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Kaohsiung, Taiwan

National Sun Yat-sen University is a leading public research university located in Gushan District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. It is considered as one of the most prestigious universities in Cross-Strait Economic Zone, 4th best ranked higher education institution in Taiwan, and one of 40 best universities under the age of 50 worldwide.Named after Dr. Sun Yat-sen, NSYSU was founded in 1980 as a re-established version of the original Sun Yat-sen University. This re-establishment has been made possible through the efforts of alumni of both the original Sun Yat-sen University and the historical Moscow Sun Yat-sen University.NSYSU comprises six colleges and is well known for its oceanography, cutting-edge technologies, business management, political science programs and strong ties with government officials. It presently receives funding from the "Aim for the Top University Project" of Taiwan’s Ministry of Education and is one of the four universities that make up Taiwan's Public Ivy, the Taiwan Comprehensive University System.The NSYSU campus is a natural fortress, it's surrounded on four sides by sea and mountain. Wikipedia.


Chen C.-Y.,National Pingtung University | Shyue S.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chang C.-J.,Transworld Institute of Technology
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2010

Data mining is commonly used in a wide range of different fields. It is an important tool for analyzing information in research areas where there is a huge collection of data. The aim of this study is to determine the various patterns that characterize multi- dimensional marine environments. In particular, we wish to determine the association patterns, the characterize Taiwan's Dapeng Bay. The processes of association rule (AR) mining and decision tree (DT) analysis are the main methodologies used in this study. We also utilize Weka, a comprehensive suite of Java class libraries for implementing many machine learning algorithms and the Clementine 10.1 software package for data mining analysis. Applications constructed from the AR model and decision tree model can be applied in other scientific domains. This paper describes the data mining process for Dapeng Bay, which is located in the south of Taiwan. ICIC International © 2010 ISSN.


Huang H.-T.,National Chiao Tung University | Liang W.-L.,National Chiao Tung University | Lin C.-T.,National Chiao Tung University | Wei C.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chi S.,National Chiao Tung University
Optics Express | Year: 2014

This study extended the transmission distance of a 100-GHz DDOFDM-RoF system through the reduction of chromatic dispersion-induced phase noise. The implementation of a pilot-aided phase noise suppression (PPNS) scheme enabled the transmission of distance-insensitive 16.97-Gbps QPSK OFDM over 0~150-km fiber and 2-m air transmission via a DFB laser with linewidth of 1~10-MHz. We applied a bit-loading algorithm in conjunction with PPNS to maximize spectral efficiency, resulting in a 93% improvement in the data rate from 11.53 to 22.27 Gbps at a fiber transmission of 150 km. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Hsu C.Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

This work demonstrates that by controlling the rapid thermal annealing temperature, amorphous chromium-doped indium zinc oxide films develop an amorphous-crystalline bi-layer structure and show magnetization up to ∼30 emu/cm 3. The crystalline layer arises from significant out-diffusion of Zn from surfaces, leading to a large difference in the Zn:In ratio in amorphous and crystalline layers. Doped Cr ions in amorphous and crystalline layers form different valence configurations, creating a charge reservoir which transfers electrons through amorphous-crystalline interfaces and in turn enhances ferromagnetism. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Chang Y.-N.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Parhi K.K.,University of Minnesota
ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings | Year: 2013

Stochastic computing has recently gained attention due to its fault-tolerance property. In stochastic computing, numbers are represented by probabilities of sequences. This paper addresses implementation of inner products and digital filters using stochastic logic. Straightforward implementations of stochastic inner products and digital filters lead to significantly large output error. To overcome this, this paper proposes a novel scaling method for efficient stochastic logic implementations of inner products and digital filters. By incorporating the filter coefficients into the probability of the selection signals of the multiplexors, the proposed weighted summation circuit can achieve better signal scaling with lower cost than the one derived from a traditional structure. This paper also presents how to vary the seeds in stochastic filters in order to reduce the correlation. Implementing IIR filters using stochastic logic limits possible pole locations. To overcome this, a new stochastic IIR filter structure is presented that includes a binary multiplier and stochastic-to-binary and binary-to-stochastic converters. Our experimental results show that the proposed architecture for the inner-product unit can lead to more than 12 times reduction in the error-to-power ratio. The stochastic FIR filters can perform the desired filtering function, but their accuracy degrades with the increase of filter order. The direct-form stochastic IIR filters may fail for large filter orders, but their performance can be improved by using cascade-form filter architecture. © 2013 IEEE.


Lee K.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | Lien W.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Hsieh T.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems | Year: 2011

The conventional output compaction methods based on XOR-networks and/or linear feedback shift registers may suffer from the problems of aliasing, unknown-values, and/or poor diagnosability. In this paper, we present an alternative method called the output-bit-selection method to address the test compaction problem. By observing only a subset of output responses, this method can effectively deal with all the above-mentioned problems. Efficient algorithms that can identify near optimum subsets of output bits to cover all detectable faults in very large circuits are developed. Experimental results show that less than 10% of the output response bits of an already very compact test set are enough to achieve 100% single stuck-at fault coverage for most ISCAS benchmark circuits. Even better results are obtained for ITC 99 benchmark circuits as less than 3% of output bits are enough to cover all stuck-at faults in these circuits. The increase ratio of selected bits to cover other types of faults is shown to be quite small if these faults are taken into account during automatic test pattern generation. Furthermore, the diagnosis resolution of this method is almost the same as that achieved by observing all output response bits. © 2006 IEEE.


Li Y.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background: Older adults, who often have more than one chronic disease, are at greater risk of influenza and its complications. However, because they often see physicians for other more pressing complaints, their physicians, focusing on one condition, may forget to suggest preventive measures for other diseases such as influenza. This study investigates what major factors affect an older adult with more than one chronic condition missing a vaccination opportunity. Methods: Retrospectively reviewing a nationally representative random sample of medical claims from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database during the period 2004 - 2006, we first identified patients sixty-five years or older who had visited physicians. Each patient was assigned a proxy for health status, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score. An older claimant was defined has having "absence of a vaccination" when he or she had visited a physician during an influenza season but did not receive an influenza vaccination. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate how likely it would be for older adults with various CCI scores to miss a vaccination. Results: Out of 200,000 randomly selected claims, 20,923 older adults were included in our final analysis. We found older adults with higher CCIs to be more likely to have an absence of vaccination (p < 0.01). Our multivariate logistic regression results revealed CCI to be the greatest predictor of absence of vaccination, after controlling for individual factors and medical setting. Older adults with CCI scores three or higher were nearly five times more likely to miss a vaccination than those with a CCI of zero [OR: 4.93 (95%CI, 4.47-5.42)]. Those with CCIs of one and two were 2.53 and 3.92 times more likely to miss vaccination than those with a CCI of zero [OR 2.53 (95%CI, 2.26-2.84) and OR 3.92 (95%CI, 3.51-4.38), respectively]. Conclusions: The greater the number of certain comorbid conditions, the greater the likelihood a flu vaccination will be missed. Physicians would be well advised to not let the presenting problems of older patients distract from other possible health problems that might also need attention, in this case influenza vaccinations. © 2010 Li; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Yung W.H.,National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences | Yung L.C.,National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences | Hua L.H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

This study used waste tire rubber as a recycled material and replaced part of the fine aggregate by waste tire rubber powder filtered through #30 and #50 sieves to produce self-compacting rubber concrete (SCRC). Part of the fine aggregate was replaced with waste tire rubber powder that had been passed through sieves at volume ratios of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, respectively, to produce cylinder specimens and obtain the optimal replacement value. Replacing part of the normal sand with waste tire rubber powder of different degrees of fineness at different ratios is discussed. The results showed that when 5% waste tire rubber powder that had been passed through a #50 sieve was added, the 91 day compressive strength was higher than the control group by 10%. Additionally, the shrinkage was higher with an increase in the amount of waste rubber, and reached its maximum at 20%. The ultrasonic pulse velocity decreased when more powder was added, and the 56 day electrical resistance exceeded 20 kΩ-cm and was increased with the addition of more powder. Meanwhile, both the ultrasonic pulse velocity and the electrical resistance were in a favorable linear relationship with the compressive strength. The addition of 5% waste tire rubber powder brought about a significant increase in anti-sulfate corrosion. Using waste tire rubber powder can enhance the durability of self-compacting rubber concrete. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Huang W.-C.,Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan | Li C.-P.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Li H.-J.,National Taiwan University
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2012

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems that adopt the cyclic-delay diversity (CDD) scheme require only one inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) operation at the transmitter. Therefore, the CDD provides a low-complexity means of increasing the transmission diversity in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) OFDM systems. However, the optimal pilot sequences which minimize the mean square error (MSE) of the channel estimate in traditional MIMO-OFDM systems are inapplicable to CDD-OFDM systems. Accordingly, this paper commences by deriving the criteria which yield the minimum MSE of both the least square (LS) channel estimate and the minimum mean square error (MMSE) channel estimate in CDD-OFDM systems. The derived criteria are then used to develop a general methodology for determining the optimal pilot sequence. Significantly, the proposed design methodology enables the status of the channel to be estimated using just one OFDM symbol. The simulation results confirm that the proposed pilot design minimizes the MSE of both the LS and the MMSE channel estimates. © 2012 IEEE.


Lin S.-F.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology | Year: 2015

Friend leukemia integration-1 (FLI-1) antibody, a commercially available antibody directed against the C-terminus of FLI-1 protein-binding domain, has been used as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of small blue round cell tumors and vascular neoplasms, but shows inconsistent expression in lung cancers. The aims of this study were to evaluate FLI-1 immunohistochemical expression in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and its relationships between the clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis. We investigated the FLI-1 expression in 108 cases of NSCLC by using multiple tumor microarrays. Correlations between the FLI-1 expression and clinicopathologic parameters and prognostic significance were analyzed. The effect of FLI-1 expression on survival is estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models. Our results revealed that patients with high FLI-1 expression had shorter overall survival (P=0.014) than those with low FLI-1 expression. In multivariate analysis, FLI-1 was confirmed as an independent poor prognostic factor in NSCLC (overall survival: hazard ratio, 7.292; 95% confidence interval, 0.294-0.823; P=0.007). In conclusion, this study shows that FLI-1 is expressed variably in different subtypes of NSCLC, and its expression is related to clinicopathologic parameters and poorer prognosis. However, further studies are required to elucidate its function in tumorigenesis of NSCLC. Copyright 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Kao C.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2012

This technical note concerns robust stability analysis of discrete-time linear-time-invariant (LTI) systems with varying time delays. The stability problem is tackled under the integral quadratic constraint (IQC) framework. The time-delay system in question is viewed as feedback interconnection of an LTI stable operator and the so-called delay-difference operator, for which IQC characterizations are required in order to apply IQC analysis. One of the main contributions of the technical note is to derive novel IQC characterizations for the delay-difference operator, based on the assumption that the time-varying delay parameter and its variation are bounded. A set of new stability criteria emerges as the result. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the new stability criteria. Another distinct contribution is the idea of introducing bounds on the so-called $m$-step total variation and $m$-step average variation of the time-varying delay parameter, which is proven to be useful in stability analysis. © 2012 IEEE.


Ma W.C.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Solid-State Electronics | Year: 2014

In this paper, N2 plasma surface treatment on high performance low-temperature poly-Si thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) with HfO2 gate dielectric is demonstrated. A significant performance improvement by N 2 plasma surface treatment is observed, including the threshold voltage VTH reduction ∼ -0.94 V, subthreshold swing S.S. improvement from 0.227 V/dec. to 0.188 V/dec., field effect mobility μFE enhancement ∼ +61% and driving current Idrv enhancement ∼ +95%. The individual impacts of interfacial layer growth effect and trap passivation effect of poly-Si channel film are investigated by the plasma induced interfacial layer (PIL) removal process. The results show that the PIL growth effect has more contribution to the improvement of V TH reduction and Idrv enhancement than the trap passivation effect of poly-Si channel film. Consequently, the interfacial layer engineering would be very important for the development of high performance LTPS-TFTs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wei P.S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Wu T.H.,Yung Ta Institute of Technology and Commerce
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining | Year: 2014

This study systematically investigates the effects of electrical resistance at the workpiece/electrode interface or electrode face on temperature dependent dynamic resistance during resistance spot welding (RSW). To evaluate temperature transport equations of mass, momentum, energy, species and magnetic field intensity in workpieces, the energy and magnetic equations in the electrode are solved. Contact resistances composed of constriction and film resistances are functions of hardness, temperature, electrode force and surface conditions. The results show that dynamic resistance is complicated due to different variations of film and constriction resistances with temperature at not only the faying surface but also the electrode face in the early stage, i.e. shorter than around 3 cycles. Dynamic resistance in this stage is fortunately insignificant to transport processes. When the power is off, dynamic resistance depends on competition between decreased bulk resistance and increased constriction resistance at the electrode face. Decreased constriction resistance at the electrode face reduces dynamic resistance and temperature. © 2014 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.


Chen J.-C.,National Kaohsiung Normal University | Wen C.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2011

This paper considers the relay subset selection problem in a two-way amplify-and-forward relay network, where each user is equipped with multiple antennas and each relay is equipped with a single antenna. In a two-way channel, two users exchange data with each other using a relay subset. With the optimal relay subset selection scheme, the system can reduce the hardware burden while preserving the diversity benefit. However, the optimal relay subset selection algorithm requires an exhaustive search of all possible combinations to determine the optimum subset in order to achieve the maximum sum-rate. Thus, this results in high computational complexity. In order to reduce the computational load while still maximizing the achievable rate, a cross-entropy (CE) method is introduced to search for the optimal relay subset. Simulation results indicate that the proposed CE method can guarantee a result that is within 98% of the optimum sum-rate obtained by the exhaustive search method with low computational complexity. © 2011 IEEE.


Lee Y.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Telecommunications Policy | Year: 2011

This study sets out to examine the competitive relationships that exist within the telecommunications market using the niche theory on the personal gratifications and system gratifications dimensions. The findings from the analysis of 363 survey responses indicate that traditional and contemporary telecommunication services offer different specializations to satisfy their consumers. Overall, mobile telecommunication services partially replace wired services, on personal gratifications dimensions in particular. The system gratifications dimensions of the wired telecommunication services facilitate the existence of wired services. New telecommunication services (3G and VoIP) partially replace old telecommunication services (home landline and 2G) in providing greater satisfaction in entertainment. The results also demonstrate that VoIP does not impose competitive displacement effects on home landline, 2G, and 3G services. Limitation and suggestions are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liu W.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chang L.-S.,Kaohsiung Medical University
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2011

The present study was conducted to verify whether caffeine is beneficial for improving leukaemia therapy. Co-treatment with adaphostin (a Bcr/Abl inhibitor) was found to potentiate caffeine-induced Fas/FasL up-regulation. Although adaphostin did not elicit ASK1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1)-mediated phosphorylation of p38MAPK(mitogen-activated protein kinase) and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), co-treatment with adaphostin notably increased p38 MAPK/JNK activation in caffeine-treated cells. Suppression of p38 MAPK and JNK abrogated Fas/FasL up-regulation in caffeine- and caffeine/adaphostin-treated cells. Compared with caffeine, adaphostin markedly suppressed Akt/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase)-mediated MKP-1 (MAPK phosphatase 1) protein expression in K562 cells. MKP-1 down-regulation eventually elucidated the enhanced effect of adaphostin on p38 MAPK/JNK activation and subsequent Fas/FasL up-regulation in caffeine-treated cells. Knockdown of p38α MAPK and JNK1, ATF-2 (activating transcription factor 2) and c-Jun by siRNA (small interfering RNA) proved that p38α MAPK/ATF-2 and JNK1/c-Jun pathways were responsible for caffeine-evoked Fas/FasL up-regulation. Moreover, Ca 2+ and ROS (reactive oxygen species) were demonstrated to be responsible for ASK1 activation and Akt/ERK inactivation respectively in caffeine- and caffeine/adaphostin-treated cells. Likewise, adaphostin functionally enhanced caffeine-induced Fas/FasL up-regulation in leukaemia cells that expressed Bcr/Abl. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest a therapeutic strategy in improving the efficacy of adaphostin via Fas-mediated death pathway activation in Bcr/Abl-positive leukaemia. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society.


Wang Y.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
ACM Computing Surveys | Year: 2014

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide a convenient way to monitor the physical environment. They consist of a large number of sensors that have sensing, computing, and communication abilities. In the past, sensors were considered as static, but the network functionality would degrade when some sensors were broken. Today, the emerging hardware techniques have promoted the development of mobile sensors. Introducing mobility to sensors not only improves their capability but also gives them flexibility to deal with node failure. The article studies the research progress of mobile sensor networks, which embraces both system hardware and dispatch software. For system hardware, we review two popular types of mobile sensor platforms. One is to integrate mobile robots with sensors, whereas the other is to use existing conveyances to carry sensors. Dispatch software includes two topics. We first address how to solve different coverage problems by using a purely mobile WSN and then investigate how to dispatch mobile sensors in a hybrid WSN to perform various missions including data collection, faulty recovery, and event analysis. A discussion about research challenges in mobile sensor networks is also presented in the article. © 2014 ACM.


Wang Y.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
International Journal of Communication Systems | Year: 2015

The digital video broadcasting-handheld (DVB-H) standard is developed by European Telecommunications Standards Institute to broadcast digital videos to handheld devices, but data loss is a critical issue due to the broadcast behavior. On the other hand, DVB-Internet protocol datacasting (DVB-IPDC) integrates DVB-H with an Internet protocol-based wireless network to provide bidirectional communication. We adopt this wireless network to deal with data retransmission and call it a recovery network. The paper argues that network coding can improve retransmission efficiency of the recovery network because DVB-H packet loss often exhibits high correlation. In addition, DVB-H packets may be heterogeneous in the sense that they have different importance. According to these two arguments, the paper considers that DVB-H packets are associated with different profit depending on their importance and proposes an α-maximum profit network coding problem. It asks the base station in the recovery network to use no more than α coded packets for handheld devices to retrieve the lost DVB-H packets such that the overall profit is the maximum. An efficient exclusive-or coding scheme, namely the profit-based exclusive-or network coding (PEN) algorithm, is proposed to solve this problem. Extensive simulation results also verify the effectiveness of the PEN algorithm. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Chiang Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2010

In this paper, we derive an existence result for generalized variational inequalities associated with multivalued mappings on weakly compact sets under a continuity assumption which is much weaker than the regular complete continuity. As an application, we prove the existence of exceptional families of elements for such mappings on closed convex cones in reflexive Banach spaces when the corresponding complementarity problems have no solutions. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Lei T.C.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chern S.-J.,Tamkang University
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2010

This paper presents a new paradigm for the Distributed Video Coding (D VC), its coder architecture is quite different from the current DVC video coding architecture. In DVC coder we shift the complexity at encoder to the decoder side, which is suitable for many specific applications such as the low power surveillance, wireless mobile phone, and visual sensor network. Unlike the most popular current DVC coding scheme, named as the Wyner-Ziv (WZ) DVC codec; it divides video sequence into WZ frame and key frame (H.264/AVC Intra,), instead we remove the WZ frame and design a new DVC codec architecture associated with key frame (i.e., H.264/AVC intra). Since in our proposed coder it is no need to design any channel coding (e.g. turbo coding or syndrome coding) as in the WZ frame, hence requires less computational complexity and reduces hardware cost of the encoder, simultaneously. Since the WZ frame was removed to avoid the rate-distortion (RD) performance degradation, the quality of decoded video sequences for relative high transmission rate (e.g., great than 350 Kbps) could be improved, while remains having similar RD performance as the WZ DVC codec in lower transmission rate. To verify the merits of the proposed DVC video coding scheme, four popular test video sequences are adopted, under specific imposed constraints. From computer simulation results we show that, in general, the RD performance improvement gain compared with the H.264/AVC Intra frame coding, is in the range of 0.5̃2.3dB. © 2010 ISSN.


