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Kobayashi S.,Sapporo Medical University | Tateno M.,Sapporo Medical University | Park T.W.,Sapporo Medical University | Utsumi K.,Sunagawa City Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele has been reported to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Previous neuropathological studies have demonstrated similar frequencies of the APOE ε4 allele in AD and DLB. However, the few ante-mortem studies on APOE allele frequencies in DLB have shown lower frequencies than post-mortem studies. One reason for this may be inaccuracy of diagnosis. We examined APOE genotypes in subjects with AD, DLB, and a control group using the latest diagnostic criteria and MRI, SPECT, and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. Methods: The subjects of this study consisted of 145 patients with probable AD, 50 subjects with probable DLB, and a control group. AD subjects were divided into two groups based on age of onset: early onset AD (EOAD) and late onset AD (LOAD). All subjects had characteristic features on MRI, SPECT, and/or myocardial scintigraphy. Results: The rate of APOE4 carrier status was 18.3% and the frequency of the ε4 allele was 9.7% in controls. The rate of APOE4 carrier status and the frequency of the ε4 allele were 47% and 27% for LOAD, 50% and 31% for EOAD, and 42% and 31% for DLB, respectively. Conclusion: The APOE4 genotypes in this study are consistent with previous neuropathological studies suggesting accurate diagnosis of AD and DLB. APOE4 genotypes were similar in AD and DLB, giving further evidence that the ε4 allele is a risk factor for both disorders. © 2011 Kobayashi et al.

We report a case of a 71-year-old woman who had extensive cerebral infarction associated with acute type A aortic dissection. We urgently performed ascending aortic graft replacement. Postoperative computed tomography of the brain taken immediately after the aortic surgery showed further aggravation of the right cerebral edema and a midline shift. The patient underwent emergent internal and external decompression of the brain. Eventually, consciousness recovered to normal level though preoperative left paraplegia persisted. She was discharged 150 days after the operation. We conclude that immediate internal and external cerebral decompression after surgery for acute type A dissection with preoperative cerebral malperfusion can prevent postoperative higher brain dysfunction.

Sohma H.,Sapporo Medical University | Imai S.-I.,Sapporo Medical University | Takei N.,Sapporo Medical University | Honda H.,Mikuri Immunology Laboratory Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) differs from other forms of dementia in its relation to amyloid beta peptide (Aβ42). Using a cell culture model we previously identified annexin A5, a Ca2+, and phospholipid binding protein, as an AD biomarker. Plasma level of annexin A5 was significantly higher in AD patients compared to that in a control group. On the other hand, AD has been identified to share a number of clinical and pathological features with Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The present study was done to examine whether or not plasma annexin A5 is a specific marker for AD, when being compared with the levels of DLB patients. As Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene subtype ε4 (ApoE-ε4) has been noticed as the probable genetic factor for AD, we also examined and compared ApoE genotype in both AD and DLB. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 150 patients with AD (aged 77.6 ± 6.5 years), 50 patients of DLB (79.4 ± 5.0) and 279 community-dwelling healthy elderly individuals of comparable age and sex (75.6 ± 8.1). All AD patients met NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and all DLB patients were diagnosed as probable DLB according to the latest consensus diagnostic criteria. Quantification was done using the Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay (CLEIA) Technique (SphereLight assay) using the monoclonal antibodies against annexin A5. DNA genotyping of ApoE was performed by distinguishing unique combinations of Hha1 fragments of PCR-amplified genomic DNA products. Results: The plasma level of annexin A5 was significantly higher in AD patients than in the healthy individuals (control) (P < 0.0001). The plasma annexin A5 level was also significantly higher in DLB patients than in the control group (P < 0.0001). From the ROC curves with plasma annexin A5 concentrations, the mean areas under the curve were 0.863 and 0.838 for the AD/control and DLB/control, respectively. The rate of ApoE4 carrier status and the frequency of the ε4 allele were significantly higher in AD or DLB than in control and there was no significant difference between AD and DLB. Conclusions: These results suggest that both annexin A5 and ApoE4 are common markers for AD and DLB. © 2013 Sohma, Imai, Takei, Honda, Matsumoto, Utsumi, Matsuki, Hashimoto, Saito and Kokai.

Watari H.,Hokkaido University | Hosaka M.,Hokkaido University | Wakui Y.,KKR | Nomura E.,Ohji General Hospital | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer | Year: 2012

Objective: Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO), of which symptoms lead to a poor quality of life, is a common and distressing clinical complication in advanced gynecologic cancer. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the clinical efficacy of octreotide to control vomiting in patients with advanced gynecologic cancer with inoperable gastrointestinal obstruction. Methods: Patients with advanced gynecologic cancer, who presented at least one episode of vomiting per day due to MBO, were enrolled in this prospective study from 2006 to 2009. Octreotide was administered when necessary at doses starting with 300 μg up to 600 μg a day by continuous infusion for 2 weeks. Primary end point was vomiting control, which was evaluated by common terminology criteria for adverse events version 3 (CTCAE v3.0). Adverse events were also evaluated by CTCAE v3.0. Results: Twenty-two cases were enrolled in this study. Octreotide controlled vomiting in 15 cases (68.2%) to grade 0 and 3 cases (13.6%) to grade 1 on CTCAE v3.0. Overall response rate to octreotide treatment was 81.8% in our patients' cohort. Among 14 cases without nasogastric tube, the overall response rate was 93.1% (13/14). Among 8 cases with naso-gastric tube, 4 cases were free of tube with decrease of drainage, and overall response rate was 62.5% (5/8). No major adverse events related to octreotide were reported. Conclusions: We conclude that 300-μg/d dose of octreotide was effective and safe for Japanese patients with MBO by advanced gynecologic cancer. Octreotide could contribute to better quality of life by avoiding placement of nasogastric tube. Copyright © 2012 by IGCS and ESGO.

Kitamura H.,Sapporo Medical University | Takahashi A.,Hakodate Goryoukaku Hospital | Hotta H.,Red Cross | Kato R.,Muroran City General Hospital | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Urology | Year: 2015

Objectives: To evaluate the appearance of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and to compare the antiemetic efficacy of the triple combination of palonosetron, aprepitant and dexamethasone with that of our old regimen using first-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3-receptor antagonists and dexamethasone during gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with advanced urothelial cancer. Methods: We carried out a multi-institutional study including 122 patients who received gemcitabine and cisplatin for advanced urothelial cancer between February 2005 and January 2012. Uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting events were identified through records of nausea and vomiting, additional infusion, rescue medications, and/or records of food intake. Results: First-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3-receptor antagonists (ondansetron or granisetron) plus dexamethasone were used for 75 patients (cohort 1), and palonosetron with dexamethasone plus aprepitant for 47 patients (cohort 2). Patients in cohort 2 had significantly higher complete response (defined as no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) rates than those in cohort 1 during the overall phase in the first cycle (85.7% vs 65.3%, P = 0.012), and all cycles (78.7% vs 50.7%, P = 0.0019) of gemcitabine and cisplatin. Patients in cohort 2 were more likely to achieve more favorable chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting control; that is, a lower grade of nausea, vomiting or anorexia, lower incidence of rescue therapy required, and shorter time to become chemotherapy-induced nausea- and vomiting-free than patients in cohort 1. Conclusions: The present results show that palonosetron in combination with aprepitant and dexamethasone is more effective to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in urothelial cancer patients treated with gemcitabine and cisplatin than first-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3-receptor antagonists plus dexamethasone. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

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