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Jin S.-K.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Choi J.-S.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Moon S.-S.,Sunjin Meat Research Center | Jeong J.-Y.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim G.-D.,Kyungnam University
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to assess red beet as a natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage and to investigate the effect of red beet on quality characteristics of emulsified pork sausage during 20 d of cold storage. Red beet was prepared as a powder and a substitute with sodium nitrite at 0.5% and 1.0% levels in emulsified pork sausage. Red beet significantly increased the moisture content and pH (p<0.0001) and affected color traits. Lightness of emulsified pork sausage decreased by the addition of red beet powder (p<0.01), whereas lightness with red beet treatments slightly increased during 20 d of cold storage at 4°C (p<0.05). Redness dramatically increased with red beet powder (p<0.0001). Color by sensory evaluation also showed a significant effect from red beet addition (p<0.05), whereas the other sensory properties such as flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability were not affected by the addition of red beet powder (p>0.05). Texture and 2-thiobabituric acid reactive substance were also not affected by red beet addition (p>0.05). Therefore, red beet could be a good natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage but it needs additional processing, such as betalain concentration and extraction as a juice, to be used as an antioxidant in meat products.


Jin S.-K.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Hwang J.-W.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Moon S.,Sunjin Meat Research Center | Choi Y.-J.,Gyeongsang National University | And 3 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2014

The effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken (MDC) hydrolysates on the quality characteristics of imitation crab stick (ICS) during storage were investigated. ICS was prepared from Alaska Pollack, chicken breast surimi, and protein hydrolysates enzymatically extracted from MDC. ICS samples were divided into 4 groups: without protein hydrolysate (control), added with 0.5% protein hydrolysate (T1), added with 1.0% protein hydrolysate (T2), and added with 1.5% protein hydrolysate (T3). Results showed that crude protein content did not differ significantly among the ICS samples (p>0.05). ICS sample added with MDC hydrolysates had higher crude fat and ash content but lower moisture content than the control (p<0.05). Lightness was significantly lower in T2 and T3 than in the other groups at 0 and 4 wk of storage. Also, whiteness decreased in the groups contained MDC hydrolysates. Breaking force and jelly strength were higher in samples containing MDC hydrolysates compared to control samples (p<0.05). Additionally, saturated fatty acid contents were lower in the groups containing MDC hydrolysates than in control sample groups (p<0.05). Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and essential fatty acids (EFA) were significantly higher in T2 and T3 than the control samples. In particular, all samples containing MDC hydrolysates had reduced thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values at 4 wk. Free radical scavenging activity also was increased with addition of MDC hydrolysates.


Moon S.-S.,Sunjin Meat Research Center | Kim D.,Kangwon National University | Kim I.-S.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Ham J.-S.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | And 2 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2014

This study was conducted to evaluate the changes in porcine serum albumin (PSA), a major allergen, which occur when raw pork ham is marinated with kiwi or pineapple juice, and/or when the ham is pan broiled at 300°C for 4 min after marination. In this study, raw pork ham was soaked for 4 h or 8 h in marinades containing commercial marinating sauce only, commercial marinating sauce and 7% kiwi juice, or commercial marinating sauce and 7% pineapple juice. When the meat was marinated and then pan-broiled, pork ham meat protein was significantly denatured and hydrolyzed, and the level of PSA in the meat was significantly reduced. The PSA contents of pork broiled without marination, pork that had been marinated in commercial marinating sauce alone, pork that had been marinated in commercial marinating sauce with kiwi juice, and pork that had been marinated in commercial marinating sauce with pineapple juice, were 95.4, 43.3, 14.3, and 5.4 ng/ mL, respectively (p<0.05). Marinating with pineapple juice was more effective than marinating with kiwi juice; and marination for 8 h was more effective than marinating for 4 h. These results indicate that the level of PSA in pork ham is effectively reduced, when the meat is first marinated in sauces that contain kiwi or pineapple extracts for 8 h, rather than 4 h, and then cooked. Further study is needed to determine whether marinated pork meat reduces allergenicity in vivo, as well.