Xu H.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Inverse Problems | Year: 2010

The split feasibility problem (SFP) (Censor and Elfving 1994 Numer. Algorithms 8 221-39) is to find a point x* with the property that x* ε C and Ax* ε Q, where C and Q are the nonempty closed convex subsets of the real Hilbert spaces H 1 and H 2, respectively, and A is a bounded linear operator from H 1 to H 2. The SFP models inverse problems arising from phase retrieval problems (Censor and Elfving 1994 Numer. Algorithms 8 221-39) and the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (Censor et al 2005 Inverse Problems 21 2071-84). In this paper we discuss iterative methods for solving the SFP in the setting of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. The C Q algorithm of Byrne (2002 Inverse Problems 18 441-53, 2004 Inverse Problems 20 103-20) is indeed a special case of the gradient-projection algorithm in convex minimization and has weak convergence in general in infinite-dimensional setting. We will mainly use fixed point algorithms to study the SFP. A relaxed CQ algorithm is introduced which only involves projections onto half-spaces so that the algorithm is implementable. Both regularization and iterative algorithms are also introduced to find the minimum-norm solution of the SFP. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Chang C.-T.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Environmental Hazards | Year: 2016

Studies on mortality attributed to tropical cyclones often concern large-scale disasters. Attention is rarely paid to small-scale mortality over the long term. To understand the relationship between the environment and the behavior that contributes to mortality, this article uses a classification table to review the 1556 deaths attributed to tropical cyclones, named typhoons, in Taiwan during the period 2000–2014. The results demonstrate that the majority of outdoor deaths are associated with work-related activities, while most indoor deaths occur during non-work-related activities. Taking action, such as stopping the car on a bridge if the tail lights of a vehicle in front disappear, and not walking on the roadside when the road is flooded by muddy water, may help to reduce the likelihood of typhoon-attributed death. The findings also help to dispel four myths associated with typhoon-attributed mortality. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Yang T.C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2014

A data-based matched-mode source localization method is proposed in this paper for a moving source, using mode wavenumbers and depth functions estimated directly from the data, without requiring any environmental acoustic information and assuming any propagation model. The method is in theory free of the environmental mismatch problem because the mode replicas are estimated from the same data used to localize the source. Besides the estimation error due to the approximations made in deriving the data-based algorithms, the method has some inherent drawbacks: (1) It uses a smaller number of modes than theoretically possible because some modes are not resolved in the measurements, and (2) the depth search is limited to the depth covered by the receivers. Using simulated data, it is found that the performance degradation due to the afore-mentioned approximation/limitation is marginal compared with the original matched-mode source localization method. The proposed method has a potential to estimate the source range and depth for real data and be free of the environmental mismatch problem, noting that certain aspects of the (estimation) algorithms have previously been tested against data. The key issues are discussed in this paper. © 2014 Acoustical Society of America.


Shih C.J.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Chen Y.J.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Hon M.H.,National Cheng Kung University
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010

Cerium oxide nanocrystallites were synthesized at a relatively low temperature using cerium nitrate as starting materials in a water solution by a co-precipitation process. Effect of calcination temperature on the crystallite growth of cerium oxide nano-powders was investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The crystallization temperature of the cerium oxide powders was estimated to be about 273 K by XRD analysis. When calcined from 473 to 1273 K, the crystallization of the face-centered cubic phase was observed by XRD. The crystallite size of the cerium oxide increased from 10.0 to 43.8 nm with calcining temperature increasing from 673 to 1273 K. The activation energy for growth of cerium oxide nanoparticles was found to be 16.0 kJ mol-1. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lin D.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

A cloaking theory for a two-dimensional spin-12 fermion is proposed. It is shown that the spinor of the two-dimensional fermion can be cloaked perfectly through controlling the fermion's energy and mass in a specific manner moving in an effective vector potential inside a cloaking shell. Different from the cloaking of three-dimensional fermions, the scaling function that determines the invisible region is uniquely determined by a nonlinear equation. It is also shown that the efficiency of the cloaking shell is unaltered under the Aharonov-Bohm effect. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Wu W.-H.,National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences | Wu W.-H.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Jim Wu Y.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chen C.-Y.,Meiho University | And 3 more authors.
Computers and Education | Year: 2012

Two previous literature review-based studies have provided important insights into mobile learning, but the issue still needs to be examined from other directions such as the distribution of research purposes. This study takes a meta-analysis approach to systematically reviewing the literature, thus providing a more comprehensive analysis and synthesis of 164 studies from 2003 to 2010. Major findings include that most studies of mobile learning focus on effectiveness, followed by mobile learning system design.; surveys and experiments were used as the primary research methods. Also, mobile phones and PDAs are currently the most widely used devices for mobile learning but these may be displaced by emerging technologies. In addition, the most highly-cited articles are found to focus on mobile learning system design, followed by system effectiveness. These findings may provide insights for researchers and educators into research trends in mobile learning. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kuo Y.-R.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND:: Multi-rounds of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in combination with transient immunosuppression demonstrated prolongation of vascularized composite tissue allotransplant (VCA) survival and induced immune tolerance in a rodent hind-limb model. In this study, the serum proteins were investigated between the ASC-tolerance group and control group using proteomic study.METHODS:: Orthotopic hind-limb VCA model from Brown-Norway to Lewis rats was performed. Control group did not receive treatment. Rats of tolerance group received combined treatments of short-term cyclosporine-A, anti-lymphocyte serum, and multi-rounds of ASCs. Serum samples from recipients were analyzed. The spots of interest were subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to elucidate the peptide mass fingerprints. The mass spectrometric characteristics of the identified proteins were analyzed. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of transplanted tissue and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of serum were validated.RESULTS:: The proteomic study revealed the rats in tolerance group had significantly higher abundance of β2-glycoprotein, α1-macroglobulin, rat-albumin, and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), and significantly lower level of haptoglobin (Hp) as compared to those in controls. IHC staining of the biopsied alloskin indicated similar effects, such as up-regulated vitamin D-binding protein and down-regulated haptoglobin, in tolerance group as compared to rejection controls (p<0.05). ELISA analysis revealed DBP was statistically increased (p<0.05) and Hp expression was significantly decreased (p<0.01) in tolerance group as compared to that in controls.CONCLUSION:: This study demonstrated there were significant differences in the serum proteomics between tolerance and control groups. Down-regulated Hp and up-regulated DBP are involved in ASC-induced immune tolerance and allotransplant survival. ©2014American Society of Plastic Surgeons


Leou R.-C.,Cheng Shiu University | Su C.-L.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Lu C.-N.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2014

A stochastic modeling and simulation technique for analyzing impacts of electric vehicles charging demands on distribution network is proposed in this paper. Different from the previous deterministic approaches, the feeder daily load models, electric vehicle start charging time, and battery state of charge used in the impact study are derived from actual measurements and survey data. Distribution operation security risk information, such as over-current and under-voltage, is obtained from three-phase distribution load flow studies that use stochastic parameters drawn from Roulette wheel selection. Voltage and congestion impact indicators are defined and a comparison of the deterministic and stochastic analytical approaches in providing information required in distribution network reinforcement planning is presented. Numerical results illustrate the capability of the proposed stochastic models in reflecting system losses and security impacts due to electric vehicle integrations. The effectiveness of a controlled charging algorithm aimed at relieving the system operation problem is also presented. © 1969-2012 IEEE.


Yang T.C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Springer Proceedings in Physics | Year: 2014

Distributed netted underwater sensors (DNUS) present a paradigm change that has generated high interest all over the world. It utilizes many small spatially distributed, inexpensive sensors, and a certain number of mobile nodes, such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), forming a wireless acoustic network to relate data and provide real time monitoring of the ocean. Distributed underwater sensors can be used for oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation and tactical surveillance applications over wide areas. These functions were traditionally accomplished by a cabled system, such as an array of sensors deployed from a platform, or a large number of sensors moored on the ocean bottom, connected by a cable. The cabled systems are not only expensive but often require heavy ocean engineering (e.g., equipment to deploy heavy armored cables). In the future, as fabrication technology advances making low cost sensors a reality, DNUS is expected to be affordable and will become the undersea ‘‘OceanNet’’ for the marine industry like the current “internet” on land. This paper gives a layman view of the system concept, the state of the art, and future challenges. One of challenges, of particular interest to this conference, is to develop technologies for miniature-size sensors that are energy efficient, allowing long time deployment in the ocean. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.


A chemical kinetic submechanism proposed here is an essential prerequisite to model autoignition of methyl esters at low temperature region (less than ~900K), where reactions of methyl-ester peroxy radicals (ROO) and hydroperoxy methyl-ester radicals (QOOH) are crucial and relatively unexplored. The potential energy surfaces of the methyl butanoate peroxy radicals+O2 systems are computed by the G3MP2B3 composite approach. 114 pathways are identified leading to the formation of key radicals in the ignition kernel such as OH and HO2.Particular attention is focused on: (1) intramolecular H-migration of ROO, (2) unimolecular dissociations of ROO and QOOH and (3) reactions of ROO+HO2. Using the canonical transition state theory, the high-pressure limit rate constants for reactions in the kinetic submechanism are calculated. Standard enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacities are evaluated for intermediates and products formed during combustion by means of the standard statistical mechanics formulae. The agreement and disagreement between our calculated kinetic parameters and previous estimates offer further insight into the uncertainty associated with theoretical estimation. We perform the branching ratio analysis for the competing channels between the reverse dissociation of ROO (ROO→R+O2) and explored unimolecular reactions decomposing ROO. Additionally, we also quantify the similarity and dissimilarity between the rate constants determined here and those previously calculated for normal alkanes. Finally, the effect of transition state size on the rate constants for the isomerizations of methyl-ester peroxy radicals is systematically analyzed. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.


Hsieh H.-M.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Tsai S.-L.,National Health Insurance Administration | Shin S.-J.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Mau L.-W.,National Marrow Donor Organization | And 2 more authors.
Medical Care | Year: 2015

Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) Program implemented a diabetes pay-for-performance program (P4P) based on process-of-care measures in 2001. In late 2006, that P4P program was revised to also include achievement of intermediate health outcomes. OBJECTIVES:: This study examined to what extent these 2 P4P incentive designs have been cost-effective and what the difference in effect may have been. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD:: Analyzing data using 3 population-based longitudinal databases (NHI's P4P dataset, NHI's claims database, and Taiwan's death registry), we compared costs and effectiveness between P4P and non-P4P diabetes patient groups in each phase. Propensity score matching was used to match comparable control groups for intervention groups. Outcomes included life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), program intervention costs, cost-savings, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. RESULTS:: QALYs for P4P patients and non-P4P patients were 2.08 and 1.99 in phase 1 and 2.08 and 2.02 in phase 2. The average incremental intervention costs per QALYs was TWD$335,546 in phase 1 and TWD$298,606 in phase 2. The average incremental all-cause medical costs saved by the P4P program per QALYs were TWD$602,167 in phase 1 and TWD$661,163 in phase 2. The findings indicated that both P4P programs were cost-effective and the resulting return on investment was 1.8:1 in phase 1 and 2.0:1 in phase 2. CONCLUSIONS:: We conclude that the diabetes P4P program in both phases enabled the long-term cost-effective use of resources and cost-savings regardless of whether a bonus for intermediate outcome improvement was added to a process-based P4P incentive design. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.


This work theoretically studies the transmission performance of a DML-based OFDM system by small-signal approximation, and the model considers both the transient and adiabatic chirps. The dispersion-induced distortion is modeled as subcarrier-to-subcarrier intermixing interference (SSII), and the theoretical SSII agrees with the distortion obtained from large-signal simulation statistically and deterministically. The analysis shows that the presence of the adiabatic chirp will ease power fading or even provide gain, but will increase the SSII to deteriorate OFDM signals after dispersive transmission. Furthermore, this work also proposes a novel iterative equalization to eliminate the SSII. From the simulation, the distortion could be effectively mitigated by the proposed equalization such that the maximum transmission distance of the DML-based OFDM signal is significantly improved. For instance, the transmission distance of a 30-Gbps DML-based OFDM signal can be extended from 10 km to more than 100 km. Besides, since the dispersion-induced distortion could be effectively mitigated by the equalization, negative power penalties are observed at some distances due to chirp-induced power gain. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Wu D.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Zhang J.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Huang J.C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Bei H.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Nieh T.G.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Scripta Materialia | Year: 2013

Nanocrystalline Cr (nc-Cr) was synthesized by electrodeposition. Samples with various grain sizes (19-57 nm) were prepared by annealing the as-deposited sample. Microstructures were examined using X-ray and electron microscopy, and the mechanical properties were evaluated using nanoindentation. The strength of nc-Cr samples apparently obeyed the classical Hall-Petch relationship. It was found that hardening potency caused by grain refinement was generally higher in body-centered cubic metals than that in face-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed metals. A possible explanation was offered. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chang T.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Hung W.-C.,National Health Research Institute
Cancer Biology and Therapy | Year: 2013

The homeobox transcription factor Prox1 is highly expressed in adult hepatocytes and is involved in the regulation of bile acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver by interacting with other transcriptional activators or repressors. Recent studies showed that Prox1 could inhibit proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and reduced Prox1 expression was associated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. However, the underlying mechanism by which Prox1 attenuates HCC growth is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Prox1 induced senescence-like phenotype of HCC cells to reduce cell proliferation. Our results indicated that the tumor suppressor p53 is a key mediator of Prox1-induced growth suppression because Prox1 only induced senescence-like phenotype in HCC cells harboring wild type p53. In addition, knockdown of p53 by shRNA reversed the effect of Prox1. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay did not demonstrate the direct binding of Prox1 to proximal promoter of human p53 gene suggesting Prox1 might not directly activate p53 transcription. We found that Prox1 suppressed Twist expression in HCC cells and subsequently relieved its inhibition on p53 gene transcription. The involvement of Twist in the regulation of p53 by Prox1 was supported by the following evidence: (1) Prox1 inhibited Twist expression and promoter activity; (2) knockdown of Twist in SK-HEP-1 cells upregulated p53 expression and (3) ectopic expression of Twist counteracted Prox1-induced p53 transcription and senescence-like phenotype. We also indentified an E-box located at p53 promoter which is required for Twist to inhibit p53 expression. Finally, our animal experiment confirmed that Prox1 suppressed HCC growth in vivo. Collectively, we conclude that Prox1 suppresses proliferation of HCC cells via inhibiting Twist to trigger p53-dependent senescence-like phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Landes Bioscience.


Chen J.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEICE Transactions on Communications | Year: 2010

Carrier frequency offset may distort the orthogonality of the subcarriers in OFDM systems and it must be estimated and compensated to maintain the system performance. A blind carrier frequency offset estimator based on the histogram, of the received signal's phase is proposed in this letter. The proposed estimator can operate under additive white Gaussian noise and multipath channels without known training signal, redundant guard interval, and virtual carrier. Compared to subspace-based blind estimators, the proposed estimator can provide better mean-squareerror performance. Copyright © 2010 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.


Lee R.,IBM | Jeng B.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Proceedings - 2011 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery, CyberC 2011 | Year: 2011

Cloud computing enables shared servers to provide resources, software and data for collaborative services on demand with high interoperability and scalability. However, there are a number of technical challenges that need to be tackled before these benefits can be fully realized, which include system reliability, resource provisioning, and efficient resources consuming, etc. Among them, load-balancing is a necessary mechanism to increase the service level agreement (SLA) and better uses of the resources. Unfortunately, servers' capability varies much in practice and is not easy to record in ordered positions in a server farm, which will causes non resource-aware load-balancing algorithms to distribute workloads evenly. We discuss this issue and show why such algorithms don't fit the cloud computing environment and then present a feasible resource-aware load-balancing mechanism by using existing proven technologies to meet higher SLA and the return of investment as well. © 2011 IEEE.


Lee Y.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
International Journal of Mobile Communications | Year: 2015

Location-based advertising utilises location-tracking technology to provide users with valuable commercial information which is specific to their location. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the factors influencing consumers' attitudes towards such location-based advertising and the moderate effects of situational context. The results indicate that entertainment, personalisation and privacy concerns all have direct impacts on consumer attitudes, with situational contexts moderating the impacts of these factors on such consumer attitudes. This paper also explores across gender differences of attitudes towards LBA. The study provides practical suggestions for mobile operators and advertising agencies. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Ma S.-M.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Tan Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Ma S.-C.,National Cheng Kung University
Leisure Sciences | Year: 2012

A theoretically constructed model combining psychological well-being, negotiation, and participation was tested using structural equation modeling on Taiwanese college students (N = 464). The results provided partial support for the proposed model in that the autonomy and self-acceptance dimensions of psychological well-being had significant positive effects on negotiation strategies. However, contrary to predictions, the personal growth and purpose in life dimensions had significant negative effects on college students' use of negotiation strategies. Developing a psychological profile of successful negotiation among college students using this framework may aid in predicting who will activate their negotiation efforts, and thus enhance the effectiveness of interventions for health promotion. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Hong J.-Y.,Walsin Technology Corporation | Lu H.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of the American Ceramic Society | Year: 2014

Commercial EIA-Y5V base-metal-electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors (BME-MLCCs) made of (CaO+ZrO2)-doped BaTiO3 are analyzed for the microstructure and investigated for its relation to dielectric properties. The characteristic diffuse scattering (DS) intensities observed in BaTiO3 ceramics and the featureless "solid-solution" grains in Y5V capacitor chips are originated from multiple Ti sites in the dynamic BaTiO3 structure. The pseudo-cubic (PC)-grains retaining the overall cubic (C-) symmetry metastably at room temperature are embedded with polar nanoregions (PNRs) in the ferroelectric (FE) tetragonal (T-), and rhombohedral (R-) phases, as revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The presence of PNRs contributes effectively to large relative permittivity εr ≈ 13 200 at 25°C. The FE T-domains grow from within PC-grains at the expense of embedded PNRs after prolonged annealing by extending "oxidizing firing" at 950°C in pO2 = 10-7 atm. These domains contain less Zr with otherwise homogeneously distributed solutes in PNR-dispersed PC-grains. Although preserving the relaxors characteristics, εr is reduced to ~11 000 after 12 h, and then to ~9000 after 24 h annealing. The reduction in εr is attributed to the annealing-induced FE T-domains grown at the expense of PNRs in PC-grains. The Vögel-Fulcher analysis indicates that Y5V ceramics are in the relaxor FE category, containing PNRs derived from polarization frustration. © 2014 The American Ceramic Society.


Chen J.-C.,National Kaohsiung Normal University | Wen C.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Applied Optics | Year: 2010

We present a cross-entropy (CE)-based method for the design of optimum two-dimensional (2D) zero reference codes (ZRCs) in order to generate a zero reference signal for a grating measurement system and achieve absolute position, a coordinate origin, or a machine home position. In the absence of diffraction effects, the 2D ZRC design problem is known as the autocorrelation approximation. Based on the properties of the autocorrelation function, the design of the 2D ZRC is first formulated as a particular combination optimization problem. The CE method is then applied to search for an optimal 2D ZRC and thus obtain the desirable zero reference signal. Computer simulation results indicate that there are 15.38% and 14.29% reductions in the second maxima value for the 16 × 16 grating system with n1= 64 and the 100 × 100 grating system with n1= 300, respectively, where n1 is the number of transparent pixels, compared with those of the conventional genetic algorithm. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Hung C.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Hung C.-C.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Gong G.-C.,National Taiwan Ocean University
Oceanography | Year: 2011

To understand the biogeochemical impact of typhoons in marginal seas, 16 sea-going expeditions were conducted from 2007 to 2009, covering all four seasons and including periods following the passage of several typhoons in the southern East China Sea (SECS). Higher surface nitrate and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations were measured in winter and spring, but surface nitrate (< 0.1 μM) and Chl a (0.47 ± 0.17 mg m-3) concentrations were low in summer under nontyphoon conditions. In comparison, elevated surface nitrate (0.2-2.3 μM) and Chl a concentrations (1.11 ± 0.40 mg m-3) were recorded in the SECS several days after the passage of each of three typhoons in 2008. The results demonstrate that nutrient-rich waters are brought to the surface after the passage of typhoons, after which phytoplankton flourish. Most importantly, elevated particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes (552 ± 28 mg C m-2 d-1) were observed after Typhoon Jangmi, about a threefold increase from the monthly mean value (184 ± 37 mg m-2 d-1). These field investigations demonstrate that typhoons can have a profound effect on nutrient supply, phytoplankton growth, and POC fluxes in marginal seas.


Chen C.-T.A.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2011

As has been well known for several decades, the subsurface Kuroshio waters upwell onto the East China Sea when the Kuroshio impinges on the continental shelf northeast of Taiwan. Based on hydrological and geochemical data, our previous study demonstrated that the upwelled Kuroshio waters downwell then upwell again northwest of Taiwan in August. A subsequent effort attributed this complex phenomenon to varying vorticity or the Rossby number at the study area, which encompasses two strong currents, i.e., the Kuroshio and the Taiwan Warm Current. Moreover, downwelling-favorable winds coincided with the observation period. This study demonstrates that the above phenomenon does not occur in the northern Taiwan Strait, but appears to surface outside of the strait during all seasons. In general, downwelling of previously upwelled Kuroshio waters from the east brings down waters from the surface, explaining why the recipient bottom waters show a horizontal maximum temperature but a minimum salinity, αt and NO3 + NO2. The downwelled waters subsequently upwell again. Since the recipient near-surface waters arise from the depth, there exists a horizontal minimum in temperature but a maximum salinity, αt and NO3 + NO2 is found. However, whether wind patterns play a critical role in generating these vertical water movements remains unclear. © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.


