Sunderland, United Kingdom
Sunderland, United Kingdom

Time filter

Source Type

Whiteley P.,Sunderland Enterprise Park | Shattock P.,Sunderland Enterprise Park | Knivsberg A.-M.,University of Stavanger | Reichelt K.L.,University of Oslo | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Dietary intervention as a tool for maintaining and improving physical health and wellbeing is a widely researched and discussed topic. Speculation that diet may similarly affect mental health and wellbeing particularly in cases of psychiatric and behavioral symptomatology opens up various avenues for potentially improving quality of life. We examine evidence suggestive that a gluten-free (GF), casein-free (CF), or gluten- and casein-free diet (GFCF) can ameliorate core and peripheral symptoms and improve developmental outcome in some cases of autism spectrum conditions. Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published studies indicate statistically significant positive changes to symptom presentation following dietary intervention. In particular, changes to areas of communication, attention, and hyperactivity are detailed, despite the presence of various methodological shortcomings. Specific characteristics of best- and non-responders to intervention have not been fully elucidated; neither has the precise mode of action for any universal effect outside of known individual cases of food-related co-morbidity. With the publication of controlled medium- and long-term group studies of a gluten- and casein-free diet alongside more consolidated biological findings potentially linked to intervention, the appearance of a possible diet-related autism phenotype seems to be emerging supportive of a positive dietary effect in some cases. Further debate on whether such dietary intervention should form part of best practice guidelines for autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) and onward representative of an autism dietary-sensitive enteropathy is warranted. © 2013 Whiteley, Shattock, Knivsberg, Seim, Reichelt, Todd, Carr and Hooper.


Pedersen L.,Center for Autisme | Parlar S.,Center for Autisme | Kvist K.,PFA Pension | Whiteley P.,Sunderland Enterprise Park | Shattock P.,Sunderland Enterprise Park
Nutritional Neuroscience | Year: 2014

We previously reported results based on the examination of a gluten- and casein-free diet as an intervention for children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder as part of the ScanBrit collaboration. Analysis based on grouped results indicated several significant differences between dietary and non-dietary participants across various core and peripheral areas of functioning. Results also indicated some disparity in individual responses to dietary modification potentially indicative of responder and non-responder differences. Further examination of the behavioural and psychometric data garnered from participants was undertaken, with a view to determining potential factors pertinent to response to dietary intervention. Participants with clinically significant scores indicative of inattention and hyperactivity behaviours and who had a significant positive changes to said scores were defined as responders to the dietary intervention. Analyses indicated several factors to be potentially pertinent to a positive response to dietary intervention in terms of symptom presentation. Chronological age was found to be the strongest predictor of response, where those participants aged between 7 and 9 years seemed to derive most benefit from dietary intervention. Further analysis based on the criteria for original study inclusion on the presence of the urine compound, trans-indolyl-3-acryloylglycine may also merit further investigation. These preliminary observations on potential best responder characteristics to a gluten- and casein-free diet for children with autism require independent replication. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2014.


Towse A.,Sunderland Enterprise Park | Dodds J.,Sunderland Enterprise Park
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Pressure Vessels and Piping Division (Publication) PVP | Year: 2012

The paper presents an overpack designed to contain nuclear product cans which may become pressurised or contaminated. The overpack provides a protective barrier to an inner product can, and due to the possibility of leakage of gas from the contents, the overpack must also function as a pressure vessel. Furthermore, the overpack is required to provide physical protection to the inner can and proof of containment was therefore necessary under a number of different impact scenarios, both pre-pressurised and also with the simulation of pressurisation at the moment of impact. Additionally, the inner product can was to be maintained in a central position during the deceleration at impact. This paper focuses on the analytical design and substantiation of the impact of the system which was performed using an explicit dynamic solver for a number of impact orientations. The design of the overpack to satisfy the relevant pressure vessel Code are not discussed in detail. The potential failure modes of the overpack during impact were assessed and design improvements made over a number of iterations. Following completion of the design and simulation phase, prototypes were built and tested to verify the engineering design and analysis. The testing showed that simulation driven design in conjunction with a pressure vessel design by rule approach was successful in creating a solution for the product can encapsulation. A comparison between the analytical simulation and high-speed video footage of the testing was also made. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.


Towse A.,Sunderland Enterprise Park | Mills A.,Sunderland Enterprise Park | Griffin D.,Sunderland Enterprise Park | Hurrell P.,Rolls-Royce | And 2 more authors.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Pressure Vessels and Piping Division (Publication) PVP | Year: 2010

This paper describes some of the outcomes of the development of finite element modelling guidelines for the stress analysis of bolted joints in pressure vessels and piping. The modelling methods originally developed at Rolls-Royce typically used 2D axisymmetric models as this was deemed adequate at the time. However, computing software and hardware improvements have subsequently been made which enable more realistic 3D bolted joint models to be solved where a greater level of geometric detail is required. For example the bolts, nuts and perforated flanges can now be represented more realistically reducing the degree of geometric abstraction that is required. Also, modern finite element codes such as ABAQUS and ANSYS now offer gasket elements which enable the initial compression, in-service performance and unloading of the joint to be modelled more realistically. Additionally, contact techniques can also be used to simulate the axial and radial distribution of thread load in the joint which will affect the stress distribution remote from the threaded region. Consequently, the modelling guidelines have been updated and provide guidance for stress engineers to decide which degree of model complexity is warranted. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

Loading Sunderland Enterprise Park collaborators
Loading Sunderland Enterprise Park collaborators