Park S.-H.,Sun Marine Biotech | Moon S.-S.,Sunjin Meat Research Center | Xie C.-L.,Gyeongsang National University | Choung S.-Y.,Kyung Hee University | Choi Y.-J.,Gyeongsang National University
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

This study investigated the detoxification effects of enzymatic hydrolysate from oyster on acetaminophen- induced toxicity using HepG-2 cells. Oyster hydrolysate was made with 1% Protamex and 1% Neutrase after treatment with transglutaminase (TGPN) or without (PN). Two types of oyster hydrolysate were added to human- derived HepG-2 hepatocytes damaged by acetaminophen, after which the survival rate of HepG-2 cell was measured. In addition, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities in the culture media were evaluated. The survival rates of HepG-2 cells were 136.2±1.4% at 100 μg/mL of TGPN and 179.6±3.8% at 200 μg/mL of TGPN. These cell survival rates were higher compared to that of the negative control group (60.7±3.2%) treated only with acetaminophen. GOT activity was 38.3±0.2 Karmen/mL in the negative control group, whereas it was 19.9±0.5 for TGPN (200 μg/mL) and 22.0±2.4 Karmen/mL for PN (200 μg/mL). GOT and GTP activities were shown to be dependent on TGPN concentration, and significant reduction in activities could be conformed. The detoxification efficacy of TGPN was higher compared to that of PN. These results suggest that oyster hydrolysate has potential as a healthy food or pro-drug for liver protection.


Seong P.N.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Cho S.H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Park K.M.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Kang G.H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | And 3 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2015

Though a great amount of chicken by-products are consumed everyday in many countries worldwide, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of nutritional composition of these by-products. In the present work, the basic information regarding the aspects of nutritional composition of chicken by-products such as; liver, gizzard, heart, lung, crop, small intestines, cecum and duodenum was studied. Our results revealed that the approximate composition range (minimum to maximum) of these by-products was found as such: moisture 76.68-83.23%; fat 0.81-4.53%, protein 10.96-17.70% and calories 983.20-1,426.0 cal/g tissue, in which liver and gizzard had the highest protein content. Liver had higher (p<0.05) vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B5 and B6 contents in comparison to other remaining byproducts. Total saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels ranged between the by-products from 31.82% to 43.96%, 56.04% to 68.19%, and 18.27% to 32.05%, respectively. Remarkably, all of by-products showed desirable PUFA/SFA ratios. Furthermore, all of chicken by-products, especially liver, contained higher levels of trace elements (e.g., Fe, Mn and Zn) in comparison with those from muscle tissues published in literature. Overall, the study indicated that most of chicken byproducts examined are good sources of essential nutrients and these obtained results will be the useful information to consumers and meat processors.


Seong P.N.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Park K.M.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Cho S.H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Kang S.M.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2014

Basic information regarding the yield and nutritional composition of edible pork by-products, namely heart, liver, lung, stomach, spleen, uterus, pancreas, and small and large intestines, was studied. Our results revealed that the yields varied widely among the pork by-products examined; in particular, liver had the highest yield (1.35%); whereas, spleen had the lowest yield (0.16%). The approximate composition range (minimum to maximum) of these by-products was found to be: moisture 71.59-82.48%; fat 0.28-19.54%; ash 0.155-1.34%, and protein 8.45-22.05%. The highest protein, vitamin A, B2, B6, and total essential amino acid (EAA) contents were found in liver. Large intestine had the highest fat content and lowest EAA content. Heart had the highest vitamin B1 content, whereas pancreas had the highest niacin and vitamin B3 contents. The concentrations of Fe and Zn were highest in liver and pancreas. Total saturated fatty acids (SFA) levels and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels between the by-products ranged from 43.15-50.48%, and 14.92-30.16%, respectively. Furthermore, with the exception of large intestine, all the by-products showed favorable PUFA/SFA ratios. The study indicated that almost all of the pork by-products examined were good sources of important nutrients, and that these data will be of great importance in the promotion of the consumption of edible pork by-products, as well as their utilization in meat processing.


Seong P.N.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Kang G.H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Park K.M.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Cho S.H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2014

Though the edible bovine by-products are widely used for human consumption in most countries worldwide but the scientific information regarding the nutritional quality of these by-products is scarce. In the present study, the basic information regarding the yields, physicochemical and nutritional compositions of edible Hanwoo bovine by-products was studied. Our results showed that the yields, physicochemical and nutritional composition widely varied between the by-products examined. The highest pH values were found in rumen, reticulum, omasum and reproductive organ. Heart, liver, kidney and spleen had the lowest CIE L* values and highest CIE a* values. Liver had the highest vitamin A, B2 and niacin contents whereas the highest B1 and B5 contents were found in kidney. The highest Ca content was found in rumen, reticulum, omasum, head and leg while the highest Mn and Fe contents were found in rumen, omasum and spleen, respectively. Liver had the highest Cu content. Total essential amino acids (EAA)/amino acids (AA) ratios ranged between the by-products from 38.37% to 47.41%. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels ranged between the by-products from 2.26% to 26.47%, and most by-products showed favorable PUFA/SFA ratios. It is concluded that most of by-products examined are good sources of essential nutrients and these data will be of great importance for promotion of consumption and utilization of beef by-products in future.