Chuang W.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Microsystem Technologies | Year: 2015

In this paper, the robustness of a wafer-level testing algorithm was analyzed and the Taguchi methods were used to perform variability analysis on the effects of differences in test key structural length (∆L), material crystal direction, and structural length on the Young’s modulus (E) and mean stress (σ0) of thin films. TSMC 0.18 μm process metal 2 was used as the test structure material for performing material parameter extraction. The results of this study indicate that structural length difference is the most crucial prominent factor and substantially affects the robustness of this algorithm. Besides, the Taguchi method analysis was then used to determine the suitable scope of application for this algorithm, and determine the optimal test key geometric parameter design that can be used for designing test keys. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Jang C.-L.,National Sun Yat - sen University
International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications | Year: 2010

Based on a survey data from 361 public employees and suppliers in Taiwan, this study employed the updated DeLone and McLean Information Systems (IS) Success Model to measure e-government procurement (e-GP) system success and assess the moderating effect of computer self-efficacy on users' judgment of IS success. Results showed that information quality, system quality, and service quality had a significant effect on individual performance through the usage and user satisfaction with an e-GP system. In addition, the key antecedents to user satisfaction and system usage did differ between high and low computer self-efficacy users. By measuring the success of an e-GP system from the end-user's perspective, the findings of this research provide insight into the design and improvement in electronic government procurement.


Wu J.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Tennyson R.D.,University of Minnesota | Hsia T.-L.,The Academy of Management
Computers and Education | Year: 2010

This study proposes a research model that examines the determinants of student learning satisfaction in a blended e-learning system (BELS) environment, based on social cognitive theory. The research model is tested using a questionnaire survey of 212 participants. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to test the reliability and validity of the measurements. The partial least squares (PLS) method was used to validate the measurement and hypotheses. The empirical findings indicate that computer self-efficacy, performance expectations, system functionality, content feature, interaction, and learning climate are the primary determinants of student learning satisfaction with BELS. The results also show that learning climate and performance expectations significantly affect learning satisfaction. Computer self-efficacy, system functionality, content feature and interaction significantly affect performance expectations. Interaction has a significant effect on learning climate. The findings provide insight into those factors that are likely significant antecedents for planning and implementing a blended e-learning system to enhance student learning satisfaction. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Arbogast T.,University of Texas at Austin | Huang C.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2010

Tracer transport is governed by a convection-diffusion problem modeling mass conservation of both tracer and ambient fluids. Numerical methods should be fully conservative, enforcing both conservation principles on the discrete level. Locally conservative characteristics methods conserve the mass of tracer, but may not conserve the mass of the ambient fluid. In a recent paper by the authors [T. Arbogast, C. Huang, A fully mass and volume conserving implementation of a characteristic method for transport problems, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 28 (2006) 2001-2022], a fully conservative characteristic method, the Volume Corrected Characteristics Mixed Method (VCCMM), was introduced for potential flows. Here we extend and apply the method to problems with a solenoidal (i.e., divergence-free) flow field. The modification is a computationally inexpensive simplification of the original VCCMM, requiring a simple adjustment of trace-back regions in an element-by-element traversal of the domain. Our numerical results show that the method works well in practice, is less numerically diffuse than uncorrected characteristic methods, and can use up to at least about eight times the CFL limited time step. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Tseng M.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2010

Based on Mey's (2001) concept of the pragmatic act, this paper addresses the act of fishing for personal information as exemplified in email scams and investigates how the pragmatic act of fishing is performed. The two central concepts involved are choice and performance. A pragmatic act is an act characterized by a deliberate choice of various kinds of action, including speech acts, psychological/affective acts, and choice of textual elements used in discourse in order to bring about a desired response. The choices made lead to the performance of the pragmatic act. This study argues that the pragmatic act of fishing is like a performative chain consisting of a series of discourse acts which are mutually reinforced and reinforcing. This chain consists of various types of performance-persuading the reader to click a subject line and read the message in the first place, performing an act of identity, performing directive acts, and performing a deliberate " act of authenticity" This paper will also consider how the choice of certain textual elements may help to ensure the successful performance of a pragmatic act. Three interrelated textual elements are given particularly close attention: blended act in a sentence, metapragmatic repetition, and implicit indexing. The study will then suggest a cognitive-pragmatic interpretation of the act of fishing. The conceptual metaphor SCAMMING IS FISHING/ANGLING is used to illustrate the considerations that determine the choice of means and the performance of scam discourse. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.


Yeh W.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2014

Reaction of the pentamethylhydrofullerene C60HMe5 (1) with Ru3(CO)12 in refluxing toluene affords the face-capping cluster complex Ru3(CO)9(η2, η2,η2-C60HMe5) (2). Elution of 1 on TLC plates (silica gel) leads to hydroxyepoxidation of the cyclopentadiene group to generate C60Me5(O)(OH) (3) and C60Me5(O)2(OH) (4). Reaction of 3 with Ru 3(CO)12 in refluxing toluene gives the face-capping complex Ru3(CO)9(η2,η2, η2-C60Me5(O)(OH)) (5). The structures of 2, 3, and 5 have been determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lu C.-H.,National Chiao Tung University | Wang J.-H.,National Chiao Tung University | Chang F.-C.,National Chiao Tung University | Kuo S.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010

A series of star block copolymers were prepared through nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMRP) from polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) nanoparticle by core-first polymerization. Eight N-alkoxyamine groups were incorporated onto the eight corners of a POSS cube through quantitative hydrosilylation through addition of octakis(dimethylsiloxy) silsesquioxane (Q8MH 8 POSS) with 1-(2-(allyloxy)-1- phenylethoxy)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (allyl-TEMPO) and Karstedt's agent (a platinum divinylsiloxane complex) was used as a catalyst. Octa-N-alkoxyamines POSS (OT-POSS) were used as platform to synthesize star polystyrene-POSS ((PS)8-POSS) homopolymer and diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-block-4-vinylpyridine)-POSS ((PS-b-P4VP)8-POSS) and poly- (styrene-block-acetoxystyrene) ((PS-b-PAS)8-POSS) through NMRP. In addition, subsequent selective hydrolysis of the acetyl protective group of (PS-b-PAS)8-POSS, the poly(styrene-block-vinyl phenol) ((PS-b-PVPh)8-POSS) with strong hydrogen bonding group was obtained. The detailed chemical structure and self-assembled structures of these star block copolymers based on POSS were characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, SEC, TEM, and SAXS analyses. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yang M.-L.,Chang Jung Christian University | Chiou W.-B.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2010

The Internet has become a means by which people expand their social networks and form close relationships. Wu and Chiou (2009) demonstrated that more search options triggered excessive searching, leading to poorer decision making and reduced selectivity in finding partners for online romantic relationships. Regarding the more-means-worse effect, they argued that more searching leads to worse choices by reducing users' cognitive resources, distracting them with irrelevant information, and reducing their ability to screen out inferior options. Expanding Simon's (1955) seminal theory, this research compared choice-making strategies of maximizers and satisficers on excessive searching, quality of final decisions, and selectivity. One hundred twelve adolescents with experiences of online romantic relationships participated in an experimental study. Participants were administered a scale that measured maximizing tendencies and were then assigned to receive either a small or a large number of options. Results indicated that the participants with high maximizing tendencies (i.e., maximizers) showed more pronounced searching than did those with low maximizing tendencies (i.e., satisficers). The negative effect of excessive searching on decision-making was more prominent for maximizers than for satisficers in terms of final choices and selectivity. These findings reveal that adopting maximizing strategies may increase vulnerability stemming from excessive searching when a large number of choices are available. © 2010 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Tsai M.-T.,Cheng Shiu University | Gow H.-J.,Cheng Shiu University | Lin W.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2011

This paper develops a Novel Stochastic Search (NSS) method for the solution of economic dispatch problems with non-convex fuel cost functions. The NSS solution procedure consists of three steps, namely Direct Search (DS), Goal Neighborhood Approximation (GNA) and Marginal Cost Dispatch (MCD). The DS step identifies a set of feasible solutions in accordance with prescribed equality and inequality constraints. The GNA step processes those feasible solutions to identify an appropriate direction for searching the global optimal solution. Finally, in the MCD step, the marginal cost of each generating unit is regulated in order to establish the global optimal solution. The proposed NSS scheme is applied to solve three examples systems of increasing complexity. The results are compared to those obtained using the conventional Simulated Annealing (SA), Genetic Algorithm (GA), and Evolutionary Programming (EP) methods. The results demonstrate that the NSS method provides a fast, robust and highly effective scheme for the solution of economic dispatch. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang C.-F.,I - Shou University | Wang T.-F.,I - Shou University | Liao C.-S.,I - Shou University | Kuo S.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Lin H.-C.,National Nano Device Laboratories
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

For centuries, pencils have been convenient implements for writing, drawing, and portraying. In this study, we found another use for the lowly pencil: to modulate the mobility of water droplets on a robust superhydrophobic surface. Here, we describe a simple method for fabricating durable superhydrophobic films from carbon nanotube (CNT)/polybenzoxazine coatings. These as-prepared coatings possessed robust superhydrophobicity with strong adhesion to glass and metal substrates. We achieved tunable water droplet mobility on the superhydrophobic surface with patterned wettability after drawing with a pencil. The mobility could be switched rapidly (within 1 min) between the poorly adhesive rolling state and the highly adhesive pinning state through sequential pencil drawing and sonication processes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Tsai M.-T.,Cheng Shiu University | Gow H.-J.,Cheng Shiu University | Lin W.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2011

In this paper, a Hybrid Taguchi-Immune Algorithm (HTIA) is presented to deal with the unit commitment problem. HTIA integrates the Taguchi method and the Traditional Immune Algorithm (TIA), providing a powerful global exploration capability. The Taguchi method (TM) is incorporated in the crossover operations in order to select the better gene for achieving crossover consequently, enhancing the TIA. It has been widely used in experimental designs for problems with multiple parameters. The effectiveness and efficiency of HTIA are demonstrated by presenting several cases, and the results are compared with previous publications. Our results show that the proposed method is feasible, robust, and more effective than many other previously developed computation algorithms. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jin B.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Huang M.-N.L.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Biometrika | Year: 2011

We propose a new method with minimum experimental run size using the properties of Hadamard matrices through which some φp-optimal exact designs including A-, D-and E-optimal designs are constructed for a linear log contrast model in mixture experiments. © 2011 Biometrika Trust.


Lee R.C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

During the phases of an innovation lifecycle, from the value proposition to realization, is about brainstorming especially in its early phases. The success of the brainstorming process depends on many factors, the diversity of the team members, the boundary spanning capability, the ability of foreseeing the insight of risks in the future, etc. On the other hand, the innovation is also a collaborating process of exploring the differentiating value propositions from the target competitors or the benchmark artifacts in the market; the outcomes must be clear to kickoff the next step of the initiative. How to encourage the team members to make their best efforts to contribute their thoughts and ideas and come out with a rational decision about the resolution with consensus is the key to the successful brainstorming process. This paper presents a novel brainstorming process, including the roles, the responsibilities, the facilitating, the workflow, and the theories behind, for service design and got satisfied results from the empirical cases that were government-funded service projects. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.


Chen D.-N.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Liang T.-P.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications | Year: 2011

The rapid growth of electronic commerce on the Internet provides a platform for organizational knowledge to be changed faster than ever. The process by which knowledge assets of an organization change over time to cope with the pressure of environmental variation is called knowledge evolution. In this paper, we adopt the strategic fit theory to examine whether different knowledge evolution strategies would affect organizational performance in different circumstances. We adopt the concept from natural evolution to define two knowledge evolution strategies: knowledge mutation that relies on internal knowledge sources and knowledge crossover that takes advantage of external sources such as online communities and professional consultants. A survey was conducted to explore the effects of different strategies on organizational performance, as measured by the balanced scorecard (BSC). The results show that knowledge mutation and crossover have impacts on different aspects of organizational performance. In addition, many industrial factors, such as environment variation, knowledge density, and organizational factors, including IT capability and sharing culture, are found to have moderating effects. The findings of this research will help organizations choose the right strategy for knowledge enhancement and light up new directions for further research. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kuo S.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chang F.-C.,National Chiao Tung University
Progress in Polymer Science (Oxford) | Year: 2011

This review describes the syntheses of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (T8-POSS) compounds, the miscibility of POSS derivatives and polymers, the preparation of both multifunctional and monofunctional monomers and polymers containing POSS including styryl-POSS, methacrylate-POSS, norbornyl-POSS, vinyl-POSS, epoxy-POSS, phenolic-POSS, benzoxazine-POSS, amine-POSS, and hydroxyl-POSS. The thermal, dynamic mechanical, electrical, and surface properties of POSS-related polymeric nanocomposites prepared from both monofunctional and multifunctional POSS monomers are discussed. In addition, we describe the applications of several high-performance POSS nanocomposites in such systems as light emitting diodes, liquid crystals, photo-resist materials, low-dielectric constant materials, self-assembled block copolymers, and nanoparticles. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chang T.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Hung W.-C.,National Health Research Institute
FEBS Letters | Year: 2012

Prospero-related homeobox 1 (PROX1) is important for liver development and down-regulation of this transcription factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with poor prognosis. We find that PROX1 expression is inversely correlated with the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal regulator TWIST1 in HCC cell lines and tumor tissues. We demonstrate that PROX1 directly binds to proximal promoter of TWIST1 gene to repress its transcription and inhibits its downstream target gene AKT2 expression which leads to reduction of cell migration and invasion. Moreover, PROX1 attenuates lung metastasis of HCC in vivo. These results support an anti-metastatic role of PROX1 via inhibiting TWIST1. © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Liu C.-T.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2010

Electromagnetic stirrers are commonly implemented in the continuous casting process of a steel mill. To enhance their on-site controllability and productivity, it is desired that detailed assessments about the 3-D characteristics of such equipment at different physical environments and material properties can be performed in the design stage. Since the stirrer system is mainly constructed based on the principles of linear induction machines, variations of the generated electromagnetic forces and magnetic fields will be highly affected by system structures and input driving sources. Based on thorough 3-D steady-state and dynamic analyzing results, this paper provides the summarized guidance for operations and designs of in-mold electromagnetic stirrer for metal industry applications. © 2010 IEEE.


Chen L.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of School Health | Year: 2015

Background: This study reports students' perspectives on the frequency and perceived severity of being bullied. Methods: A sample of 1816 elementary school students completed self-report surveys of perceived severity and frequency of being bullied. A Rasch technique aligned different victimized behaviors on interval logit scales. A 4-fold schema was used to identify the intersection between the perceived severity and frequency of being bullied. Results: There was not a statistically significant correlation between the 2 measures (r=.02). Behaviors that included being hit and kicked, being cursed at, being ostracized, being threatened, being shoved or tripped, having one's friendship ruined, and being spoken ill of in public were perceived as severe and frequent bullying experiences. While boys reported more frequent experiences of being bullied, girls perceived bullying to have greater severity. Conclusions: Self-reported frequency does not necessarily correspond to the perceived severity of school bullying, a finding with implications for prevention and intervention initiatives designed or carried out by researchers and school psychologists. © 2015, American School Health Association.


Lu Y.-C.,Chaozhou An Tai Hospital | Li Y.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice | Year: 2013

Rationale and aims Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has gained worldwide attention. Many studies have used questionnaires to discuss factors obstructing the practice of EBM. However, no large-scale data analysis has focused on who has practised EBM and when they practised it. This retrospective study aims to fill the research gap by applying nationally representative data to analyse EBM practice after the provision of new evidence regarding the prescription of rosiglitazone which has been shown to increase the risk of myocardial infarction. Methods We used the National Health Insurance Database in Taiwan to analyse the variations in rosiglitazone prescription among physicians. The study period was from the second quarter of 2007 to the fourth quarter of 2008. A total of 2536 physicians who prescribed rosiglitazone at least once were included in this study. We applied multivariate logistic analyses to predict the probability of physicians ceasing to prescribe rosiglitazone. Results We observed a significant improvement in EBM practice among specialists and experienced physicians. Endocrinologists were four times more likely to change rosiglitazone prescription habits than other specialists (odds ratio 4.129, 95% confidence interval 2.484-6.863). Doctors with more than 10 years of specialist experience performed better in EBM practice. Moreover, a prominent time lag with more than 6 months between EBM emergence and EBM practice was noticed. Conclusions Our study suggested that EBM was still not well practised, using rosiglitazone prescription as a study case. Further education and encouragement to strengthen physicians' EBM practice remain urgently needed within the medical community. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Perng J.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Soft Computing | Year: 2013

The main purpose of this study is to predict limit cycles of a dynamic fuzzy control system by combining a stability equation, describing function and parameter plane. The stability of a linearized dynamic fuzzy control system is then analyzed using stability equations and the parameter plane method, with the assistance of a describing function method. This procedure identifies the amplitude and frequency of limit cycles that are clearly formed by the dynamic fuzzy controller in the parameter plane. Moreover, the suppression of the limit cycle by adjusting control parameters is proposed. Continuous and sampled-data systems are addressed, and the proposed approach can easily be extended to a fuzzy control system with multiple nonlinearities. Simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Chuang M.-J.,Chienkuo Technical University | Chu A.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2011

High hydrophilic/hydrophobic contrast surfaces on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were formed by shadow mask technique in electron cyclotron resonance generated sulfur hexafluoride plasma atmosphere. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses indicate that the unmasked PET surfaces contained a high proportion of the CF2-CF2 groups, and therefore were hydrophobic with large water contact angle. However, the surface wettability was found to increase drastically on the masked PET surfaces. This could be resulted from a mass of COF (acid fluoride) compounds observed by XPS on the masked film surfaces. The COF compounds could react with atmospheric moisture to form -COOH groups, which in turn increased the surface wettability. In addition, the surface wetting property of the masked areas was found to change significantly with the plasma treatment time, the mask-to-substrate distance and the storage time after the treatment. The best contract in water contact angle obtained from the treated PET samples was larger than 100° after 168 h of storage. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Alexandrov S.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Hwang Y.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME | Year: 2010

Finite deformation elastic-plastic analysis of plane-strain pure bending of a strain hardening sheet is presented. The general closed-form solution is proposed for an arbitrary isotropic hardening law assuming that the material is incompressible. Explicit relations are given for most popular conventional laws. The stage of unloading is included in the analysis to investigate the distribution of residual stresses and springback. The paper emphasizes the method of solution and the general qualitative features of elastic-plastic solutions rather than the study of the bending process for a specific material. In particular, it is shown that rigid-plastic solutions can be used to predict the bending moment at sufficiently large strains. © 2010 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Tseng F.-C.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Kuo F.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2010

Self-regulation involves a triadic interplay among personal beliefs, individual behavior, and environment that both proactively and reactively influences one's adjustment of efforts, courses of action, and attainment of goals to reach the anticipated outcomes. In this study, we propose and validate a self-regulation model that explores the effects of social capital and social cognitive factors on knowledge-sharing behavior. The results demonstrate that members of an online knowledge communities regulate his or her internal motivation, external demands, interpersonal relationships, help-seeking strategies, as well as confidence of capability in utilizing social resources and performing knowledge sharing task. Through a stronger sense of community, emotional attachment and empathic concern about others' needs, members develop a high level of professional competence to collaborate with others and adequate efficacious beliefs to emotionally and instrumentally help others. The implications to both research and practice are discussed to enhance the understanding and effectiveness of self-regulation in the realm of knowledge management. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang Y.,Griffith University | Chen N.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Levy M.,Griffith University
Computers and Education | Year: 2010

This study reports a qualitative investigation that examines the design and implementation of a holistic teacher training model in a cyber face-to-face language learning context. To this end, this study first proposes an e-training model called the Practice, Reflection and Collaboration (PRC) model, and discusses the rationale and theoretical framework underpinning each key component of the model. This is followed by the discussion of how the model was implemented in a 12-week e-teacher training program with the participation of trainee teachers and real distance students. This analysis focuses on how each component of the proposed model worked in our case, and what mechanisms were employed to nurture the trainees' professional and personal development to become competent and confident e-teachers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ko S.-W.,National Cheng Kung University | Ting C.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Fuh A.Y.-G.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin T.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Optics Express | Year: 2010

An axially symmetric twisted nematic liquid crystal (ASTNLC) device, based on axially symmetric photoalignment, was demonstrated. Such an ASTNLC device can convert axial (azimuthal) to azimuthal (axial) polarization. The optical properties of the ASTNLC device are analyzed and found to agree with simulation results. The ASTNLC device with a specific device can be adopted as an arbitrary axial symmetric polarization converter or waveplate for axially, azimuthally or vertically polarized light. A design for converting linear polarized light to axially symmetric circular polarized light is also demonstrated. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Wei P.S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Wu T.H.,Yung Ta Institute of Technology and Commerce
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2012

The effects of local electrical contact resistance on transport variables, cooling rate, solute distribution, and nugget shape after solidification responsible for microstructure of the fusion zone during resistance spot welding are realistically and systematically investigated. The model accounts for electromagnetic force, heat generation and contact resistances at the faying surface and electrode-workpiece interfaces and bulk resistance in workpieces. Contact resistances are composed of film and constriction resistances, as functions of hardness, temperature, electrode force and surface condition. The computed results show that the bulk dynamic electrical resistance cannot reliably reflect transport processes and nugget shape, unless the local constriction resistance and electric current density are known. Regardless of high film resistance, nugget growth and transport processes are independent of film resistance due to delayed response time of local electric current in the early stage. A decrease in constriction resistance, however, delays nugget formation, enhances convection and solute mixing, and changes circulation direction of the stronger convection cell during cooling period. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dai Z.,East China Normal University | Liu J.T.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Fu G.,Yangtze Estuary Waterway Administration Bureau | Xie H.,East China Normal University
Geomorphology | Year: 2013

The mouths of major rivers in the world have always been important waterways and as a result, subject to significant human intervention. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the coupling of natural processes and human intervention in the sediment movement and deposition to determine long-term morphodynamic evolution in the mouth regions of major rivers. A multivariate technique was used to analyze high-resolution bathymetric data from the North Passage of Changjiang (Yangtze River), which is the vital shipping channel in the mouth region and for the entire Changjiang waterway. Our findings show that there are two modes of bathymetric changes. The first mode represents 85% of the variability, which includes the deposition in the peripheral groin fields along the shipping channel and deepening of the shipping channel, which is primarily due to the channel maintenance. The second mode represents 6% of the variability of the river-mouth shoal (seaward migration and size reduction), attributable to the declining sediment discharge of the Changjiang due to the Three Gorges Dam, and the enhancement of the ebb flow as the result of dredging. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Chang Y.-N.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems | Year: 2010

In this paper, an efficient symbol-deinterleaver architecture compliant with the digital-video-broadcasting (DVB) standard is proposed. By partitioning the entire symbol buffer into four separate parts with a special low-conflict access control strategy, the symbol deinterleaver can be implemented with four-bank single-port on-chip memory blocks with slight overhead. The experimental result shows that 30% savings of hardware cost can be achieved compared with the conventional double-buffer approach. In addition, a lookahead online circuit of a symbol permutation-address generator is also proposed, which can provide the required permutation addresses every cycle to avoid either the use of a lookup table or an extra temporary buffer. Being the major part of the entire DVB forward-error-correction decoder, the proposed symbol deinterleaver can contribute a great saving of the overall decoder cost. © 2006 IEEE.


