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Lim J.-H.,Chonbuk National University | Jung E.-S.,Chonbuk National University | Choi E.-K.,Chonbuk National University | Jeong D.-Y.,Sunchang Research Center for Fermentation Microbes | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background & aims: Kochujang, a traditional fermented red pepper paste, is known for its hypocholesterolemic effect; however, these studies used non-commercial preparations of kochujang. In this study, we examined whether commercially-made kochujang in which Aspergillus oryzae (also known as koji) was used as a microorganism for fermentation has the same cholesterol-lowering effects. Methods: Hyperlipidemic subjects (based upon criteria of 110~190mg/dL LDL cholesterol or 200~260mg/dL total cholesterol) who had not been diagnosed with any disease and met the inclusion criteria were recruited for this study. The 30 subjects were randomly divided into either the kochujang (n=15) or placebo (n=15) group. All subjects ingested either the kochujang pill (34.5g/d) or a placebo three times daily during meals for 12 weeks. Outcomes included measurements of efficacy (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride) and safety (adverse events, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram, and vital signs). Results: In the kochujang-supplemented group, subjects' total cholesterol level significantly decreased (from 215.5±16.1mg/dL to 194.5±25.4mg/dL, p=0.001). LDL-C cholesterol levels were also decreased by kochujang supplementation (from 133.6±14.8mg/dL to 113.5±23.1mg/dL); however no significant difference was seen between groups (p=0.074). There were no statistically significant differences in HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the supplemented and non-supplemented groups. None of the subjects complained of any adverse effects. Conclusions: These results indicate that A. oryzae-fermented kochujang elicits a significant hypocholesterolemic effect and might be useful for improving blood cholesterol levels in subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Clinical trial registration: NCT01865370. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.


Bandara N.,Chonbuk National University | Chung S.-J.,Ewha Womans University | Jeong D.-Y.,Sunchang Research Center for Fermentation Microbes | Kim K.-P.,Chonbuk National University
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to develop a rice straw-derived Bacillus cereus (B. cereus)-free starter culture for traditional soybean fermented products using a B. cereus-specific bacteriophage, BCP8-2. To determine the optimal medium that supports the growth of rice straw-derived microorganisms and BCP8-2 activity, 5 different culture media were tested. The 5% ground bean (GB) medium was selected for further study. No B. cereus was detected in the BCP8-2-treated rice straw in GB medium, whereas B. cereus at a level of 107 CFU/mL was recovered in the no-phage control. The total bacterial count reached approximately 109 CFU/mL regardless of phage addition. When the 16S rRNA sequence-based microbial community was monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing, a similar microbial community was observed in the phage-treated and control samples. In conclusion, we demonstrate that phage can be used to prepare a rice straw-derived B. cereus-free starter culture with minimal effect on natural microflora.©The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology 2014.


Gwon H.-J.,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute | Yoshioka H.,Chiba Institute of Technology | Song N.-E.,Chonbuk National University | Kim J.-H.,Chonbuk National University | And 3 more authors.
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

This study examined the efficient production and optimal separation procedures for pure L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-threo-DOPS) from a mixture of diastereomers synthesized by whole-cell aldol condensation reaction, harboring diastereoselectivity-enhanced L-threonine aldolase in Escherichia coli JM109. The addition of the reducing agent sodium sulfite was found to stimulate the production of L-threo-DOPS without affecting the diastereoselectivity ratio, especially at the 50mM concentration. The optimal pH for diastereoselective synthesis was 6.5. The addition of Triton X-100 also strongly affected the synthesis yield, showing the highest conversion yield at a 0.75% concentration; however, the diastereoselectivity of the L-threonine aldolase was not affected. Lowering the temperature to 10C did not significantly affect the diastereoselectiviy without affecting the synthesis rate. At the optimized conditions, a mixture of L-threo-DOPS and L-erythro-DOPS was synthesized by diastereoselectivity-enhanced L-threonine aldolase from E. coli in a continuous process for 100hr, yielding an average of 4.0mg/mL of L-threo-DOPS and 60% diastereoselectivity (de), and was subjected to two steps of ion exchange chromatography. The optimum separation conditions for the resin and solvent were evaluated in which it was found that a two-step process with the ion-exchange resin Dowex 50W8 and activated carbon by washing with 0.5 N acetic acid was sufficient to separate the L-threo-DOPS. By using two-step ion-exchange chromatography, synthesized high-purity L-threo-DOPS of up to 100% was purified with a yield of 71%. The remaining substrates, glycine and 3,4- dihydroxybenzaldehyde, were recovered successfully with a yield of 71.2%. Our results indicate this potential procedure as an economical purification process for the synthesis and purification of important L-threo-DOPS at the pharmaceutical level. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Kim M.-H.,Chonbuk National University | Kim S.-Y.,Chonbuk National University | Ko J.-M.,NICS | Jeong D.-Y.,Sunchang Research Center for Fermentation Microbes | Kim Y.-S.,Chonbuk National University
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

