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Yang H.J.,Korean Food Research Institutes | Kwon D.Y.,Korean Food Research Institutes | Moon N.R.,Hoseo University | Kim M.J.,Korean Food Research Institutes | And 3 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2013

Traditionally fermented soybeans (chungkookjang; TFC) may have potent anti-diabetic activity, depending on the ambient microorganisms and conditions. We hypothesized that one of the major Bacillus species in TFC contributes to the anti-diabetic activity and could be used to standardize a highly functional TFC. We tested the hypothesis by using cell-based studies to evaluate insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic action of chungkookjangs fermented with various Bacillus spp. and fermentation periods. The 70% methanol and water extracts of chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BL) for 48 h contained similar profiles of isoflavonoids and peptides to methanol and water extracts of TFC with potent anti-diabetic activity. Water extracts (mainly containing peptides) of TFC and BL fermented for 48 h and 72 h had a better insulin sensitizing action via activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and increased the expression of PPAR-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes better than unfermented cooked soybeans (CSB). The 70% methanol extracts (predominantly isoflavone aglycones) of BL fermented for 48 h and 72 h improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protected β-cell viability better than CSB in insulinoma cells, and the improvement by BL was similar to TFC. In conclusion, the BL water extract fermented for 48 h exhibited equal insulin sensitization as TFC and BL methanol extract exerted similar insulinotropic actions to those of TFC. B. licheniformis may be one of the major microorganisms responsible for anti-diabetic actions of chungkookjang. It is important to make chungkookjang that retains the anti-diabetic properties of the most efficacious traditional chungkookjang using a standardized method. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Park S.,Obesity Diabetes Center | Park S.,Hoseo University | Kang S.,Obesity Diabetes Center | Jeong D.-Y.,Sungchang Research Center for Fermentation Microbes | And 3 more authors.
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Black carrots (Daucus carota L.) are rich in anthocyanins which contribute many health benefits, but are limited by bioavailability and instability when exposed to oxygen, heat and light. Fermenting black carrots may improve the stability, absorption and bioactivity of its anthocyanins. Here, we examined whether and by what mechanisms the long-term consumption of unfermented black carrot extract (BC) and its extracts fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum (BCLP) or Aspergillus oryzae (BCAO) might prevent menopausal symptoms including impaired energy, glucose and lipid metabolism in estrogen-deficient animals with diet-induced obesity. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were fed four different high-fat diets containing 2 % dextrin (OVX-control), 2 % BC, 2 % BCLP, or 2 % BCAO for 12 weeks. Sham rats were fed high-fat diets containing 2 % dextrin. The contents of total anthocyanins increased in BCAO compared to BC and BCLP, whereas the contents of cyanidin-3-rutinosides, malvidin-3,5-diglycosides and delphine-3-glucoside were lower and cyanidin and malvidin were much higher in BCLP and BCAO than BC. Fat mass and weight gain were lower in descending order of OVX-control > BC and BCLP > BCAO due to increased energy expenditure and fat oxidation. However, BC, BCLP and especially BCAO all normalized HOMA-IR, an indicator of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, in OVX rats. OVX increased serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, but BC, BCLP and BCAO significantly prevented the increases. BCAO markedly decreased hepatic triglyceride levels by increasing gene expressions of CPT-1 and PPAR-α, which are involved in fatty acid oxidation, and decreasing mRNA expressions of FAS and SREBP-1c, which are associated with fatty acid synthesis. This was related to increased pAMPK → pACC signaling and improved hepatic insulin signaling (pAkt → pFOXO-1). Cyanidin and malvidin markedly decreased fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by increasing CPT-1 and decreasing FAS and SREBP-1c expression in comparison with cyanidin-3-rutinoside and malvidin-3,5-diglycosides. In conclusion, with increasing cyanidin and malvidin, BCAO prevented the exacerbation of lipid and glucose metabolism by activating hepatic insulin signaling and AMPK activation by in OVX rats. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Yang H.J.,Korean Food Research Institutes | Kim H.J.,Korean Food Research Institutes | Kim M.J.,Korean Food Research Institutes | Kang S.,Hoseo University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition | Year: 2013

As the traditional homemade chungkookjang is replaced by standardized chungkookjang fermented by inoculating Bacillus spp., it is desirable to maintain the anti-diabetic efficacy of the most potent traditional varieties. Preliminary in vitro research suggested that anti-diabetic efficacy can be achieved by using B. lichemiformis as a starter and fermenting for 48 h. Experimental type 2 diabetic male rats induced by partial pancreatectomy and high fat diets were administered either control diet, 10% cooked soybeans, 10% traditional chungkookjang with potent anti-diabetic efficacy, or standardized chungkookjang fermented with B. lichemiformis for 48 h. Rats were fed their respective diets for 8 weeks after surgery. Cooked soybeans as well as both chungkookjangs partially restored fasting serum glucose concentrations, but only the chungkoojangs increased fasting insulin levels. That trend was also seen in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamp and was explained by the greater β-cell mass and BrdU incorporation indicating increased proliferation of β-cells. The euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp indicated that all soy products improved insulin sensitivity. Phosphorylation of Akt and AMPK in the liver increased in an ascending order of the control, cooked soybeans, traditional chungkookjang and standardized chungkookjang while PEPCK expression was lowered in a descending order of the control, cooked soybeans, traditional chungkookjang and standardized chungkookjang. These results indicate that standardized chungkookjang is most effective for improving hepatic insulin signaling. In conclusion, chungkookjang fermented with B. lichemiformis retains the anti-diabetic properties of the most efficacious traditional chungkookjang and it may be even more effective for improving insulin function than traditionally prepared chungkookjang. ©2013 JCBN.

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