McGreal R.,Athabasca University | Chen N.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Educational Technology and Society | Year: 2011

This study is a comparison of AUPress with three other traditional (non-open access) Canadian university presses. The analysis is based on the rankings that are correlated with book sales on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca. Statistical methods include the sampling of the sales ranking of randomly selected books from each press. The results of one-way ANOVA analyses show that there is no significant difference in the ranking of printed books sold by AUPress in comparison with traditional university presses. However, AUPress, can demonstrate a significantly larger readership for its books as evidenced by the number of downloads of the open electronic versions. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).


Lee K.-Z.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2016

Key points: Activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibres, the main chemosensitive afferents in the lung, can induce pulmonary chemoreflexes to modulate respiratory activity. Following chronic cervical spinal cord injury, bronchopulmonary C-fibre activation-induced inhibition of phrenic activity was exaggerated. Supersensitivity of phrenic motor outputs to the inhibitory effect of bronchopulmonary C-fibre activation is due to a shift of phrenic motoneuron types and slow recovery of phrenic motoneuron discharge in cervical spinal cord-injured animals. These data suggest that activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibres may retard phrenic output recovery following cervical spinal cord injury. The alteration of phenotype and discharge pattern of phrenic motoneuron enables us to understand the impact of spinal cord injury on spinal respiratory activity. Cervical spinal injury interrupts bulbospinal pathways and results in cessation of phrenic bursting ipsilateral to the lesion. The ipsilateral phrenic activity can partially recover over weeks to months following injury due to the activation of latent crossed spinal pathways and exhibits a greater capacity to increase activity during respiratory challenges than the contralateral phrenic nerve. However, whether the bilateral phrenic nerves demonstrate differential responses to respiratory inhibitory inputs is unclear. Accordingly, the present study examined bilateral phrenic bursting in response to capsaicin-induced pulmonary chemoreflexes, a robust respiratory inhibitory stimulus. Bilateral phrenic nerve activity was recorded in anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated adult rats at 8-9 weeks after C2 hemisection (C2Hx) or C2 laminectomy. Intra-jugular capsaicin (1.5 μg kg-1) injection was performed to activate the bronchopulmonary C-fibres to evoke pulmonary chemoreflexes. The present results indicate that capsaicin-induced prolongation of expiratory duration was significantly attenuated in C2Hx animals. However, ipsilateral phrenic activity was robustly reduced after capsaicin treatment compared to uninjured animals. Single phrenic fibre recording experiments demonstrated that C2Hx animals had a higher proportion of late-inspiratory phrenic motoneurons that were relatively sensitive to capsaicin treatment compared to early-inspiratory phrenic motoneurons. Moreover, late-inspiratory phrenic motoneurons in C2Hx animals had a weaker discharge frequency and slower recovery time than uninjured animals. These results suggest bilateral phrenic nerves differentially respond to bronchopulmonary C-fibre activation following unilateral cervical hemisection, and the severe inhibition of phrenic bursting is due to a shift in the discharge pattern of phrenic motoneurons. © 2016 The Physiological Society.


Huang W.-C.,National Taiwan University | Li C.-P.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Li H.-J.,National Taiwan University
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2010

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems require the knowledge of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver in order to optimize the system performance. In general, the noise variance is required by the SNR estimator and the knowledge of noise variance also improves the performance of carrier frequency offset (CFO) and channel state estimations. This paper commences by investigating the maximum likelihood noise variance estimator (ML-NVE) in OFDM systems with imperfect synchronization. Theoretical derivations show that both the mean and the variance of the ML-NVE are functions of the CFO and the advanced timing offset (ATO). In particular, it is demonstrated that the mean of the ML-NVE converges to a CFO-independent value as the ATO increases, while the variance converges to a CFO-dependent value. By exploiting the analytical results of the ML-NVE, we further investigate the SNR estimator. It is mathematically demonstrated that the SNR estimate is biased in the presence of CFO and ATO. Finally, the validity of the theoretical observations is confirmed by simulation experiments. © 2006 IEEE.


Yang C.-H.,National Pingtung University | Tsai M.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IET Image Processing | Year: 2010

Data hiding is an important way of realising copyright protection for multimedia. In this study, a new predictive method is proposed to enhance the histogram-based reversible data hiding approach on grey images. In those developed histogram-based reversible data hiding approaches, their drawbacks are the number of predictive values less to the number of pixels in an image. In these interleaving prediction methods, the predictive values are as many as the pixel values. All predictive error values are transformed into histogram to create higher peak values and to improve the embedding capacity. Moreover, for each pixel, its difference value between the original image and the stego-image remains within ±1. This guarantees that the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of the stego-image is above 48 dB. Experimental results show that the histogram-based reversible data hiding approach can raise a larger capacity and still remain a good image quality, compared to other histogram-based approaches. © 2010 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.


Tsai K.H.,National Chiao Tung University | Wu T.-M.,National Chiao Tung University | Tsay S.-F.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2010

In terms of an interatomic pair potential, which well characterizes the dynamic properties of liquid Ga, we investigate again the origin of the well known high- q shoulder in the static structure factor of the liquid. Similar to the results of Gong's simulation at high temperature, dimers with extremely short bond lengths are indeed found in our model just above the melting point, but our results indicate that it is unlikely for the high- q shoulder to be produced by these dimers. Instead, based on our model, the high- q shoulder is resulted from some medium-range order, which is related to the structures beyond the first shell of the radial distribution function, caused by Friedel oscillations within a nanoscale range. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Lee Y.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2014

This study examined the role of decision-making biases (i.e., inertia, overconfidence, illusion of control) in consumer retrust in electronic word of mouth (eWOM) recommendations and the risk-reducing strategies of consumers. An online survey was conducted. Of the 592 questionnaires collected, 567 responses were suitable for analysis. The response rate was 95.78%. This study revealed that inertia and overconfidence biases affect retrust in word-of-mouth recommendations. In addition, consumers with a stronger illusion of control bias place less trust in eWOM after having a negative experience. Furthermore, the results indicated that the associations between risk-reducing strategies and retrust in eWOM differ. On the theoretical level, this paper provides an understanding of the effects of inertia, overconfidence, and the illusion of control on eWOM retrust. In addition, this paper fills a gap in the literature, thus advancing knowledge on how and why consumers retrust eWOM. The results of the current study provide useful knowledge enabling firms to understand decision-making biases and, thus, manage relationships with potential customers and improve the quality of their products and services. For example, relying on an eWOM Web site image was determined to be the primary risk-reducing strategy in retrusting eWOM. Firms should continually track the flow of eWOM on eWOM-posting Web sites. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Chang C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the risk factors for their possible association with overall survival and progression-free survival in cervical cancer, with a flexible model that allowed time-varying effects. METHODS: Information about patients with cervical cancer from 2002 to 2012 was collected in the Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital. All available biological and clinicopathologic factors were tested for the assumption of the Cox proportional hazard model, that is, whether they had time-varying effect on survival. The factors were also analyzed in univariate and multivariate statistics to identify independent risk factors. The multivariate analysis was performed with an extended Cox model so that those factors that failed the assumption test were allowed to vary with time. RESULTS: Approximately 797 patients were included in the final analysis. Most factors tested passed the Cox assumption test, except tumor size and body mass index in the event of recurrence and preoperative CA125 values in the event of death (P < 0.05). Univariate and multivariate analysis identified tumor size, stage, and lymph nodal metastasis as independent significant risk factors for both recurrence and death (P < 0.05), with tumor size being a time-varying factor for recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with larger tumor size, higher FIGO stage, and lymph nodal metastasis are faced with higher risk of recurrence and death. A larger tumor size poses increasingly higher risk for recurrence initially, and its importance declines as the patient survives longer without disease progression. These findings may be helpful to gynecologists when assessing tumor risk of patients with cervical cancer and in patient consultation. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CD133 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma malignancy and its involvement in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. METHODS: The effects of CD133 overexpression on cell proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and angiogenesis were investigated in the human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line AsPC-1 in vitro and severe combined immunodeficiency xenografts in vivo. RESULTS: AsPC-1 cells overexpressing CD133 (AsPC-1 CD133 cells) had elevated cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, cell cycle progression, adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis. AsPC-1 CD133 cells displayed increased survival during treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. CD133 overexpression resulted in decreased EGF expression, increased telomerase reverse transcriptase expression, and increased Akt phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation assays and immunofluorescent labeling studies revealed that CD133 physically interacts with EGFR. The EGFR inhibitor gefitinib was shown to have potent anti-CD133 activity, decreasing the CD133-induced migration of AsPC-1 CD133 cells. Knockdown of CD133 was also observed to inhibit AsPC-1 CD133 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that CD133-induced cancer stem cell activity may arise from enhanced telomerase reverse transcriptase expression and CD133 ligand-independent EGFR activation to exhibit the cancer stem cell phenotype, promoting cancer stem cell proliferation independent of cytokines, with high metastatic potential and the development of chemoresistance. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Chen C.I.,I - Shou University | Hsin P.H.,Cheng Shiu University | Wu C.S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2010

The mathematics of traditional grey model is not only easy to understand but also simple to calculate. But, the linear nature of its original model results in the inability to forecast the drastically changed data of which essence is in nonlinear. For this reason, this study investigates cases using nonlinear grey Bernoulli model (NGBM) to demonstrate its ability in forecasting nonlinear data. The NGBM is a nonlinear differential equation with power n. The power n is determined by a simple computer iterative program, which calculates the minimum average relative percentage error of the forecast model. Furthermore, the authors improve NGBM by Nash equilibrium concept. The Nash NGBM (NNGBM) contains two parameters, the power n and the background value p, which increase the adjustability of NGBM model. This newly proposed model could enhance the modeling precision furthermore. In order to validate the feasibility of the NNGBM concept, the NNGBM is applied to forecast the monthly Taiwan stock indices for 3rd quarter of 2008. The forecasting results show: (1) the NNGBM actually improve the forecasting precision, (2) the Taiwan's stock markets tend to be a bear market from July 2007 to September 2008, and the whole investing environments will prevail with collapsing financial prices, pessimism and economic slowdown. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jonsson U.T.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Kao C.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2010

A scalable robust stability criterion for interconnected systems with heterogeneous linear time-invariant components is presented in this paper. The criterion involves only the properties of individual components and the spectrum of the interconnection matrix, which can be verified with relatively low computational effort, and more importantly maintains scalability of the analysis. Our main result shows that if the components are single-input-single- output (SISO), then the criterion has an appealing graphical interpretation which resembles the classical Nyquist criterion. © 2010 IEEE.


Lin H.-L.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2014

The seasonal succession and stable isotope compositions of living planktonic foraminifera collected in sediment traps from the continental shelf/slope off southwest Taiwan were investigated. Sediment trap moorings were deployed at water depths of ~816m and ~233/250m during October-November 2009, March-April 2010 and July-August 2010. The sampling duration was 3 days for each collecting cup, yielding 36 days/12 cups per individual mooring over the three sampling periods. All planktonic foraminiferal tests greater than 150μm were picked, identified and counted for the faunal census. The variations in shell abundance (#/g; number of specimens per gram of original bulk sample) and size frequency show a pattern which seems to be related to the lunar cycle: shell abundances increase from low concentration at the new moon and reach their maxima before the full moon. Occurrences of larger foraminiferal shells also gradually increase as the collection approaching to full moon. The faunal assemblages were dominated by Globigerinella aequilateralis, Globigerinoides sacculifer, Globorotalia menardii, Globigerinoides ruber, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata; these six species constituting 30-80% of all foraminiferal tests found in the sediment traps. The seasonal contrast within the faunal assemblage between these three deployment periods, however, is not very evident except for the relative abundance of G. sacculifer and G. ruber. G. ruber is more abundant in summer than in spring whereas G. sacculifer shows an inverse pattern. Seasonal differences in the δ18O of P. obliquiloculata, G. sacculifer and G. ruber can be well explained by temperature profiles in the water column, while variations of δ13C are not related to the chlorophyll concentration hence to productivity. In addition, the calcifying depths reflected by three species are estimated to be ~40m for G. ruber; ~60m for G. sacculifer; and >80m for P. obliquiloculata. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Tai Y.-M.,National Pingtung Institute of Commerce | Ho C.-F.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Industrial Management and Data Systems | Year: 2010

Purpose - This study aims to analyze the effects of information sharing on customer relationship intention (CRI) based on the characteristics of different trading relationships. Design/methodology/approach - This research was conducted in two phases to explore the effects of information sharing on relationship intention of different customer segments. The objective of phase one was to segment different customer groups according to two criteria: customer relationship value and customer responsiveness. The objective of phase two was to analyze the impact of information sharing on these segmented customer groups. Findings - Data from 239 customers of a large steel supplier indicate that information sharing positively influences CRI and that the characteristics of the trading relationship moderate the effects of information sharing. These findings suggest that, while information sharing is an important means of enhancing a customer relationship, not all types of customer should be treated the same way. Research limitations/implications - Assessment of customer intention depends on the structure of the buyer-supplier network. Other extraneous variables such as branding, industrial position and bargaining power may influence customer attitudes towards information sharing-induced changes. Originality/value - This paper contributes to the understanding of the effects of different levels of information sharing on different customer clusters differentiated by trading relationship characteristics. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Yeh C.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Fan K.-J.,National Dong Hwa University | Chen M.-J.,National Dong Hwa University | Li G.-L.,National Dong Hwa University
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology | Year: 2010

The newest video coding standard called scalable video coding (SVC) provides broad applications in multimedia communications. SVC encoder consumes great computational complexity when compared to previous video coding standards. This paper presents a fast mode decision algorithm that speeds up the SVC encoding process through probabilistic analysis. The mode of the enhancement layer is first predicted by statistical analysis. Afterward, Bayesian theorem is utilized to detect whether the prediction mode of the current macroblock is the best or not. The mode is further predicted and refined by the Markov process. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces computational complexity with negligible peak signal-to-noise ratio degradation and bitrate increase in the enhancement layers. © 2006 IEEE.


Lin S.-P.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2013

Taiwan ranks 22nd worldwide in greenhouse gas emissions. One-third of these emissions come from the city of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. To mitigate global warming, the Taiwanese government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of environmental protection have promoted a series of energy conservation methods based on citizens' pro-environmental behaviors. This research sorts these pro-environmental behaviors into five categories: diet, clothing, housing, transport, and recreation; further, it assesses them empirically by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to a survey of 223 Kaohsiung residents. With the application of structural equation modeling, the indicators for each of these five models showed a good fit to the TPB, with goodness-of-fit (GFI) and adjusted goodness-of-fit (AGFI) values of 0.8 and above, comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.9 and above, and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) below 0.08. From these results, this research found that attitudes toward global warming influence citizens' pro-environment behavioral intentions; in particular, perceived behavior control played an important role in the model. This research suggests that people will accept pro-environmental behaviors if they perceive evidence of the usefulness and convenience of these behaviors. "Keep it simple" might be a good byword for promoting energy conservation methods. Nevertheless, it seems that it will be hard to change citizens' appetite or travel habits to mitigate global warming without providing clear, strong incentives. © 2012 The Author(s).


Kuang J.H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2010

In this study, a high sensitivity and easy fabricated plastic optical fiber (POF) displacement sensor is proposed. A POF specimen subjected to dual cyclic bending is used to improve the sensitivity of the POF displacement sensor. The effects of interval between rollers, relative displacement and number of rollers on the sensitivity of the displacement sensor are analyzed both experimentally and numerically. A good agreement between the experimental measurements and numerical calculations is obtained. The results show that the interval between rollers affects sensitivity most significantly than the other design parameters. Based on the experimental data, a linear equation is derived to estimate the relationship between the power loss and the relative displacement. The difference between the estimated results and the experimental results is found to be less than 8%. The results also show that the proposed POF displacement sensor based on dual cyclic bending can be used to detect displacement accurately.


Teng J.-H.,I - Shou University | Lu C.-N.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution | Year: 2010

A fault occurring in power networks normally results in a large short-circuit current flow in the system, which may exceed the rating of existing circuit breakers and can damage system equipments. Because of difficulty in power network reinforcement and the interconnection of more distributed generations, fault current level has become a serious problem in transmission and distribution system operations. The utilisation of fault current limiters (FCLs) in power systems could provide an effective way to suppress fault currents. In a loop transmission or distribution system, the advantages would greatly depend on the number and locations of FCL installations. The authors propose a method to determine the optimum number and locations for FCL placement in terms of installing smallest FCLs circuit parameters to restrain short-circuit currents under circuit breakers' interrupting ratings. In the proposed approach, the sensitivity factor, defined as the reduction of bus fault currents because of a given variation in the branch parameter, is derived and used to choose better candidates for active FCL installations. The search space for FCL installations can be reduced by using the proposed sensitivity factor calculation; therefore the computational efficiency and accuracy can be improved. A genetic-algorithm-based method is then designed to include the sensitivity information in searching for the best locations and parameters of FCLs. The test results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method. © 2010 © The Institution of Engineering and Technology.


Chen N.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Ko L.,University of Queensland
Educational Technology and Society | Year: 2010

This article is based on an experiment designed to conduct an interpreting test for multiple candidates online, using web-based synchronous cyber classrooms. The test model was based on the accreditation test for Professional Interpreters produced by the National Accreditation Authority of Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) in Australia. Specifically, the test involved interpreting-specific components such as dialogue interpreting, sight translation, and consecutive interpreting, as well as non-interpreting-specific components such as questions on ethical issues. The test was conducted live synchronously and concurrently with multiple candidates - i.e., all candidates were tested in their own locations at the same time. The result of the experiment indicates the potential and feasibility of conducting interpreting tests online using the specific technology of synchronous cyber classrooms. However, there are also a number of constraints when compared to conventional face-to-face tests. There is a need for further studies on how to effectively apply this kind of technology to conduct interpreting tests for multiple candidates online in synchronous mode and without the constraints identified in this research. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).