To select proper soybean cultivars for producing functional cheonggukjang, a comparison was made of the physiological activities of different cheonggukjang prepared with 30 different soybean cultivars. The isoflavone content was highest in the cheonggukjang made from 'Daepung' soybeans at 208. 75 mg%. In general, the contents of glycone types (and derivatives) of isoflavone, specifically daidzin, glycitin, genistin, and malonylgenistin, were higher than that of aglycone types. The polyphenol contents ranged from 30. 62 to 80. 32 mg%. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of the cheonggukjang made from yellow soybeans had a higher activity than those of black soybeans. Although there are no consistent tendencies in the functional activity of cheonggukjang according to soybean color and size, the antioxidative activity is highest in the cheonggukjang made of yellow soybeans. Additionally, the fibrinolytic and inhibitory activities against angiotensin I-converting enzyme are highest in the cheonggukjang made of black soybeans. From these results, it can be concluded that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and SOD-like activity in cheonggukjang depends on the phenolic compound content in soybean. © 2012 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Netherlands.


Song Y.-R.,Chonbuk National University | Jeong D.-Y.,Sunchang Research Center for Fermentation Microbes | Cha Y.-S.,Chonbuk National University | Baik S.-H.,Chonbuk National University
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

This work is aimed to increase knowledge of the functional exopolysaccharide (EPS) from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in makgeolli, a Korean fermented rice wine. Among LAB strains isolated from makgeolli, strain M76 was selected as a functional strain producing a bioactive EPS, based on its antioxidative activity on the DPPH radical. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed a high sequence similarity (99.0%) with P. acidilactici, but had different biochemical properties with the already known P. acidilactici type strains in the aspect of carbohydrates utilization. The obtained P. acidilactici M76 produced a soluble EPS above 2 g/l. One-step chromatography using gel filtration after ethanol precipitation from the supernatant of P. acidilactici M76 was enough to obtain purified EPS with a single peak, showing a molecular mass of approximately 67 kDa. Componential and structural analyses of EPS by TLC, HPLC, and FT-IR indicated that the EPS is a glucan, consisting of glucose units. The purified EPS had antioxidant activity on the DPPH radical of 45.8% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The purified EPS also showed proliferative effect on the pancreatic RIN-m5F cell line and remarkable protection activity on alloxan-induced cytotoxicity. This potent antioxidant and antidiabetic EPS by LAB in makgeolli may contribute to understanding the functionality of makgeolli.


Song Y.-R.,Chonbuk National University | Jeong D.-Y.,Sunchang Research Center for Fermentation Microbes | Baik S.-H.,Chonbuk National University
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

A strain producing exopolysaccharide (EPS) with strong hydroxyradical scavenging activity and antityrosinase activity has been isolated previously. However, the EPS production rate of the strain (7. 3 g/L) was relatively low to utilize it at the industrial level. Therefore, in this study, optimal medium and fermentation conditions were examined to enhance EPS production by Bacillus licheniformis KS-17. Maximum EPS production was obtained in medium with 125 g/L sucrose, 30 g/L ammonium sulfate, and 10 mM calcium chloride without a phosphate source at 37°C for 5 days with the initial pH adjusted to 8. 5. Under optimal culture conditions, EPS was produced at up to 27. 2 (at 5 days) vs. 12. 0 g/L (at 7 days under basal conditions), which was 2. 3 times greater and in a shorter time than the production yield possible without optimizing conditions. © 2013 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Song Y.-R.,Chonbuk National University | Kim Y.-E.,Chonbuk National University | Kim J.-H.,Chonbuk National University | Song N.-E.,Chonbuk National University | And 2 more authors.
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Fermented sugar-soaked black soybean snacks (FSBSS) were prepared using optimized conditions at 2 times sugar soaking process to give a desirable form and texture after fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) and Bacillus subtilis (BS) for 48 h. The prepared FSBSS showed higher total polyphenol and flavonoid contents than an unfermented (NF) sample; total isoflavone content increased approximately 31 and 17% (LP and BS, respectively), as compared to NF. γ-Aminobutyric acid was also contributed by LP and BS, indicating significantly higher contents of 16. 9 and 21. 6 mg/g (LP and BS, respectively) compared to NF (15. 2 mg/g). Moreover, the FSBSS showed antioxidant activities on DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals as compared to NF. Based on the results, the newly developed FSBSS using solid-fermentation indicate a useful and convenient way to replace traditional soybean products from the standpoint that also provides an easy means to supply high nutritive and functional properties. © 2011 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Netherlands.