Park B.Y.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Seong P.N.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Ba H.V.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Park K.M.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | And 3 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2015

Carcasses from Hanwoo steers (n=15) and cows (n=15) were classified into three groups: group 1 (G1), the carcasses had 10% to <11.5% intramuscular fat (IMF) in loin muscles; group 2 (G2), the carcasses had 13% to <14.5% IMF in loin muscles; and group 3(G3), the carcasses had 17% to <18.5% IMF in loin muscles. These were used to evaluate the effects of gender and carcass group on quality traits and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of Psoas major (PM), Longissimus thoracis (LT), Longissimus lumborum (LL), Longus colli (LC), Supraspinatus (SS), Latissimus dorsi (LAD), Semimembranosus (SM), Quadriceps femoris (QF), Biceps femoris (BF) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Our results showed that pH values of LT, LL, LC, BF and QF muscles were lower in steers than in cows (P<0.05). Water holding capacity (WHC) was found higher in LC, SS, LAD and QF muscles of steers (P<0.05). At day 2 of ageing, gender affected the WBSF values of only PM, LD and QF muscles in G1, and QF muscle in G3; however, with additional ageing, the gender effect was observed for most of the muscles. Most muscles showed ageing responses; however, the rates of ageing response significantly varied depending on gender and carcass groups. The muscles of G1 and G2 had generally higher tenderization potentials than those of G3. Furthermore, most muscles in G3 had generally lower WBSF values than in G1 and G2. These results clearly indicate that ageing has a significant effect on quality and WBSF of beef muscles, and the classification by loin IMF level may be useful for prediction of the tenderness of other muscles. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


PubMed | National Institute of Animal Science and Sunjin Meat Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2015

Carcasses from Hanwoo steers (n = 15) and cows (n = 15) were classified into three groups: group 1 (G1), the carcasses had 10% to < 11.5% intramuscular fat (IMF) in loin muscles; group 2 (G2), the carcasses had 13% to < 4.5% IMF in loin muscles; and group 3(G3), the carcasses had 17% to < 18.5% IMF in loin muscles. These were used to evaluate the effects of gender and carcass group on quality traits and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of Psoas major (PM), Longissimus thoracis (LT), Longissimus lumborum (LL), Longus colli (LC), Supraspinatus (SS), Latissimus dorsi (LAD), Semimembranosus (SM), Quadriceps femoris (QF), Biceps femoris (BF) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Our results showed that pH values of LT, LL, LC, BF and QF muscles were lower in steers than in cows (P < 0.05). Water holding capacity (WHC) was found higher in LC, SS, LAD and QF muscles of steers (P < 0.05). At day 2 of ageing, gender affected the WBSF values of only PM, LD and QF muscles in G1, and QF muscle in G3; however, with additional ageing, the gender effect was observed for most of the muscles. Most muscles showed ageing responses; however, the rates of ageing response significantly varied depending on gender and carcass groups. The muscles of G1 and G2 had generally higher tenderization potentials than those of G3. Furthermore, most muscles in G3 had generally lower WBSF values than in G1 and G2. These results clearly indicate that ageing has a significant effect on quality and WBSF of beef muscles, and the classification by loin IMF level may be useful for prediction of the tenderness of other muscles.


Hur S.J.,Chung - Ang University | Lee S.Y.,Chung - Ang University | Moon S.S.,Sunjin Meat Research Center | Lee S.J.,Chung - Ang University
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2014

This study investigated the effects of cooking methods on the digestibility of lipids and formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork, during in vitro human digestion. Pork patties were cooked using four different methods (oven cooking, pan frying, boiling, and microwaving), to an internal temperature of approximately 85°C. The digestibility of pork patties were then evaluated, using the in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition (pH, minerals, surfaceactive components, and enzymes) of digestive juices in the human mouth, stomach, and small intestine. The total lipid digestibility was higher after microwave cooking, whereas pan-frying resulted in lower in vitro digestibility, compared to the other cooking methods. The microwaving method followed by in vitro digestion also showed significantly higher content of free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), compared to the other cooking methods; whereas, the pan frying and boiling methods showed the lowest. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among the cooked samples before, and after in vitro human digestion. The formation of COPs was significantly higher in the microwave- Treated pork samples, compared to those cooked by the other methods, which was consistent with the trend for lipid peroxidation (TBARS). We propose that from the point of view of COPs formation and lipid oxidation, the pan-frying or boiling methods would be useful.

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