Lee C.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chien M.-S.,National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

This paper applies an aggregate production function to examine the dynamic linkages among energy consumption, capital stock, and real income (real GDP per capita) in G-7 counties. We employ the Toda and Yamamoto (1995) Granger causality test, the generalized impulse response approach, and variance decompositions in a multivariate setting to uncover the extent and the magnitude of the relationship among variables. Our empirical results find evidence of a unidirectional relationship running from energy consumption to real income in Canada, Italy, and the UK, indicating that energy conservation may hinder economic growth in the three countries. Furthermore, the causality relationship appears to be unidirectional, but reversed, for France and Japan, implying that energy conservation in both countries may still be viable, but without being detrimental to economic growth. As to Germany and the U.S., there is no causality between the variables, which demonstrates the 'neutrality hypothesis', and in such a case economic growth will not affect energy use. We further see that the impact of capital stock is relatively higher compared with that of energy consumption. Transitory initial impacts of innovations in energy consumption on capital stock and real income are observed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.


Ceng L.-C.,Shanghai Normal University | Hadjisavvas N.,University of Aegean | Wong N.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2010

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the problem of finding a common element of the set of fixed points F(S) of a nonexpansive mapping S and the set of solutions Ω A of the variational inequality for a monotone, Lipschitz continuous mapping A. We introduce a hybrid extragradient-like approximation method which is based on the well-known extragradient method and a hybrid (or outer approximation) method. The method produces three sequences which are shown to converge strongly to the same common element of F(S)∩ΩA . As applications, the method provides an algorithm for finding the common fixed point of a nonexpansive mapping and a pseudocontractive mapping, or a common zero of a monotone Lipschitz continuous mapping and a maximal monotone mapping. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Yeh W.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2015

Abstract Fullerene adducts, open-cage fullerenes, and endohedral fullerenes represent the fundamental research topics of modified fullerenes. Recently, attachment of metal fragments to the fullerene cages, and investigating their properties and reactivity, becomes an important area within fullerene chemistry. This article provides a brief review of some selected recent advances in organometallic reactions of modified fullerenes with a focus on the work in the author's group. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Rieger R.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers | Year: 2015

Signal-folding architecture with digital reconstruction reduces the signal amplitude at the input of an acquisition ADC and thus provides a larger effective system input range. Digital processing unfolds the signal after quantization. Three algorithms are investigated which operate with a maximum of four samples per realignment point and thus yield for a small potential hardware implementation and low computational load. A rigorous analysis of both the realignment error and the effect of wide band white noise is provided and confirmed by simulation and measurement. Noise in the folded signal must be carefully managed as it is integrated by realignment. It is found that quantization noise may dominate the system output noise and dynamic range. The approach is useful when large amplitude interference must be accommodated superimposed on a target signal and when the ADC resolution is high (typically ≥ 10 bit). © 2015 IEEE.


Lee M.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2012

A flexible portable proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is developed with non-directional flexibility acquired through new carbon-fibre-made current collectors and a new cell structure. The performance of a pilot cell suffers no significant loss when bent to curvatures with various radii in multiple directions. It also compares well with a nonflexible cylindrical portable PEMFC composed of similar components. The new cell is made with a single cup-like flexible main body with the membrane glued to the inside rim. The current collector is composed of several bunches of carbon fibre, each with metal wires embedded in them. The soft and flexible fibres not only allow for close and evenly-distributed contact with the bent electrode, but also change the character of the contact so that a large compressional force is no longer required to acquire low contact resistance which is, above all, the key to the success of this flexible cell design. The metal wire provides the needed flexibility to cover large curved electrode areas. A wire spring is used to pressure the collector against the electrode while the main body bends. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Meeravalia N.N.,National Center for Compositional Characterization of Materials | Jiang S.-J.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Atomic Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

A mixed-micelle cloud point extraction (MM-CPE) procedure is developed for the separation and pre-concentration of platinum from geological matrices. Platinum is determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry GCP-MS). The method is based on the electrostatic interaction of the chloroanionic platinum with positive charge quaternary ammonium head groups of mixed-micelles. These mixed-micelles, formed by micelle-micelle interaction of Aliquat-336-Triton X-l 14, provide sufficient electrostatic attraction to extract the hydrophilic platinum into the small mixedmicelle rich phase. The potential oxide interference of hafnium is eliminated effectively, enabling interference-free determination of platinum using ICP-MS. The parameters affecting the extraction process were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the preconcentration factor and limits of detection were 25 and 0.8 pg mL -1, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 94 -102% for tap, ground and waste waters at 10 - 50 pg mL -1, with a relative standard deviation of 1.2 - 3.7%. The accuracy of the procedure was evaluated using a CCRMP PTC-la Copper-Nickel sulphide concentrate certified reference material.


Shrivas K.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

A new, simple, sensitive, and selective spectrophotometric method for the determination of copper in water and soil samples has been demonstrated. The method is based on the reaction of Cu(I) with neocuproine (2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanothroline) and extracted with N-phenyl benzimidoylthiourea in chloroform. The value of molar absorptivity of the complex in the term of Cu(I) is 1.45 × 105 L mol-1cm-1 at λ max 460 nm in chloroform. The detection limit of copper in water and soil is 2 ng mL-1 and 4 ng g-1, respectively. The method is free from the interference of the ions commonly found to be associated with the copper determination in water and soil samples. The application of the proposed method has been successfully tested for the determination of copper in different types of water and soil samples. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Khoo I.C.,Pennsylvania State University | Hong K.L.,Pennsylvania State University | Zhao S.,Pennsylvania State University | Ma D.,Pennsylvania State University | Lin T.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Optics Express | Year: 2013

Blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) is introduced into the pores of capillary arrays to fabricate fiber arrays. Owing to the photonic-crystals like properties of BPLC, these fiber arrays exhibit temperature dependent photonic bandgaps in the visible spectrum. With the cores maintained in isotropic as well as the Blue phases, the fiber arrays allow high quality image transmission when inserted in the focal plane of a 1x telescope. Nonlinear transmission and optical limiting action on a cw white-light continuum laser is also observed and is attributed to laser induced self-defocusing and propagation modes changing effects caused by some finite absorption of the broadband laser at the short wavelength regime. These nonlinear and other known electro-optical properties of BPLC, in conjunction with their fabrication ease make these fiber arrays highly promising for imaging, electro-optical or all-optical modulation, switching and passive optical limiting applications. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Huang H.-T.,National Chiao Tung University | Lin C.-T.,National Chiao Tung University | Ho C.-H.,National Chiao Tung University | Liang W.-L.,National Chiao Tung University | And 3 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2013

W-band wireless transmission has attracted a lot of interest due to its wider available bandwidth (i.e. 75-110 GHz). In this article, we propose a direct-detection orthogonal frequency division multiplexing radio over fiber (OFDM-RoF) system via two cascaded single-drive MZMs at center frequency of 103 GHz. We discuss maximum bandwidth of different modulation formats under forward error correction (FEC) threshold (3.8x10-3). Up to 40-Gbps 16-QAM OFDM signals is achieved over 25-km fiber and 2-m wireless transmission. To overcome the penalty from uneven frequency response, bit-loading algorithm is applied to discuss data rate and spectral efficiency with signal bandwidth from 5 to 10 GHz. With 10-GHz bandwidth, 46.4-Gb/s data rate and 4.64-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency was achieved. To achieve 40-Gbps data rate, the required bandwidth of OFDM signal with bit-loading is 2 GHz less than that without bit-loading. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Chen S.-C.,National Chiao Tung University | Kuo S.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chang F.-C.,National Chiao Tung University
Langmuir | Year: 2011

We have investigated the complexation-induced phase behavior of the mixtures of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) and octyl gallate (OG) due to hydrogen bonding in different solvents. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic result indicates that the hydrogen-bonding was formed between the P4VP blocks and OG in both THF and DMF, implying the P4VP blocks can bind to OG. For PS-b-P4VP/OG mixture in chloroform, the morphological transitions were induced from the unimer configuration to swollen aggregate and complex-micelles by adding OG. Interestingly, the complex-micelles can lead the formation of the honeycomb structure from chloroform solution. The PS-b-P4VP/OG mixture in THF, behaving an amphiphilic diblock copolymer in solution state, exhibited a series of morphological transitions from sphere, pearl-necklace-liked rod, worm-liked rod, vesicle, to core-shell-corona aggregates by increasing the OG content. In contrast, the PS-b-P4VP/OG mixture in DMF maintained the unimer configuration upon adding OG. Therefore, the complexation-induced morphology of the mixtures of PS-b-P4VP and OG can be mediated by adopting different common solvents to affect the self-assembly behavior. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Lin H.-J.,Chi Mei Medical Center | Chang W.-L.,Chi Mei Medical Center | Tseng M.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Neurology | Year: 2011

Objective: Readmission among stroke survivors is common and costly. This prospective cohort study aimed to explore the readmission risk, causes, and risk factors after discharge from stroke hospitalization in Taiwan. Methods: Hospitalized patients with acute stroke between August 1, 2006, and December 31, 2008, were prospectively under continuous surveillance on the medical records for any readmission. The main reasons for readmission were categorized by chart review as recurrent stroke, neurologic sequelae of stroke, other cardiovascular event, infection, gastrointestinal ulcer with bleeding, and others. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the probabilities of readmission over time and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk factors for the first readmission. Results: Of the 2,657 study patients, rehospitalization occurred in 815 (31%) within 1 year after discharge. The probability of readmission at 30 days was 10% (95% confidence interval 9%-11%), at 90 days 17% (16%-19%), at 180 days 24% (22%-26%), and at 360 days 36% (34%-38%). The most frequent reasons for rehospitalization were infection (28%), recurrent stroke (18%), and other cardiovascular event (10%). Increasing age, previous stroke/TIA, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, having complications at the index hospitalization, longer length of stay, and dependency at discharge were the independent predictors for readmission. Conclusions: Stroke survivors have high likelihood of readmission within 1 year following discharge, with infections and recurrent vascular events being the most common reasons. Identification of high-risk subgroups might foster preventive interventions. Copyright © 2011 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.


Cui H.-W.,Shanghai University | Cui H.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Du W.-H.,Shanghai University
Journal of Adhesion | Year: 2013

In this study, novel fast-curing electrically conductive adhesives were prepared from a functional epoxy, a reactive diluent, a silane coupling agent, a curing agent, and micro silver flakes. Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, four-probe method, shear test, impact test, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy revealed the physical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of these electrically conductive adhesives. They were cured at 120°C and 150°C for 15 min, and had low bulk resistivity, high shear strength, and low water absorption. They can be used in the electronic packaging and improve the related production efficiency greatly. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Semple S.,Roehampton University | Hsu M.J.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Agoramoorthy G.,Tajen University
Biology Letters | Year: 2010

A key characteristic of human language efficiency is that more frequently used words tend to be shorter in length-the 'law of brevity'. To date, no test of this relationship between frequency of use and length has been carried out on non-human animal vocal communication. We show here that the vocal repertoire of the Formosan macaque (Macaca cyclopis) conforms to the pattern predicted by the law of brevity, with an inverse relationship found between call duration and rate of utterance. This finding provides evidence for coding efficiency in the vocal communication system of this species, and indicates commonality in the basic structure of the coding system between human language and vocal communication in this non-human primate. © 2010 The Royal Society.


Chung W.-S.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Chung W.-S.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chung W.-S.,National Taiwan Normal University | Chung W.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Annals of the rheumatic diseases | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: Studies on the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) are scarce. This study identifies the effects of RA on the risks of developing DVT and PE in a nationwide prospective cohort study.METHODS: We studied the entire Taiwan population from 1998 to 2008, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2010. We identified patients with RA using the catastrophic illness registry of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We also selected a comparison cohort that was randomly frequency-matched by age (each 5-year span), sex and index year from the general population. We analysed the risks of DVT and PE using Cox proportional hazards regression models, including sex, age and comorbidities.RESULTS: From 23.74 million people in the cohort, 29 238 RA patients (77% women, mean age of 52.4 years) and 1 16 952 controls were followed 1 93 753 and 7 92 941 person-years, respectively. The risk of developing DVT and PE was 3.36-fold and 2.07-fold, respectively, in patients with RA compared with patients without RA, after adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities. The multiplicative increased risks of DVT and PE were also significant in patients with RA with any comorbidity.CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide prospective cohort study demonstrates that DVT and PE risks significantly increased in patients with RA compared with those of the general population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.


Yeh C.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Li M.-F.,National Dong Hwa University | Chen M.-J.,National Dong Hwa University | Chi M.-C.,Utechzone Co. | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics | Year: 2014

Multiview video coding (MVC) has attracted great attention from industries and research institutes. MVC is used to encode stereoscopic video streams for 3D playout systems such as 3D television, digital cinema, and IP network applications. MVC is an extended version of H.264/AVC that improves the performance of multiview videos. Yet, when compared with single-view video coding, MVC consumes much more time when encoding large amounts of data. Speed-up algorithms, therefore, are essential for realizing related applications. This paper presents a fast mode decision algorithm to avoid the high computational complexity of MVC. The proposed approach aims to reduce candidate modes and make mode decision process more efficient. The minimum and maximum values of rate-distortion cost (RD cost) in the previously encoded view are used to compute a threshold for each mode in the current view. Compared with joint multiview video coding, the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm provides an average of 79% in time savings with negligible bit rate increase and peak signal-to-noise ratio decrease. © 2005-2012 IEEE.


Chang S.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Maunder M.N.,Inter American Tropical Tuna Commission
Fisheries Research | Year: 2012

Estimates of the parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth equation for dolphinfish obtained from 42 studies conducted by different laboratories in different parts of the world, using different aging methods, were assembled for this study. The results formed two distinct negatively correlated lines on a ln(L ∞) and ln(K) plot, and aging material was identified as the major cause for the systematic bias. Additionally, growth patterns differ among regions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Tsai Y.-S.,Cheng Shiu University | Horng T.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters | Year: 2012

A novel wideband nine-element PI equivalent circuit is proposed for modeling on-chip deep-submicron spiral inductors. Mathematical formulations derived by analyzing three quality factors enable fast and accurate extraction of all model elements as frequency-independent values. The model was confirmed using three spiral inductors that were realized in a 90 nm CMOS process and compared with other models to demonstrate its superior accuracy. © 2006 IEEE.


Wei C.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Lin C.-T.,National Chiao Tung University | Chao M.-I.,National Chiao Tung University | Jiang W.-J.,National Chiao Tung University
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters | Year: 2012

We experimentally demonstrated the transmission performance of orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signals in a 60-GHz radio-over-fiber system over up to 100-km standard single-mode fiber employing an adaptive bit-loading algorithm. Considering dispersion-induced phase noise, the maximum capacities after different fiber distances are investigated with and without a phase noise suppression (PNS) algorithm for the first time. When a distributed-feedback (DFB) laser with the linewidth of 1.3∼4.1 MHz is modulated to carry the radio signals, the PN will result in more than 21.5% capacity decrease after 100-km fiber and 3-m wireless link, and the PNS algorithm which needs no bandwidth-consuming pilot tones can accomplish more than 15.3% capacity increase. © 2006 IEEE.


Chiang C.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Hou M.-F.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Hung W.-C.,National Health Research Institute | Hung W.-C.,Kaohsiung Medical University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2013

Background MiR-182 is a member of the miR-183 cluster located at human chromosome 7q32 region and is up-regulated in human cancers. We study the regulation of miR-182 expression and its oncogenic role. Methods MiR-182 level was investigated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to confirm promoter binding of transcription factors. The correlation between miR-182 and RECK was analyzed by Western blotting, real-time RT-PCR and 3′-untranslated region reporter assay. Zymography, matrix metalloproteinase activity, invasion and colony formation were used to study the tumorigenic activity. Results MiR-182 is over-expressed in human breast tumor tissues and cell lines. Inhibition or knockdown of β-catenin reduced miR-182 level in MDA-MB-231 cells. ChIP assay confirmed the binding of β-catenin on miR-182 promoter. Anti-miR-182 increased the MMP inhibitor RECK protein in MDA-MB-231 cells while pre-miR-182 reduced RECK protein but not mRNA in normal mammary epithelial H184B5F5/M10 cells. Restoration of RECK protein by anti-miR-182 attenuated MMP-9 activity, cell invasion and colony formation. Ectopic expression of miR-182 inhibited restoration of RECK protein by β-catenin inhibitor indicating miR-182 is important for β-catenin-induced down-regulation of RECK. An inverse association between miR-182 and RECK was demonstrated in breast tumor tissues. Conclusions We provide evidence that miR-182 is up-regulated by β-catenin signaling pathway in breast cancer and its up-regulation increases tumorigenicity and invasiveness by repressing RECK. General significance Our data demonstrate for the first time that miR-182 expression is controlled by β-catenin. In addition, we identify a new miR-182 target RECK which is important for miR-182-induced tumorigenesis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Lin H.-E.,National Sun Yat - sen University | McDonough III E.F.,Northeastern University | Lin S.-J.,National Taiwan Normal University | Lin C.Y.-Y.,National Chengchi University
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2013

Some researchers have proposed that practices facilitating learning and knowledge transfer are particularly important to innovation. Some of the practices that researchers have studied include how organizations collaborate with other organizations, how organizations promote learning, and how an organization's culture facilitates knowledge transfer and learning. And while some have proposed the importance of combining practices, there has been a distinct lack of empirical studies that have explored how these practices work together to facilitate learning and knowledge transfer that leads to the simultaneous achievement of incremental and radical innovation, what we refer to as innovation ambidexterity (IA). Yet, a firm's ability to combine these practices into a learning capability is an important means of enabling them to foster innovation ambidexterity. In this study, learning capability is defined as the combination of practices that promote intraorganizational learning among employees, partnerships with other organizations that enable the spread of learning, and an open culture within the organization that promotes and maintains sharing of knowledge. This paper examines the impact of this learning capability on innovation ambidexterity and innovation ambidexterity's effect on business performance. The resource-based view (RBV) of the firm is used to develop a conceptual foundation for combining these practices. This study empirically examines whether these practices constitute a learning capability by analyzing primary data gathered from 214 Taiwanese owned strategic business unit (SBUs) drawn from several industries where innovation is important. The results of this study make four important contributions. First, they demonstrate that the combination of these practices has a greater impact on innovation ambidexterity than any one practice individually or when only two practices are combined. Second, the results demonstrate a relationship between innovation ambidexterity and business performance in the form of revenues, profits, and productivity growth relative to competitors. Third, the results suggest that innovation ambidexterity plays a mediating role between learning capability and business performance. That is, learning capability has an indirect impact on business performance by facilitating innovation ambidexterity that in turn fosters business performance. This study also contributes to our understanding of ambidexterity literature in a non-Western context, i.e., Taiwan. © 2012 Product Development & Management Association.


Lee C.-L.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chang W.-D.,China Medical University at Taichung
International Journal of Women's Health | Year: 2013

Aim: In this study, the effects of cigarette smoking on maximal aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, and heart rate variability among female university students were investigated. Materials and methods: Twelve smokers and 21 nonsmokers participated in this study. All participants performed an intermittent sprint test (IST) and a 20 m shuttle run test to measure their anaerobic capacity and maximal aerobic capacity. The IST was comprised of 6×10-second sprints with a 60-second active recovery between each sprint. Heart rate variability was recorded while the participants were in a supine position 20 minutes before and 30minutes after the IST. Results: The total work, peak power, and heart rate of the smokers and nonsmokers did not differ significantly. However, the smokers' average power declined significantly during sprints 4 to 6 (smokers versus nonsmokers, respectively: 95% confidence interval=6.2-7.2joule/kg versus 6.8-7.6joule/kg; P<0.05), and their fatigue index increased (smokers versus nonsmokers, respectively: 35.8% ± 2.3% versus 24.5% ± 1.76%; P<0.05) during the IST. The maximal oxygen uptake of nonsmokers was significantly higher than that of the smokers (P<0.05). The standard deviation of the normal to normal intervals and the root mean square successive difference did not differ significantly between nonsmokers and smokers. However, the nonsmokers exhibited a significantly higher normalized high frequency (HF), and significantly lower normalized low frequency (LF), LF/HF ratio, and natural logarithm of the LF/HF when compared with those of the smokers (P<0.05). Conclusion: Smoking may increase female smokers' exercise fatigue and decrease their average performance during an IST, while reducing their maximal aerobic capacity. Furthermore, smoking reduces parasympathetic nerve activity and activates sympathetic cardiac control. © 2013 Lee and Chang.