Choi J.-H.,Kangwon National University | Chung M.J.,Gwangju University | Jeong D.-Y.,Sunchang Research Center for Fermentation Microbes | Oh D.-H.,Kangwon National University
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2014

Sasang constitutional medicine is a major branch of Korean traditional oriental medicine. Constitutions of Sasang medicine are classified into Taeyangin, Taeumin, Soyangin, and Soumin. We investigated immunostimulatory activities of fermented soybean product (FSP) extracts and their major bioactive compounds, isoflavone glycosides in primary immune cells isolated from the blood of Soyangin, Taeumin, and Soeumin volunteers. Results showed that the cell proliferation, nitrite, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA, interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA, TNF-α protein, and IL-6 protein production of immune cells treated with a 70% ethanol Doenjang extract (DJ), a 70% ethanol Kochujang extract (KCJ), and a 70% ethanol Cheonggukjang extract (CGJ), respectively, were significantly increased, and its immunostimulatory activities by both DJ and CGJ was higher than that of KCJ in primary immune cells isolated from the blood of Soyangin volunteers. However, the cell proliferation, nitrite, TNF-α mRNA, IL-6 mRNA, iNOS mRNA, COX-2 mRNA, TNF-α protein, and IL-6 protein production by both KCJ and CGJ was higher than that of DJ in primary immune cells isolated from the blood of Taeumin and Soeumin volunteers. The major bioactive compounds, isoflavone-glycosides, in FSP were daidzin, glycitin, and genistin. Daidzin, glycitin, and genistin were used to treat primary immune cells in the same condition, the cell proliferation; iNOS mRNA expression and nitrite concentration of daidzin, glycitin, or genistin-treated immune cells isolated from the blood of Soyangin volunteers was higher than that of Taeumin and Soeumin volunteers. The effect of DJ and isoflavone glycosides on immunostimulatory activities showed similar trends. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | Sunchang Research Center for Fermentation Microbes, Daesang nter and Chonbuk National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) | Year: 2015

Kochujang, a traditional fermented red pepper paste, is known for its hypocholesterolemic effect; however, these studies used non-commercial preparations of kochujang. In this study, we examined whether commercially-made kochujang in which Aspergillus oryzae (also known as koji) was used as a microorganism for fermentation has the same cholesterol-lowering effects.Hyperlipidemic subjects (based upon criteria of 110 190 mg/dL LDL cholesterol or 200 260 mg/dL total cholesterol) who had not been diagnosed with any disease and met the inclusion criteria were recruited for this study. The 30 subjects were randomly divided into either the kochujang (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15) group. All subjects ingested either the kochujang pill (34.5 g/d) or a placebo three times daily during meals for 12 weeks. Outcomes included measurements of efficacy (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride) and safety (adverse events, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram, and vital signs).In the kochujang-supplemented group, subjects total cholesterol level significantly decreased (from 215.5 16.1 mg/dL to 194.5 25.4 mg/dL, p = 0.001). LDL-C cholesterol levels were also decreased by kochujang supplementation (from 133.6 14.8 mg/dL to 113.5 23.1 mg/dL); however no significant difference was seen between groups (p = 0.074). There were no statistically significant differences in HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the supplemented and non-supplemented groups. None of the subjects complained of any adverse effects.These results indicate that A. oryzae-fermented kochujang elicits a significant hypocholesterolemic effect and might be useful for improving blood cholesterol levels in subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease.NCT01865370.


Jun H.-I.,Chonbuk National University | Park S.-Y.,Chonbuk National University | Jeong D.-Y.,Sunchang Research Center for Fermentation Microbes | Song G.-S.,Chonbuk National University | Kim Y.-S.,Chonbuk National University
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Hot water extraction concentrate was prepared from Alliun hookeri root (AHR) to evaluate its applicability to yogurt. The highest antioxidant activity of hot water concentrates was obtained under extraction conditions of 4 hr at 95°C. Antioxidant activities measured by DPPH radical assay, ABTS radical cation assay, reducing power, and cheating activity were highly correlated with total phenolic (89.51 mg/g) and total flavonoid (52.71 mg/g) contents, with R values of 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. Yogurt was fermented with a commercial lactic acid bacteria mixed strain (Yo-mix™ 305) for 10 hr at 42°C after addition of 0~10% (w/w) hot water concentrates from AHR to yogurt base. As fermentation proceeded, pH and °Brix of yogurt decreased from 6.57 ~ 6.60 to 4.34 ~ 4.51 and from 8.10 ~ 8.90% to 4.60 ~ 5.25%, respectively, whereas titrate acidity, viscosity, and viable cell numbers increased from 0.22 ~ 0.23% to 1.01 ~ 1.10%, from 0 mPa・s to 202.55 ~ 290.50 mPa・s, and from 6.40 ~ 6.80 log CFU/mL to 8.60 ~ 9.20 log CFU/mL, respectively. There was no significant difference in any sensory attribute between the control and 2.5% addition group, suggesting that 2.5% hot water concentrate from AHR could be used to manufacture yogurt. © 2014, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.

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