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Ghosh S.,Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology | Ghosh S.,Sundarban Hazi Desarat College | Hong C.-S.,University of Pittsburgh | Feingold E.,University of Pittsburgh | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Down syndrome birth is attributable to multiple maternal risk factors that include both genetic and environmental challenges, but there is limited understanding of the complicated interactions among these factors. In the present study, a case-control analysis of approximately 400 infants with or without suspected Down syndrome reported between 2003 and 2009 and their parents in and around Kolkata, India, was conducted. Maternal exposure to 2 environmental risk factors (smokeless chewing tobacco and oral contraceptive pills) was recorded, and families were genotyped with microsatellite markers to establish the origin of nondisjunction errors as well as recombination patterns of nondisjoined chromosome 21. With logistic regression models, the possible interactions among all of these risk factors, as well as with maternal age, were explored. Smokeless chewing tobacco was associated with significant risk for meiosis II nondisjunction and achiasmate (nonexchange) meiosis I error among young mothers. By contrast, the risk due to oral contraceptive pills was associated with older mothers. Study results suggest that the chewing tobacco risk factor operates independently of the maternal age effect, whereas contraceptive pill-related risk may interact with or exacerbate age-related risk. Moreover, both risk factors, when present together, exhibited a strong age-dependent effect. © 2011 The Author. Source


Pani R.,Sundarban Hazi Desarat College | Mukhopadhyay U.,Behala College
Energy | Year: 2011

In the context of the present worldwide concern and desperate search for policies to curtail carbon dioxide emission, the paper aims to determine the roles of major driving forces in aggravating emission and examine the possibility of emission cut without compromising economic growth. Variance analysis method, in the line of management accounting, is used to decompose the changes in emission of 156 sample countries over the period 1993-2007. The major findings suggest that in aggregate, rising per capita GDP has been about seven times more responsible than that of population in accentuating emission; decline in energy intensity has been instrumental in offsetting nearly half of their potential effects, while inter-fuel substitution and change in emission intensities have meager roles. However, wide disparities in structural composition of energy intensity and emission intensity of fuels among countries over the period, point towards the crucial role of proper energy management in lowering emission concomitant with high economic growth. Management accounting control, particularly variance analysis, at the national level can be an effective tool in identifying the weaknesses and exploring the areas where emission reduction can be possible. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mandal S.K.,Sundarban Hazi Desarat College | Majumder N.,University of Calcutta | Chowdhury C.,University of Calcutta | Jana T.K.,University of Calcutta | Dutta B.,Centenary College
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2016

Distribution of arsenic in the marine environment is associated with its biogeochemical behavior. Indeed, very few studies have been conducted along the seasonal cycle to show its non-conservative behavior in the tropical estuary. The Mahanadi River, one of the major tropical rivers in the peninsular India, drains densely populated and industrialized region of Paradeep port. Over this 1-year study, the variations of inorganic arsenic were examined along the salinity gradient of the Mahanadi estuary, with the aim to provide some insights into the mechanisms that control arsenic concentrations and behavior under estuarine mixing. Arsenic in the estuary was derived from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and it displayed partial removal from the water in the mixing zone. Results of geo-accumulation index indicated that sediments were uncontaminated and they acted as a sink for arsenic. The diffusive fluxes from water to sediment were estimated to be 9.05 μg m−2 day−1 at Chaumohona, 9.83 μg m−2 day−1 at Kaudia, and 11.85 μg m−2 day−1 at Neherubunglow. The findings of the study suggest that both the removal of arsenic by biogeochemical processes and its diffusive transport from water to sediment are of major importance for both the non-conservative behavior of arsenic in the estuary and its export to the coastal water. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Pani R.,Sundarban Hazi Desarat College | Mukhopadhyay U.,Behala College
Environmentalist | Year: 2010

The paper using data on 114 countries during 1992-2004 identifies the major perpetrators of escalating global emissions. Using the LMDI decomposition technique, we examine the contribution of the major factors in changing the level of emissions. The effect of GDP on emission is found to be substantially more than that of population. However, the income effect shows high fluctuation over time, while the population effect has been roughly constant. The upper middle-income countries, particularly of Europe and Central Asia, despite high economic growth have reduced their emissions substantially, while in the countries of North America, East Asia Pacific and South Asia increase in income have been significantly accompanied by increase in emission. Apart from few low emitting countries, almost all others have been successful in increasing emission efficiency, but their energy efficiencies have not been remarkable. Although emission efficiency has been more instrumental in curtailing emission, in some cases the path of change in emission follows that of change in energy intensity. Thus, both energy and emission intensity have crucial roles in determining the level of emissions. It may be suggested that emphasis should be given on policies oriented towards sufficient counteractive energy and emission efficiencies before embarking on a path towards economic growth. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source


Ghosh S.,Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology | Ghosh S.,Sundarban Hazi Desarat College | Bhaumik P.,Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology | Ghosh P.,Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology | Dey S.K.,Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology
Genetics Research | Year: 2010

We analysed the family linkage data obtained from short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping of 212 unrelated Indian families having a single Down syndrome (DS) baby each, in order to explore the incidence and aetiology of this human aneuploidy in our cohort. The estimated values of maternal meiotic I and meiotic II non-disjunction (NDJ) errors of chromosome 21 (Ch 21) were ~78 and ~22%, respectively. Within the paternal outcome group, about 47 and 53% were accounted for NDJ at meiosis I and meiosis II, respectively. We estimated only ~2% post-zygotic mitotic errors. The comparison of average age of conception between controls and DS-bearing mothers revealed a significant difference (P<0001) with DS-bearing women were on an average older than controls and meiotic II non-disjoined mothers were oldest among meiotic outcome groups. Our linkage analysis suggested an overall reduction in recombination by more than 50% on meiotic I non-disjoined maternal Ch 21 with error prone to susceptible chiasma formation within the ~51 kbp segment near the telomeric end. We stratified meiotic I non-disjoined women in three age groups, viz. young (28 years), middle (29-34 years) and old (35 years) and found linear decrease in the frequency of achiasmate meiosis from the young to the old group. In contrary, a linear increase in the multiple chiasma frequency from the young to the old group was observed. Considering these results together, we propose that the risk factors for Ch 21 NDJ are of two types, one being maternal age-independent and the other being maternal age-dependent. Moreover, a comparison of our present Indian dataset with that of other published data of ethnically different populations suggested that the genetics that underlies the NDJ of Ch 21 is probably universal irrespective of racial difference across human populations. The present study is the first population-based report on any DS cohort from the Indian subcontinent and our work will help future workers in understanding better the aetiology of this birth defect. © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source

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