Huang C.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Arbogast T.,University of Texas at Austin | Hung C.-H.,Air force Institute of Technology Taiwan
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2014

A WENO re-averaging (or re-mapping) technique is developed that converts function averages on one grid to another grid to high order. Nonlinear weighting gives the essentially non-oscillatory property to the re-averaged function values. The new reconstruction grid is used to obtain a standard high order WENO reconstruction of the function averages at a select point. By choosing the reconstruction grid to include the point of interest, a high order function value can be reconstructed using only positive linear weights. The re-averaging technique is applied to define two variants of a classic CWENO3 scheme that combines two linear polynomials to obtain formal third order accuracy. Such a scheme cannot otherwise be defined, due to the nonexistence of linear weights for third order reconstruction at the center of a grid element. The new scheme uses a compact stencil of three solution averages, and only positive linear weights are used. The scheme extends easily to problems in higher space dimensions, essentially as a tensor product of the one-dimensional scheme. The scheme maintains formal third order accuracy in higher dimensions. Numerical results show that this CWENO3 scheme is third order accurate for smooth problems and gives good results for non-smooth problems, including those with shocks. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Chen H.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Navigation | Year: 2013

Ultra Short Baseline (USBL) navigation systems are often faced with positioning errors arising from misalignments between sensors. This paper proposes a line survey method for USBL angular alignment calibration. In the scheme of USBL line survey, mathematical representations of positioning error arising from heading, pitch and roll misalignments are derived, respectively. The effect of each misalignment angle and how the differences can be used to calibrate each misalignment angle in turn are presented. An iterative algorithm that takes advantage of the geometry of position errors resulting from angular misalignments is developed for USBL calibration. Numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the USBL line survey approach. In addition, the effect of measurement error on the estimation of roll alignment error is evaluated and discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Institute of Navigation.


Lee R.C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015

An emerging elder-living centric concept has brought a new category of potential business opportunities into the needs of aging and aged societies. This emerging concept is nourished by the diverse applications of information and communication technologies; Smart Home is one of the killer applications integrating the technologies of the Internet-of-Things and the Social Network to facilitate a better elder-living and to maintain the family values and traditions. This article identifies the needs of various types of the elderly and elaborated what applications can facilitate the elder-living, and thus a new concept of Smart Home is positioned. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.


Lu M.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Huang C.-C.,Chang Gung University | Pan M.-R.,National Health Research Institute | Chen H.-H.,Chang Gung University | Hung W.-C.,National Health Research Institute
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: Prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1) has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor in various types of cancer. However, it promotes colon cancer progression. The aim of this study is to clarify the underlying mechanism by which PROX1 regulates tumorigenicity of colon cancer. Experimental Design: Association of PROX1 and clinicopathological features was studied by immunohistochemical staining. Pri-miR-9-2 and miR-9 were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Assays of cell invasion, adhesion, and matrix metalloproteinase activity were used to study PROX1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Results: PROX1 was overexpressed in 43% (59/136) of colon cancer tissues and its expression was correlated with E-cadherin downregulation (P=0.00005), advanced tumor staging (P=0.005), and lymph node metastasis (P=0.000009). Enforced expression of PROX1 in DLD-1 cells caused downregulation of E-cadherin and integrins and attenuated cell adhesion. These cells showed increase of matrix metalloproteinase activity and invasive ability. Conversely, knockdown of PROX1 in SW620 cells restored E-cadherin protein expression and reduced invasiveness. Unexpectedly, repression of E-cadherin by PROX1 was not mediated by transcriptional inhibition. We found that PROX1 bound to miR-9-2 promoter and triggered its expression to suppress E-cadherin 30UTR reporter activity and protein expression. Anti-miR-9 restored Ecadherin in SW620 cells, whereas precursor miR-9 inhibited E-cadherin in PROX1-knockdown cells. The miR-9 level was higher in tumor tissues with high PROX1/low E-cadherin than that of tumor tissues with low PROX1/high E-cadherin. Conclusions: Our results provide mechanistic insights by which PROX1 promotesEMT and colon cancer progression. Targeting of PROX1-mediated oncogenic activity may be helpful for the treatment of colon cancer. ©2012 AACR.


Lo C.-C.,National Changhua University of Education | Wang C.-H.,National Chiayi University | Chien P.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Hung C.-W.,Asia University, Taiwan
Technovation | Year: 2012

Along with the trend toward the convergence between nanotechnology and other disciplines, the commercial application and the diffusion of Nan products have drawn much attention. The successful commercialization of nanoproducts is based not only on R&D breakthroughs but also on the products attributes and the consumers needs. However, no research has yet been carried out to investigate the effect of performance and importance on nanoproducts. The aim of this study is to discuss and evaluate the commercialization performance of nanoproducts from consumer perspectives. The importance-performance analysis (IPA) approach was used to construct a series of nanoproducts importance attribute and performance evaluation maps to identify areas for improvement. The empirical data were compiled in a structural consumer questionnaire-based survey from consumer perspectives across different nanoproducts. Respondents were required to identify nanoproducts innovative characteristics and the performance differences of their attributes. Both innovation characteristics and product attribute dimensions as representing nanoproduct innovations were further weighted in terms of their perceived importance and their performance. As a consequence, the proposed approach in this study is to understand how to integrate consumers perceived importance into performance, with particular concern on the identification of market opportunities into the commercialization of nanoproducts. In addition, this study enables nanotechnology firms to develop nanoproduct technologies and to strategically market them based on their attributes and performance, thus leading to the achievement of their commercialization and the creation of a successful long-term, performance-based competitive strategy. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chiang Y.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Ho R.-M.,National Tsing Hua University | Burger C.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Hasegawa H.,Kyoto University
Soft Matter | Year: 2011

Helical assemblies from chiral block copolymers (BCPs*) have been intensively studied due to their unique hierarchical architectures arising from the interplay of various secondary interactions. Helical architectures from BCP* self-assembly in solution have been found in peptide-based and lactide-based BCPs*. Inspired by the concept of chiral information transfer from the molecular level to macroscopic features, polystyrene-block- poly(l-lactide) (PS-PLLA) BCPs* composed of an achiral PS block and a chiral PLLA block has been designed for fabrication of helical assemblies. In contrast to a variety of helical assemblies resulting from solution, a helical phase (H*) having hexagonally packed helical PLLA microdomains in a PS matrix can be obtained in bulk by introducing chirality starting from the molecular level for BCP self-assembly. Phase behavior was examined and phase transitions from the H* phase to both cylinder and gyroid phases were found after long-time annealing, suggesting that the H* phase is a long-lived metastable phase. The morphologies of the H* phase can be manipulated into stretched helices (eventually leading to straight cylinders) by applying the stimulation (i.e., crystallization) so as to result in spring-like behavior. Also, by taking advantage of the degradable character of polylactides, a nanoporous PS polymer can be obtained after PLLA hydrolysis to be used as a template for fabrication of helical nanohybrids. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Yang T.C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2014

This paper applies the mode coupling equation to calculate the mode-coupling matrix for nonlinear internal waves appearing as a train of solitons. The calculation is applied to an individual soliton up to second order expansion in sound speed perturbation in the Dyson series. The expansion is valid so long as the fractional sound speed change due to a single soliton, integrated over range and depth, times the wavenumber is smaller than unity. Scattering between the solitons are included by coupling the mode coupling matrices between the solitons. Acoustic fields calculated using this mode-coupling matrix formulation are compared with that obtained using a parabolic equation (PE) code. The results agree very well in terms of the depth integrated acoustic energy at the receivers for moving solitary internal waves. The advantages of using the proposed approach are: (1) The effects of mode coupling can be studied as a function of range and time as the solitons travel along the propagation path, and (2) it allows speedy calculations of sound propagation through a packet or packets of solitons saving orders of magnitude computations compared with the PE code. The mode coupling theory is applied to at-sea data to illustrate the underlying physics. © 2014 Acoustical Society of America.


Ho Y.H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Wang J.,National Cheng Kung University | Chiu Y.H.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin M.F.,National Cheng Kung University | Su W.P.,University of Houston
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

A tight-binding model is diagonalized to elucidate the magnetoelectronic properties of bulk graphite. This method reveals far more significant results than previous treatments based on simplified effective-mass approximation. The wave functions are explicitly presented and their spatial distributions appropriately characterize the Landau subbands. The calculated density of states and optical absorption spectra agree well with experiments. Our accurate results enable one to assess to what degree the bulk graphite resembles monolayer and bilayer graphenes. The inclusion of all interlayer coupling leads to rich spectral features awaiting future experimental verifications. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Huang H.-H.,National Taitung University | Hsu J.S.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Ku C.-Y.,National Chung Cheng University
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2012

Confirmation bias has long been discussed in the behavioral decision-making research stream. Although decision support systems were designed to counter cognitive biases and speed up information processing, confirmation bias still can be observed during the decision-making process and causes some unwanted behaviors, such as selective reading. An experimental design was conducted to examine the impact of confirmation bias in a computer-supported decision-making context. In addition, we attempted to explore whether the providing of computer-mediated counter-argument can effectively eliminate the impact caused by selective reading. The experiment results show that confirmation bias can be observed when decision makers possess strong preconceptions and selective reading behaviors, caused by confirmation bias, resulting in skewed adjustment and high confidence. This means that computer-mediated counter-arguments can effectively reduce the effects caused by confirmation bias as well as lead to higher satisfaction with the decision outcome. Lastly, the research results were discussed and implications of this finding for academics and practitioners were provided. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Huang C.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Arbogast T.,University of Texas at Austin | Qiu J.,Xiamen University
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2012

We develop a locally conservative Eulerian-Lagrangian finite volume scheme with the weighted essentially non-oscillatory property (EL-WENO) in one-space dimension. This method has the advantages of both WENO and Eulerian-Lagrangian schemes. It is formally high-order accurate in space (we present the fifth order version) and essentially non-oscillatory. Moreover, it is free of a CFL time step stability restriction and has small time truncation error. The scheme requires a new integral-based WENO reconstruction to handle trace-back integration. A Strang splitting algorithm is presented for higher-dimensional problems, using both the new integral-based and pointwise-based WENO reconstructions. We show formally that it maintains the fifth order accuracy. It is also locally mass conservative. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the performance of the scheme and verify its formal accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Chen C.-F.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Chen C.-W.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Dong C.-D.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Kao C.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination and toxicity levels in the surface sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Eighty surface sediment samples were collected from twenty locations in Kaohsiung Harbor for PAH analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Concentrations of total PAHs varies from 34.0 to 16,700ng/g with a mean concentration of 1490±2689ng/g. The spatial distribution of PAHs reveals that PAH concentration is relatively higher in the river mouth regions, especially in the Salt River mouth where it gradually diminishes toward the harbor region. Distributions of PAHs, during both the wet and dry seasons, show that PAHs are more easily disbursed in the receiving sea water thereby leading to a wider range of chemical distribution. Hence, most of the chemicals accumulate in the harbor water channel. Diagnostic ratios show that the possible source of PAHs in the southern industrial area of the harbor could be coal combustion while in the other zones it could be petroleum combustion and/or a mixed sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQcarc) of PAHs varied from 3.9 to 1970ng TEQ/g. The higher total TEQcarc values were found in the southern industrial area of the harbor. As compared with US sediment quality guidelines, the observed levels of PAHs in the industrial zone exceeded the effects range low (ERL), which will eventually cause acute biological damage. Based on the analyses using the SQGs, surface sediments from Kaohsiung Harbor were moderately contaminated and most samples have a low probability of toxicity pollution, except for the Salt River mouth situated in the south Kaohsiung Harbor area. This area has a medium to high probability of toxicity pollution. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Dai Z.,East China Normal University | Liu J.T.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013

Under the influence of climate and human activities, fluvial systems have natural ability to make adjustments so that the river hydrology, sediment movement, and channel morphology are in dynamic equilibrium. Taking the Changjiang (Yangtze River) for example. In the early stages after the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) began operational ten years ago, the suspended sediment content (SSC) and fluxes in the middle and lower reaches of the river decreased noticeably. At present, they appear to be in a stable state on the decadal scale. Although the river runoff has not shown any trends, the water level in the river decreased appreciably in time. In the meantime, channel down cutting along the thalweg almost existed throughout the river course. The riverbed has turned from depositional before the dam construction to erosional afterwards. In other words, the riverbed had turned from being sediment sinks to sediment sources. In the main channel of the Changjiang between Yichang and Nanjing, a distance of 1300. km, the riverbed sedimentation mode displays strong, intermediate, and weak erosion depending on the closeness to the TGD. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


While the prospects of effective dispute settlement in the South China Sea are not very promising, there is much positive work that can be done collectively to advance various issues. Examples of regional cooperation from elsewhere in the world provide valuable lessons, particularly from those regions with similar attributes to the South China Sea. This article aims to understand how regional cooperation is implemented in the Mediterranean and Caribbean seas, particularly on ocean-related issues, and finds that both regions have established regional mechanisms to cooperate on most issues, but mechanisms differ substantially in format, origin, legal framework, and institutional arrangement. Lessons that could be applied to the South China Sea include that a legally binding regime is likely superior to address issues related to marine environmental protection; a regional fisheries management organization is recommended in managing marine living resources; some subjects are suitable for involving a subset of bordering States; extra-regional actors are recommended to obtain Observer status only; and cooperation should be initiated from less-political sensitive areas first. As always, the importance of political will from all parties in the region is paramount for the success of any of these mechanisms. © 2014 © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Cheng H.-T.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Hung W.-C.,National Health Research Institute
Oncology Reports | Year: 2013

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors exert potent inhibitory effects on various types of human cancer. The pioneer drug suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is currently used in the clinic for cancer treatment. However, the effect of SAHA on tumor lymphangiogenesis is unclear. We recently showed that SAHA suppresses the expression and production of pro-lymphagenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) in breast cancer cells. In the present study, the effect of SAHA on lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) was examined. We generated a lymphatic-like endothelial cell line (named FP01) by overexpressing the master LEC transcription factor PROX1 in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. This cell line exhibited a gene expression pattern and phenotype similar to primarily cultured LECs. SAHA inhibited cell cycle progression and proliferation of FP01 cells. In addition, SAHA suppressed sprouting and tube formation in these cells. Moreover, SAHA attenuated the angiopoietin (Ang)/Tie signaling pathway which plays important roles in the regulation of LEC function. FP01 cells expressed Ang1, Ang2, Tie1 and Tie2, and SAHA dose-dependently reduced the expression of Tie2 in these cells. Tie2 promoter activity was attenuated by SAHA indicating a transcriptional repression. Importantly, Tie2 protein was significantly reduced by SAHA at the concentration in which no alteration of Tie2 mRNA was detected. We found that SAHA enhanced Tie2 protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and the expression of c-Cbl, the E3 ligase for Tie2 ubiquitination, rapidly increased after SAHA treatment. Knockdown of c-Cbl reversed SAHA-induced Tie2 protein degradation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SAHA impairs the proliferation, sprouting and tube formation of LECs and attenuates Ang/Tie signaling in LECs by downregulating Tie-2 via transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.


Yeh W.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

A tung(sten) twister: Heating 1 in chlorobenzene affords 2, 3, C 6Ph 6, and C 60, and involves C-H bond activation and C-C bond formation of the ligands, as well as chlorine atom abstraction from the solvent. C 6Ph 6 is presumably generated from insertion of the benzylidyne ligand into the C 5Ph 5 ring. Compound 3 is an air-stable, 17-electron species, with the phenyldichloromethyl ligand having a unique η 3-allyl-type bonding motif. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Kailasa S.K.,Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat | Mehta V.N.,Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat | Wu H.-F.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Wu H.-F.,Kaohsiung Medical University
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

The development of rapid, simple and reduced solvent consumption techniques for sample preparation is important for the isolation and preconcentration of organic and biomolecules from complex matrices. Miniaturized solvent-based extraction techniques have been intensively applied as sample pretreatment tools for the preconcentration of biomolecules from biological samples prior to their identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). This review provides an overview of miniaturized solvent extraction methods and their efficient extraction of trace or ultra-trace analytes and their identification by MALDI-MS. We discuss the recent developments of miniaturized liquid-phase extraction approaches, such as liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and single-drop microextraction (SDME) techniques, for organic and biomolecule pretreatment prior to MALDI-MS analysis. We also provide an update on the state-of-the-art and promising prospects of LPME techniques directly combined with ESI- and MALDI-MS techniques for the analysis of trace levels of organic and biomolecules in complex matrices. We also outline the advances of using liquid microjunction surface sampling probes coupled with MS for trace level analyte assays. Nanoparticle-assisted microextraction coupled with MALDI-MS for organic and biomolecule analysis, and the future trends of potential LPME applications are also highlighted. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Chang M.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Huang Y.-H.,National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences | Han Y.-K.,National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences
Organic Electronics: physics, materials, applications | Year: 2014

In this study we found that the gelation time and crystallinity of P3HT solid films are adjustable when aging and casting from CHCl3/p-xylene mixed solvents. After aging for 36 h in pure p-xylene, CHCl3, or various mixtures of the two as cosolvents, we found that the solid P3HT film gel-cast from 20 vol% CHCl3 had the highest degree of crystallinity of its main chain (m = 0.54), highest melting point of its main chain (Tm = 232.7°C), fastest gelation time (30 min), largest melting enthalpy of its main chain (ΔHm = 19.81 J g-1), and lowest resistance (RP = 0.76 MΩ); the latter value was three orders and one order of magnitude lower than those of the films cast from pure CHCl3 (ca. 110 MΩ) and pure p-xylene (ca. 4.4 MΩ), respectively. In differential scanning calorimetry scans, we attribute the presence of melting peaks near 75°C to the solid-to-solid phase transition of the side chain crystallites of P3HT, thereby affecting the aggregation of the P3HT main chain and resulting in the changes in resistance, crystallinity, melting enthalpy, and melting point of the gel-cast P3HT solid films. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chen T.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2013

We analytically calculate the intrinsic spin-Hall conductivities (ISHCs) (σxy z and σyx z) in a clean, two-dimensional system with generic k-linear spinorbit interaction. The coefficients of the product of the momentum and spin components form a spinorbit matrix β̃. We find that the determinant of the spinorbit matrix detβ̃ describes the effective coupling of the spin sz and orbital motion Lz. The decoupling of spin and orbital motion results in a sign change of the ISHC and the band-overlapping phenomenon. Furthermore, we show that the ISHC is in general unsymmetrical (σxy z ≈ -σyx z), and it is governed by the asymmetric response function 1β̃, which is the difference in band-splitting along two directions: those of the applied electric field and the spin-Hall current. The obtained non-vanishing asymmetric response function also implies that the ISHC can be larger than e=8π, but has an upper bound value of e=4π. We will show that the unsymmetrical properties of the ISHC can also be deduced from the manifestation of the Berry curvature in the nearly degenerate area. On the other hand, by investigating the equilibrium spin current, we find that detβ̃ determines the field strength of the SU.2/ non-Abelian gauge field. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Lin K.-P.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Knowledge and Information Systems | Year: 2016

Clustering is a common task for organizing data into clusters. The kernel k-means identifies clusters of nonlinearly separable data by applying the kernel trick to the commonly used k-means clustering to group data in the kernel-induced feature space. Since the kernel k-means is costly in computation due to the quadratic complexity, outsourcing the computations of kernel k-means to external computing service providers can benefit the data owner who has only limited computing resources. However, data privacy is a critical concern in outsourcing since the data may contain sensitive information. Existing works of privacy-preserving outsourcing for general kernel methods based on distance preservation are weak in security. We propose a privacy-preserving outsourcing scheme for the kernel k-means based on the randomly linear transformation and the random perturbation of the kernel matrix. The data sent to the service provider are encrypted, and the service provider solves the kernel k-means from the encrypted data. The proposed scheme is much stronger in security than existing works, and the experimental results show that the proposed privacy-preserving kernel k-means method has similar clustering performance with a normal large-scale kernel k-means algorithm and imposes very little overhead on the data owner. © 2016 Springer-Verlag London


Yu S.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology | Year: 2012

This paper presents a novel feedback dithering scheme. The dithering circuit feeds the quantization noise through a resonator and a comparator to produce a binary signal for use as a dither input to a quantizer. The outstanding feature of the feedback binary dither is its capacity to eliminate in-band quantization noise while effectively randomizing quantization patterns and linearizing a quantizer. The feedback dither exhibits a consistently high decorrelation performance in either an open-loop or a closed-loop system. The dithering scheme is applied to a bandpass sigma-delta modulator and a multilevel class-D power amplifier to confirm its effectiveness. Simulations indicate significantly improved in-band signal-to-distortion-plus-noise ratios over the conventional ditherings. © 2011 IEEE.


