.1/163.0 and m/. z 459.1/149.0 for E6005 and M11, respectively. E6005 and M11 were quantifiable ranging from 1 to 200. ng/mL with no carryover. Accuracy and precision in intra- and inter-batch reproducibility assays were within the acceptance criteria recommended by the regulatory bioanalytical guidelines. Various stability assessments including possible conversion of E6005 to M11 were thoroughly performed to demonstrate the stability of E6005 and M11 in human blood and plasma. The method was successfully applied to support clinical trials. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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