Wang C.-Y.,National Chiao Tung University | Wei C.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Lin C.-T.,National Chiao Tung University | Chi S.,Yuan Ze University
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

We experimentally demonstrate a direct-detection polarization division multiplexed (PDM) orthogonal frequencydivision multiplexing (OFDM) scheme without dynamic polarization tracking. Simply using a polarization-diverse receiver, the proposed multiple-input multiple-output assisted system can achieve bit-error rate of 10-3 over all possible received states of polarization. Moreover, 50 Gbps PDM-OFDM transmission over 100 km single-mode fiber is successfully demonstrated without dispersion-induced penalty. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Tsay S.-F.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Surface Science | Year: 2012

A new reconstructed Pt/Ge(001)-4 × 2 surface structure of 0.25 ML Pt deposition is suggested based on density functional theory. The Ge dimers form nanowire arrays on a Pt-chain modified Ge(001) surface in which the chain is located between the two quasi-dimer rows and below the Ge nanowire. The simulated scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images of the surface are in excellent agreement with the previously observed STM features and sample bias dependence. It is the nanowire Ge dimers and not the Pt atoms that contribute to the STM images for occupied states at high sample biases, contrary to what has always been assumed in experiments. The surface bands of the Pt chain and quasi-dimer rows exhibit quasi-one-dimensional metallic behavior in the direction of the nanowire. When changing from the 4 × 2 to the 4 × 4 structure, there are likely pseudogaps opened at the new surface Brillouin zone boundary, which simultaneously reduce the metallicity. This may be related to the Peierls instability. The interaction between the Pt chain and the quasi-dimer row, as well as the inter-quasi-dimer row interaction, is of essential importance for stabilization. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Yang T.C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering | Year: 2015

Distributed systems using many inexpensive sensors widely distributed over a large area present an alternative way for target detection and potential paradigm change in environmental sensing. The diversity of opportunities for detection by widely distributed sensors seems attractive, but how one compares the detection performance based on the observations made from many distributed sensors, each with small gain, with that from a centralized system with a high array gain has not been studied theoretically or experimentally. Treating the target-radiated signal as a communication signal, transmitting continuous Gaussian-distributed alphabets, the Shannon channel capacity yields the maximum information that the receivers can learn about the (target) transmitted signal. For this idea case, the channel capacity can then be used as a metric to compare the performance of various sensor systems. Matched track processing is introduced to motivate a capacity-based detector and the corresponding detection capacity. Based on that, it is found that the distributed systems can achieve, in principle, an area of coverage two to three times larger than that of a centralized system under the right conditions, and the area of coverage by the entire system can be significantly larger than the sum of detection areas of individual nodes for distributed systems. © 1976-2012 IEEE.


Tsai W.-F.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Fang C.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Yao H.,Tsinghua University | Hu J.,CAS Institute of Physics | Hu J.,Purdue University
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2015

We show that topological states are often developed in two-dimensional semimetals with quadratic band crossing points (BCPs) by electron-electron interactions. To illustrate this, we construct a concrete model with the BCP on an extended Lieb lattice and investigate the interaction-driven topological instabilities. We find that the BCP is marginally unstable against infinitesimal repulsions. Depending on the interaction strengths, topological quantum anomalous/spin Hall, charge nematic, and nematic-spin-nematic phases develop separately. Possible physical realizations of quadratic BCPs are provided. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Wang S.S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Social Science Computer Review | Year: 2016

This study investigated how messaging app Line’s character sticker use may contribute to the perception of intimate experience and enhance relationship satisfaction in both positive and negative emotion situations. A 2 (situation valence: positive emotion and negative emotion) × 3 (response style: text, sticker, and text and sticker) × 3 (scenario: career, romance, and education) mixed design, with situation valence and response style between-subjects variables and scenario a within-subjects variable, was employed. The results revealed the combination of a text and sticker response to a partner’s disclosure can produce the highest level of intimate experience, followed by text- and sticker-only responses. It further suggests that the cartoon-like Line sticker may better convey positive than negative emotions because the detailed illustration is more similar to real-life nonverbal behavior expressing humor and happiness and that may facilitate imagined closeness between communication partners when moving through space. The hyperpersonal affordance of text-based messages to foster relationship may be further distinguished between the cognitive and the affective levels in the messaging app context. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.


Wei P.S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Wu T.H.,Yung Ta Institute of Technology and Commerce
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining | Year: 2013

This work numerically investigates the geometrical effects of the electrode containing a coolant hole on transport variables during resistance spot welding. The model accounts for transient magnetofluid mechanics, heat and species transport, bulk resistance in workpiece, and film and constriction resistances at contact interfaces. The computed results show that electrode cooling due to the coolant hole influences transport processes during not only freezing and cooling periods but also heating and melting periods. Electrode cooling can be interpreted by thermal resistance, depending on the shapes of the electrode and coolant hole within the growing thermal diffusion layer. Major factors affecting electrode cooling are different in distinct time stages. In most cases, enhanced electrode cooling due to the coolant hole decreases the electrode temperature and nugget growth rate. A decrease in the electrode face radius strongly increases nugget growth rate and workpiece temperature and decreases electrode temperature, whereas its effect on cooling rate is insignificant. The optimum design and sensitivity analysis of the electrode shapes subject to required cooling rate, nugget growth rate and welding time are revealed. © 2013 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.


Hsiao Y.-T.,Commerce Development Research Institute | Lee W.-P.,National Sun Yat - sen University
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Background: To infer gene regulatory networks from time series gene profiles, two important tasks that are related to biological systems must be undertaken. One task is to determine a valid network structure that has topological properties that can influence the network dynamics profoundly. The other task is to optimize the network parameters to minimize the accumulated discrepancy between the gene expression data and the values produced by the inferred network model. Though the above two tasks must be conducted simultaneously, most existing work addresses only one of the tasks. Results: We propose an iterative approach that couples parameter identification and parameter optimization techniques, to address the two tasks simultaneously during network inference. This approach first identifies the most influential parameters against internal perturbations; this identification is based on sensitivity measurements. Then, a hybrid GA-PSO optimization method infers parameters in accordance with their criticalities. The proposed approach has been applied to several datasets, including subsets of the SOS DNA repair system in E. coli, the Rat central nervous system (CNS), and the protein glycosylation system of yeast S. cerevisiae. The result and analysis show that our approach can infer solutions to satisfy both the requirements of network structure and network behavior. Conclusions: Network structure is an important though challenging issue to address in inferring sophisticated networks with biological details. In need of prior structural knowledge, we turn to measure parameter sensitivity instead to account for the network structure in an indirect way. By developing an integrated approach for considering both the network structure and behavior in the inference process, we can successfully infer critical gene interactions as well as valid time expression profiles. © 2014 Hsiao and Lee.


Chuang H.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Liu H.-C.,National Chiayi University
Journal of Science Education and Technology | Year: 2012

This study implemented eye-tracking technology to understand the impact of different multimedia instructional materials, i. e., five successive pages versus a single page with the same amount of information, on information-processing activities in 21 non-science-major college students. The findings showed that students demonstrated the same number of eye fixations during information searching and spent the same amount of time on the overall instructional materials regardless of format. However, the total number of eye fixations on the picture areas was significantly greater for the multiple-page than for the single-page presentation. A significant difference was found in the duration of students' eye fixation durations on the picture areas under the two conditions, with students spending more time on the picture area of the multiple-page than of the single-page presentation. Greater pupil size was found when participants viewed the multiple-page presentation, implying that this presentation format was associated with a higher cognitive load. The participants' eye-movement data for specific areas was recorded and analyzed to determine students' information processing patterns and strategies and for triangulation with the quantitative findings. Discussion of the research findings and suggestions for future research are provided. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Rieger R.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Taylor J.,University of Bath
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems | Year: 2013

Multi-electrode cuffs (MECs) have been proposed as a means for extracting additional information about the velocity and direction of nerve signals from multi-electrode recordings. This paper discusses certain aspects of the implementation of a system for velocity selective recording (VSR) where multiple neural signals are matched and summed to identify excited axon populations in terms of velocity. The approach outlined in the paper involves the replacement of the digital signal processing stages of a standard delay-matched VSR system with analogue switched-capacitor (SC) delay lines which promises significant savings in both size and power consumption. The system specifications are derived and two circuits, each composed of low-noise preamplifiers connecting to a 2nd rank SC gain stage, are evaluated. One of the systems provides a single-ended SC stage whereas the other system is fully differential. Both approaches are shown to provide the low-noise, low-power operation, practically identical channel gains and sample delay range required for VSR. Measured results obtained from chips fabricated in 0.8 \mu m CMOS technology are reported. © 2007-2012 IEEE.


Ma W.C.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices | Year: 2014

In this paper, the asymmetric driving current Idrv modification of CMOS low-temperature poly-Si thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) with HfO 2 gate dielectric is demonstrated by the interfacial layer (IL) engineering of HfO2/poly-Si interface. P-channel LTPS-TFT has much higher Idrv∼ 0.789 mA than the n-channel LTPS-TFT ∼ 0.274 mA under the same overdrive gate voltage. This asymmetric Idrv is due to the characteristics of field effect mobility μFE that p-channel LTPS-TFT has much higher hole μFE∼ 80.16 cm2 Vs than the electron μFE&38.26;cm2 V s of n-channel LTPS-TFT. The modification of HfO2/poly-Si interface by O2 plasma can enhance the electron μFE∼34% and reduce the hole μFE22.4%, resulting in balanced Idrv of CMOS LTPS-TFTs that n-channel device shows Idrv∼ 0.553 mA and p-channel device shows Idrv∼ 0.590 mA. In addition, the phonon scattering would also be improved by the IL growth and recovered to initial condition after IL removal. Consequently, the IL engineering of CMOS LTPS-TFTs with HfO2 gate dielectric would be a good candidate for the application of system-on-panel or 3-D integrated circuits. © 1963-2012 IEEE.


Hwang K.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Lo C.-Y.,National Chung Cheng University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2013

The objective of this paper is to accelerate the process of policy improvement in reinforcement learning. The proposed Dyna-style system combines two learning schemes, one of which utilizes a temporal difference method for direct learning; the other uses relative values for indirect learning in planning between two successive direct learning cycles. Instead of establishing a complicated world model, the approach introduces a simple predictor of average rewards to actor-critic architecture in the simulation (planning) mode. The relative value of a state, defined as the accumulated differences between immediate reward and average reward, is used to steer the improvement process in the right direction. The proposed learning scheme is applied to control a pendulum system for tracking a desired trajectory to demonstrate its adaptability and robustness. Through reinforcement signals from the environment, the system takes the appropriate action to drive an unknown dynamic to track desired outputs in few learning cycles. Comparisons are made between the proposed model-free method, a connectionist adaptive heuristic critic, and an advanced method of Dyna-Q learning in the experiments of labyrinth exploration. The proposed method outperforms its counterparts in terms of elapsed time and convergence rate. © 2013 IEEE.


Chung C.-C.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Gong G.-C.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Hung C.-C.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Hung C.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2012

Satellite ocean color imagery indicates that typhoons enhance sea surface chlorophyll concentrations along their paths. However, the influence of typhoons on microphytoplankton community dynamics is still poorly understood because of the risk of sampling at sea under extreme weather conditions. From 22 July to 26 August, 2009, before and after the passage of the devastating Typhoon Morakot (7-9 August), 7 field cruises were conducted at a station in the southern East China Sea, northeast of Taiwan. Microphytoplankton species composition and related hydrographic and nutrient samples were analyzed. The diatom abundance increased by approximately 50 times just 10 d after the passage of Morakot, and the diatom population was dominated by chain-forming centric diatoms (Chaetoceros spp.) instead of the Trichodesmium and Gymnodinium spp. that prevailed before the typhoon. The strong winds and heavy rains of Morakot caused nutrient entrainment from upwelling and nutrient-enriched floodwaters with a low N:P ratio, driving the observed diatom bloom and change in species composition. The diatom bloom was terminated within 24 h. Based on the concurrent increase in copepods, we suggest that intensive grazing pressure was the main cause of the termination of the diatom bloom induced by Typhoon Morakot. © Inter-Research 2012.


Wang S.S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Stefanone M.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Social Science Computer Review | Year: 2013

Mobile and location-based media refer to technologies that can openly and dynamically portray the characteristics of the users and their mundane life. Facebook check-ins highlights physical and informational mobility of the users relating individual activities into spaces. This study explored how personality traits like extraversion and narcissism function to influence self-disclosure that, in turn, impacts the intensity of check-ins on Facebook. Using survey data collected through Facebook check-in users in Taiwan (N = 523), the results demonstrated that although extraversion and narcissism might not directly impact check-in intensity on Facebook, the indirect effects of self-disclosure and exhibitionism were particularly salient. Moreover, a complete path from extraversion to Facebook check-in through self-disclosure and exhibitionism was discovered. Theoretical implications on human mobility and selective self-presentation are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.


Yang W.-S.,National Changhua University of Education | Hwang S.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Systems and Software | Year: 2013

Recommender systems in mobile tourism have attracted considerable interest during the past decade. However, most existing recommender systems in mobile tourism fail to exploit information, evaluations or ratings provided by other tourists of similar interests. In this research, we propose to facilitate attraction recommendation task by exploring other tourists' ratings on their visited attractions. The proposed approach employs mobile peer-to-peer communications for exchanging ratings via their mobile devices. A cost-effective travel recommender system - iTravel - thus is developed to provide tourists with on-tour attraction recommendation. We propose three data exchange methods that allow users to effectively exchange their ratings toward visited attractions. Simulated experiments are performed to evaluate the proposed data exchange methods and a user study is conducted to validate the usability of the proposed iTravel system. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Laurent L.S.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Simmons H.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Tang T.Y.,National Taiwan University | Wang Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Oceanography | Year: 2011

Luzon Strait and South China Sea waters are among the most energetic internal wave environments in the global ocean. Strong tides and stratification in Luzon Strait give rise to internal waves that propagate west into the South China Sea. The energy carried by the waves is dissipated via turbulent processes. Here, we present and contrast the relatively few direct observations of turbulent dissipation in South China Sea internal waves. Frictional processes active in the bottom boundary layer dissipate some of the energy along China's continental shelf. It appears that more energy is lost in Taiwanese waters of the Dongsha Plateau, where the waves reach their maximum amplitudes, and where the bottom topography abruptly shoals from 3,000 m in the deep basin to 1,000 m and shallower on the plateau. There, energy dissipation by turbulence reaches 1 W m-2, on par with the conversion rates of Luzon Strait.


Lee Y.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2011

This paper uses the value brand model in an attempt to determine the factors affecting post-adoption intentions through brand loyalty for the mobile data services. Data were collected online from 1266 respondents. The structural equation modeling was used to test the research model. The results show that post-adoption intentions are directly influenced by intangible attributes. Product deliverables and intangible attributes indirectly affect post-adoption intentions via m-brand loyalty. However, the results of current research do not show any effects of price on post-adoption intentions. The results also show genders differences in post-adoption intentions. Practical suggestions are provided. This paper advances our knowledge of post-adoption variations in business-consumer contexts and mobile business from the perspectives of utilitarian and non-utilitarian values of the mobile data services. This paper also contributes to the theory of post-adoption by offering across-gender examination. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chang S.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Marine Policy | Year: 2015

The limited precious coral (Coralliidae) resources in the Northwestern Pacific have been managed by Taiwan with a comprehensive management plan, by Japan with a strengthened set of management measures, and by China through the listing of such coral as a Category I national treasures. However, continuous increases in coral consumption and coral prices have stimulated overexploitation and poaching of the resource, and hence have undermined the effectiveness of these management schemes. This article discusses the current precious corals supply chain and suggests that the rise of China in purchasing substantial amounts of coral products was the underlying cause for overexploitation and poaching. Several gaps in the management schemes are also identified and discussed. The article finally concludes that there is an urgent need for establishing a cross-disciplinary integrated conservation policy and a regional management platform consisting of the three participating states to address all the relevant social and ecological issues. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tseng M.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2011

This study approaches the genre of grant proposals from a cognitive-pragmatic perspective. It will discuss the reception of the grant genre from the perspective of reviewers and based on some documents provided by the National Science Council, Taiwan, a government agency set up to promote the development of and research on all disciplines. This consideration is intended to complement existing studies on grant proposals, which tend to focus on text production and linguistic features employed by proposal writers. Then this study will consider Swales's (2004: 61) suggestion that attempts to understand and characterize genre are "essentially a metaphorical endeavour" He proposes a set of six metaphors to explain the nature of genre. Building on his discussion, this study will explore the following issues. Firstly, it will consider how the six genre metaphors may interact. Secondly, it will investigate how the interactions may help contribute to formulating a cognitive-pragmatic view of genre. Thirdly, it will propose the addition of the metaphor GENRE AS STRUGGLE since the grant proposal genre can be seen as being situated in various dialogic interactions and tensions between the applicant and her "co-participants" - her funding organization, proposal reviewer, and fellow researchers. Finally, it will highlight the performative nature of genre by proposing that genres as speech acts be replaced by GENRE AS PERFORMANCE. Overall, this paper will argue for a view of genre that is both performance-centred and situated in "dialogic" struggle. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Lin K.-M.,Ling Tung University | Chen N.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Fang K.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology
Behaviour and Information Technology | Year: 2011

This study develops a model to examine the key drivers of users' continuance intention of e-learning, based on negative critical incidents (NCIs) standpoints. The developed research model is tested empirically using a field survey of 230 users. This study finds that users' past service encounters (NCIs), belief (perceived ease of use and usefulness), satisfaction (quality attributes cumulative satisfaction and overall satisfaction) and attitude are key antecedents of continued usage intention. Four dimensions of both NCIs and quality attributes in e-learning (administration procedures, e-learning system functionality, instructional process and human interaction) are explored in this study. Results indicate that NCIs in teaching and administration are comparatively more important in determining user satisfaction and continuance intention. Further analysis finds that the recorded lecture content and the response time to users are the most critical problems in teaching and administration. In practice, this model can identify the key problems of satisfaction and continuance intention to help managers and teachers react promptly or make right decisions about how to better achieve higher user retention rates. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Chen Y.-C.,National Taitung University | Wu J.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Information and Management | Year: 2011

Viewed from the perspective of the activity competency model (ACM) and prior theoretical works, we developed a conceptual framework for investigating the capability of IT management personnel and its impact on the performance of a CIO. A scale for measuring a CIO's effectiveness and management capability was developed and validated. A partial least squares method was used to test the conceptual model empirically and hypotheses were tested through data collected in a large-scale survey. The results supported the proposed framework, and confirmed our hypotheses that both IT and managerial competencies have positive significant impact on the effectiveness of a CIO. We also found that his or her IT management capability significantly impacted the CIO's performance. Our findings are likely to be of particular value to those concerned with IT management training and competency development for CIOs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chen L.-W.,National Yang Ming University | Chen P.-H.,National Yang Ming University | Hsu C.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Shock | Year: 2011

The influence of the gut-lung axis on the lung immunity, although appreciated, remains undefined mechanically. This study was designed to investigate whether commensal microflora in gut increase host defense against subsequent pneumonia through toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and if oral TLR4 ligand supplementation enhances lung defense against bacterial challenge. We found that commensal gut depletion by antibiotic pretreatment before Escherichia coli pneumonia challenge induced a 15-fold and a 3-fold increase in bacterial counts in blood and lung, respectively, and a 30% increase of mortality when compared with the E. coli group. Commensal depletion also induced a suppression of cytokines expression as well as nuclear factor κB activity in intestine. Furthermore, LPS supplementation during antibiotic pretreatment reversed these effects. Commensal depletion also decreased bacterial killing activity of alveolar macrophages and increased IL-6 as well as IL-1β levels and keratinocyte-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, and IL-1β expression of lung, and LPS supplementation reversed them. In conclusion, commensal gut microflora in the intestinal tract appear to be critical in inducing TLR4 expression as well as nuclear factor κB activation of intestine and lung innate defense against E. coli pneumonia. © 2011 by the Shock Society.


Wang S.-C.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Wu J.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Information and Management | Year: 2014

As the Internet paved the way for electronic businesses, ubiquitous services (u-services) will be the next wave launched by electronic services based on current customer information potential. However, privacy is a strategic issue and has been identified as a key hindrance to u-services. As a proactive approach and drawing upon integrative social contracts theory, this study presents a proactive privacy practices framework to examine how the interplays within electronic service, providers' proactive approaches influence customer disclosure willingness for future u-services, adoption. The results and implications of this study are discussed and expected to shed light on privacy practices. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Yeh W.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

Reaction of W(NCMe)(η2-PhCCPh)3 with C 60 affords W(η3-NC(Me)C60) (η4,η2-C6Ph6) (2) and W(CPh)(NCMe)(η2-C60) (η3, η2-C5Ph5) (3). The hexaphenylbenzene species of 2 shows an η4-butadiene + η2-olefin bonding mode and the nitrile carbon is inserted into one 65-ring junction of C60. Compound 3 contains an η3,η2- pentaphenylcyclopentadienyl and a benzylidyne group from 2 + 2 + 1 cyclization and scission reactions of the diphenylacetylene ligands. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Lee C.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chien M.-S.,National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences
Urban Studies | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the stationarity properties and long-run relationship of Taiwan's regional house prices from 1993Q1 to 2009Q2. It applies the recent unit-root test of the panel seemingly unrelated regressions augmented Dickey-Fuller (SURADF) test developed by Breueret al.The empirical results illustrate that Taiwan's regional house prices are a mixture of stationary and non-stationary processes, showing that the stationarity properties of these prices are dependent on the structure and properties of the various regions. Secondly, the findings of the cointegration test provide substantive evidence for a long-run relationship among all regions except Taipei City, implying a diffusion of regional house prices among each regional market except Taipei City. Finally, the results of the weak exogeneity test indicate that uni-directional causality relationships exist for three regions-Taipei County, Taoyuan-Hsinchu and Tainan-Kaohsiung-towards Taichung. The regional house price efficiently diffuses itself among these regions, caused by a much smaller public housing sector and the pre-sale system in Taiwan. © 2010 Urban Studies Journal Limited.


Young M.-L.,Nanhua University | Kuo F.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Myers M.D.,University of Auckland
European Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2012

This paper looks at Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) from the perspective of critical research. Using the concepts of gaze and face, we examine the development and use of a web-based KMS in Taiwan. The findings indicate that, although a web-based KMS was developed to enable knowledge sharing, the capabilities for surveillance inherent in the KMS severely limited sharing. This study raises broader questions about the relationship between cultural values and the production of knowledge in KMS. © 2012 Operational Research Society Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hsiao K.-F.,Ming Chuan University | Chen N.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Huang S.-Y.,Ming Chuan University
Interactive Learning Environments | Year: 2012

Because of a shortage of physical exercise, concerns about adolescents have recently been raised in Taiwan. In educational environments where student exercise has been limited by scheduling constraints and the lack of physical exercise has become a vital problem, "learning while exercising" may be part of a possible solution. This study developed the Ecosystems Augmented Reality Learning System (EARLS) and also made a comparison of EARLS, existing keyboard/mouse-based computer assisted instruction (KMCAI) approaches, and traditional face-to-face teaching methods, in terms of learning achievement and learning attitude. In this study, 1211 subjects were surveyed and divided into 5 groups. Students from the first three groups used EARLS but were exposed to different sections of the system. In terms of learning achievement, learning while exercising groups do not learn less well than the KMCAI or traditional groups. However, they earn extra exercise without diminishing the quality of learning achievement. With regard to the attitude subscales "Usefulness of learning Ecosystems" and "Anxiety in learning Ecosystems", the students in the traditional-teaching group had the significantly lowest scores for both while the students involved in EARLS had the highest ratings on "Usefulness of learning Ecosystems" and the students within KMCAI rated the highest anxiety in learning ecosystems. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Yang Y.F.D.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Computers and Composition | Year: 2012

This study explores English language learners' crafting process of a digital storytelling project in an instructional setting. By analyzing two English language learners' digital storytelling projects and their personal crafting narratives, the researcher reports how these learners approach multimodal digital story composing, construct hybrid texts to deliver their messages, and assign meanings to the semiotic resources used in their digital story through Gunther Kress' (2003) notion of design.Three major findings are reported in this study. First, participants approached the development of multimodal digital storytelling with the creation of a hybrid text, and with dialogic orchestration of multimodal resources. Second, participants' digital story design and orchestration of multimodal resources were guided by author intents. Third, the study participants experienced imagination and re-imagination when assigning meaning to the semiotic resources used in their digital story. The incorporation of digital story composing narratives allows the researcher to develop deep understanding about multimodal designers' thinking process in constructing their digital stories. The findings of this study, illustrating the complex process of multimodal composing, are discussed in relation to learners' employment of multimodal resources, Kress' (2003) notion of design, and Leo van Lier's (2004) notion of affordance. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Wang Y.,Griffith University | Chen N.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Interactive Learning Environments | Year: 2012

This article examines the degrees of collaborative language learning that were supported in cyber face-to-face interaction. The concept of "cyber face-to-face" is used here to encapsulate the kind of environment in which a combination of real-time oral/aural, visual, and text-based interaction happens simultaneously via the various features in an advanced Synchronous Learning Management System (SLMS). The study discusses the results of an evaluation of the five features, namely, the interactive whiteboard, the text chat, the group cyber face-to-face classrooms, the audio, and the video, in an SLMS called 3C. Thirty-three students from an online Chinese/English interpreting course participated in this study. Survey data indicate that collaborative learning can be effectively facilitated in a cyber face-to-face environment, although the degrees of collaboration vary among the five features evaluated. Recommendations for maximizing the collaborative learning potentials of a cyber face-to-face environment are also put forward. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Wu C.-H.,Institute of High Performance Computing of Singapore | Chen B.-F.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Hung T.-K.,University of Pittsburgh
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2013

A time-independent finite difference method is developed to simulate fluid sloshing in a three-dimensional tank. The developed numerical scheme is verified by the rigorous benchmark tests. The experiment measurement of liquid sloshing in a 3D tank was also carried out in this study to further validate the accuracy of the present numerical results. Transient waves can change their types naturally in the time domain, especially for a tank excited by resonant frequencies. In this study, if the excitation frequencies are far from the fundamental natural frequency and there are four types of stable sloshing waves discovered due to the oblique horizontal excitation: "diagonal", "single-directional", "square-like", and "irregular" waves. Besides, the swirling waves can only be generated for a partially-filled tank excited at near resonant frequency with oblique horizontal excitation. The evolution of forces induced by different sloshing waves acting on the tank walls is calculated and discussed in this work. In addition, the dynamics of sloshing force induced by swirling waves are explored in detail. The force of the single-directional waves acting on the tank bottom is time-invariant but the other types of sloshing waves show a beating phenomenon which is attributed to the momentum flux across the free surface and the vertical inertia of sloshing fluid. The effect of various oblique excitation directions of the tank on liquid sloshing is discussed as well. The horizontal hydrodynamic force of sloshing waves acting on the mid-section of the left wall of the tank is dominated by the added mass effect if the external excitation frequency is larger than 4 times the lowest natural frequency ( ω1) of the tank with partially-filled fluid. On the other hand, the wave elevation of sloshing waves plays a key effect on the horizontal sloshing-induced force when the excitation frequency of the tank is less than 4ω1. A novel mechanism is presented to describe the phenomenon of alternate switch directions of the swirling waves. The relationship between the external force and the sloshing hydrodynamic force is the major factor to trigger the switch direction of the swirling waves. The influence of different base ratios of a rectangular tank on kinematic and dynamic responses of sloshing fluid is also explored in this work. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liu H.-C.,National Chiayi University | Chuang H.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Interactive Learning Environments | Year: 2011

This study utilized qualitative and quantitative designs and eye-tracking technology to understand how viewers process multimedia information. Eye movement data were collected from eight college students (non-science majors) while they were viewing web pages containing different types of text and illustrations depicting the mechanism of atmospheric pressure and the formation of sea and land winds. The results showed that participants' eyes were fixated more often on the text than on the illustrations. Breaking the instructional multimedia into small successive segments did not seem to increase the number of eye fixations on the illustrations. Participants alternated their eye fixations on related components of the illustrations while focusing on verbs or sentences representing the kinematics of the weather systems. Text seemed to provide more detailed explanations than pictures and therefore served as the main resource for understanding the content. Scan paths revealed that participants were likely to be distracted by decorative icons in the illustrations. The decorative icons also created a split-attention effect on students' cognitive processing. Eye-tracking technology was found to be a valuable tool for achieving the objectives of this study, and it provided insights into students' cognitive processes during multimedia learning. Discussion and suggestions for instructional designers and future studies are provided. © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Kao C.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Fujioka H.,Kyoto University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2013

This technical note is concerned with stability analysis of aperiodic sampled-data systems. The stability problem is tackled from a pure discrete-time point of view, where the at-sampling behavior of the system is modelled as the response of a nominal discrete-time LTI system in feedback interconnection with a structured uncertainty. Conditions under which the uncertainty is positive real (PR) are identified. Based on the PR property, a number of integral quadratic constraints (IQC) are derived and the IQC theory is applied to derive stability conditions. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. © 1963-2012 IEEE.


Cheng B.,University of Hong Kong | Wang M.,University of Hong Kong | Moormann J.,ProcessLab | Olaniran B.A.,Texas Tech University | Chen N.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Computers and Education | Year: 2012

Workplace learning is an important means of employees' continuous learning and professional development. E-learning is being recognized as an important supportive practice for learning at work. Current research on the success factors of e-learning in the workplace has emphasized on employees' characteristics, technological attributes, and training design elements, with little attention to workplace contextual effects. The study aims to investigate the impacts of organizational learning environment factors, including managerial support, job support, and organizational support, on employees' motivation to use a workplace e-learning system. A model was proposed based on the expectancy theory of training motivation and the social influences and facilitating conditions in technology acceptance models. The model was tested on sample data collected from mainland China using Structural Equation Modeling and Moderated Structural Equation Modeling. The results suggested that employees' perceived managerial support and job support had a significant impact on their perceived usefulness of the e-learning system for individual learning, and that perceived organizational support had a significant influence on the perceived usefulness of the e-learning system for social learning. Perceived usefulness for individual learning was found to completely mediate the environmental influences on individuals' motivation to use the system, while perceived usefulness for social learning made partial mediation in the effects of the environmental factors on intention to use. In addition, perceived job support was found to have moderating effects on the relationship between employees' perceived usefulness of the e-learning system and their intention to use the system. Consistent with previous findings, employees' perceptions about the usefulness of the e-learning system have significant effects on their intention to use the system in the work setting. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang S.S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
First Monday | Year: 2012

There is a long history of the Chinese concept of Internet regulation, which emphasizes stability and unity for a harmonious society and strong technical control. "Grass Mud Horse" (□□□), a vulgar expression similar to an obscene curse word, has, since early 2009, been used by the country's Internet users as a political parody in response to their government's campaign of building a harmonious socialist society. "Grass Mud Horse" has later been fashioned into the name of a storybook character, and has spawned music videos and faux documentaries. Its themed merchandise, such as plush toys, is being sold over the Internet. This study sets out to examine the transformation of "Grass Mud Horse" into the mass production of cultural goods created and disseminated through the Internet. It argues that the exchange values of "Grass Mud Horse" represent the equivalent relation between commodities, symbols, and popular culture. While "Grass Mud Horse" has been commoditized by the increasing usage of popular culture; this is also the system of mass production and the homogenizing regime of capital, which produces mass desires, tastes, and behavior rather than valid social movements. © 2012, First Monday.


Yang Y.D.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Language Learning and Technology | Year: 2011

This qualitative study aims to understand how English learners interpret shared space in an online multilateral English blogging context and how their interpretations of shared space contribute to their multilateral exchange experience. Twenty-four Asian learners of English from two different universities-one in Japan and one in Taiwan-participated in this study. These learners worked on their individual blogs and interacted on both their own blogs and on those of their partners. Data sources include surveys, online interaction records, class assignments, reflective journals, and interviews. Guided by Kramsch's (2009c) analogy of the mindsets of the structuralist and post-structuralist approaches in culture and communication, this study reported that students in this multilateral English blogging project interpreted shared space from two perspectives (a) commonality, and (b) relativity. While students who interpreted shared space from the perspective of commonality valued pre-existing shared personal interests, mutual understanding, and similar personal experiences as a prerequisite for inter-class blogging, students who interpreted shared space from the perspective of relativity tended to draw relative positions from a dialogue between their and their inter-class peers' historicity or cultural memories through re-contextualization and re-positioning. This study suggests that although students who interpreted shared space from the commonality perspective were able to engage in inter-class blogging, they faced difficulties in exploring other possibilities in relating to the blog content, the blog discussions, and the bloggers, when commonality was absent. However, for students who interpreted shared space from the relativity perspective, they were able to form relationships of possibility in mediating encounters through uses of heterogeneous semiotic resources. Future research on what barriers can hinder students' development due to interpretation of shared space and how students develop uses of symbolic resources can contribute to understanding students' construction of shared space for communication. © 2011.


Sahu D.R.,Banaras Hindu University | Yao J.C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2011

It is known, by Rockafellar (SIAM J Control Optim 14:877-898, 1976), that the proximal point algorithm (PPA) converges weakly to a zero of a maximal monotone operator in a Hilbert space, but it fails to converge strongly. Lehdili and Moudafi (Optimization 37:239-252, 1996) introduced the new prox-Tikhonov regularization method for PPA to generate a strongly convergent sequence and established a convergence property for it by using the technique of variational distance in the same space setting. In this paper, the prox-Tikhonov regularization method for the proximal point algorithm of finding a zero for an accretive operator in the framework of Banach space is proposed. Conditions which guarantee the strong convergence of this algorithm to a particular element of the solution set is provided. An inexact variant of this method with error sequence is also discussed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Wang Y.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2014

The paper considers a hybrid wireless sensor network with static and mobile sensors, where each static sensor can detect only one attribute of event while a mobile sensor can analyze multiple attributes of events. Static sensors monitor the environment and report where events appear. Mobile sensors then move to these event locations to conduct more in-depth analysis. A critical issue is how to schedule the traveling paths of mobile sensors so as to extend their lifetime. We formulate this issue as a multi-round multi-attribute sensor dispatch problem and prove it to be NP-complete. Then, we develop a two-phase dispatch heuristic that adopts the concepts of Pareto optimality and spanning-tree construction. Our heuristic allows arbitrary numbers of mobile sensors and event locations and tries to reduce and balance the energy consumption of mobile sensors in each round. Through simulations, we verify the effectiveness of our heuristic. The paper contributes in defining a new sensor dispatch problem and developing an energy-efficient solution to the problem. © 2002-2012 IEEE.


Chang Y.Y.C.,Tunghai University | Chiou W.-B.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Appetite | Year: 2014

Given that changes in diet and exercise habits are difficult to initiate and maintain, the use of weight-loss supplements has become an appealing alternative approach to weight management for many individuals. The current research examined whether the use of weight-loss supplements induced overly optimistic assessments of progress toward weight reduction, leading to psychological abdication of dietary regulation. Participants were randomly assigned to take either an identified placebo or a purported weight-loss supplement (actually the same placebo). Each participant reported perceived progress toward weight reduction following the manipulation. Consumption of snacks in a taste test and choice of sugary drinks were recorded. The results showed that participants receiving a purported supplement ate more in a taste task and preferred larger quantities of sugar in their reward drinks than did controls. Mediation analysis supported that the perception of progress toward weight reduction contributed to the liberating effect. Using weight-loss supplements may increase perceived progress toward weight reduction but decrease dietary self-regulation. These thought-provoking findings can serve as a basis for educating the public about the myth that they are free to feel liberated from the need to regulate their eating when using weight-loss supplements. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Liu H.-C.,National Chiayi University | Lai M.-L.,National Chiayi University | Chuang H.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2011

This study utilized eye-tracking technology to determine the impact of redundant onscreen text information on viewers' cognitive processes with respect to multimedia information. Sixteen college students participated in the study and their eye-movement data and self-reported cognitive load ratings were collected as they viewed three web pages into which different forms of verbal explanations of thunderstorm systems were integrated. A repeated measure design was utilized to support the research purposes. The eye-tracking data showed that viewers relied on text information as the main information resource for determining meaning. Students' cognitive load reports reflected a redundant effect from the on screen text on their cognitive load level when both onscreen and narrative verbal messages were presented. However, eye-movement data revealed that viewers spent less time on the onscreen text when there was a narrative message presenting the same information. When the pictorial information was accompanied by both onscreen and narrative formats of verbal information, viewers seemed to be able to filter out redundant information. Additionally, replacing onscreen text with a voice-over seemed to globally orient viewers' eye fixations toward the illustration. Discussions on results and suggestions for future studies are provided in this paper. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li K.-M.,National Taiwan University | Chou S.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Materials Processing Technology | Year: 2010

This paper presents the performance of the minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technique in near micro-milling with respect to dry cutting on the basis of tool wear, surface roughness and burr formation. The effects of tool materials, oil flow rate and air flow rate on tool performance in MQL cutting are also studied. It is found that the application of MQL will significantly improve the tool life, surface roughness and burr formation compared to those in dry cutting based on slotting tests with micro-end mills on a meso-scale machine tool. It is also observed that the values of surface roughness are close related to the tool-wear conditions in micro-cutting. Based on the experimental results, it is presumed that the maximum allowable tool flank wear of the 600-μm micro-tool is 80 μm while the surface finish quickly deteriorates after the tool flank wear reaches 80 μm and the tool breaks soon after the tool wear reaches 100 μm. The optimal lubrication conditions in this study are oil flow rate of 1.88 ml/h and air flow rate of 40 l/min. It is also found that the air flow rate has a more significant influence on tool life than the oil flow rate under MQL conditions in this study. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wei P.S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Wu T.H.,Yung Ta Institute of Technology and Commerce
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2011

This study investigates the effects of the Curie temperature and magnetic permeability on transport variables, solute distribution and nugget shapes during resistance spot welding. The Curie temperature is the temperature below which a metal or alloy is ferromagnetic with a high magnetic permeability, and above which it is paramagnetic with a small magnetic permeability. The model proposed here accounts for electromagnetic force, heat generation and contact resistance at the faying surface and electrode-workpiece interfaces and bulk resistance in workpieces. Contact resistance includes constriction and film resistances, which are functions of hardness, temperature, electrode force and surface condition. The computed results show that transport variables and nugget shapes can be consistently interpreted from the delay of response time and jump of electric current density as a result of finite magnetic diffusion, rather than through the examination of the variations of dynamic electrical resistance with time. The molten nugget on the faying surface is initiated earlier with increasing magnetic permeability and Curie temperature. A high Curie temperature enhances convection and solute mixing, and readily melts through the workpiece surface near the electrode edge. Any means to reduce the Curie temperature or magnetic permeability, such as adjusting the solute content, can be a good way to control weld quality. This study can also be applied to interpret the contact problems encountered in various electronics and packaging technologies, and so on. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Lee M.-K.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Lai Y.-T.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2013

Transparent conducting nickel oxide (NiO) films were prepared by liquid phase deposition on glass. Saturated NiF2 and boric acid solutions were used as precursors. There was a growth delay time of 5 h and the growth rate was 34.3 nm per hour in the growth region. After annealing at 400°C in air, the resistivity was improved from 4.85 × 103 Ω cm to 7.5 × 10-1 Ω cm, and the transmittance decreased from 91.85% to 66.49% at a wavelength of 550 nm, respectively. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Hwang C.-C.,Feng Chia University | Li P.-L.,Feng Chia University | Liu C.-T.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics | Year: 2012

A hybrid excited linear flux switching permanent magnet motor (HLFSPMM) is a possible solution for developing a rare-earth-magnet-free electric motor with high force density. We designed an HLFSPMM that uses a ferrite magnet in place of a rare earth magnet. A suitable mover slot and stator pole number combination was selected in the initial design stage to achieve the desired performance capability. Structural refinements using design sensitivity analysis (DSA) based on the finite element method (FEM) were performed to enhance the machine performance. Simulation results have been validated by experimental measurements. © 1965-2012 IEEE.


Wong K.-L.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference Proceedings, APMC | Year: 2013

Promising internal handheld device ground antennas are presented. Using the ground antenna concept, the antenna element functions mainly as an exciter and can have a very small size to achieve 4G/multiband operation. In this paper, ground antenna structures for handheld devices including the use of a loop strip, a half-loop strip, a simple shorted strip, or an inverted-F strip with the aid of a capacitive element to achieve decreased resonant length and the use of a small-size strip or patch with an inductive element to combine with the device ground plane to form as an asymmetric dipole structure are discussed. By aided with proper matching circuits, the ground antennas are promising to provide wideband operations. A small corner strip antenna with its resonant length 29 mm only (less than 0.08λ at 750 MHz) is also demonstrated for the LTE/WWAN tablet computer application. The ground antennas are also very promising to form high-isolation antenna systems for MIMO and diversity operation in the slim handheld devices. © 2013 IEEE.


Horng T.-S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference Proceedings, APMC | Year: 2013

This paper introduces an innovative continuous-wave (CW) radar technology, called the self-injection-locked (SIL) radar. It can compete with pulse radar technology in resisting clutter and interference, but maintains the advantage of low complexity that is associated with the CW radar. Accordingly, an SIL radar can be implemented at low cost, providing high performance and low power consumption. It therefore has great potential to accelerate the killer application development of portable radars for wireless health and safety services, especially when installed in personal mobile devices. © 2013 IEEE.


Yeh S.-C.J.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine | Year: 2012

Objectives: The study objectives were to examine the effect of a 12-week 30-minute-a-day Ping Shuai Qigong exercise program on climacteric symptoms and sleep quality in perimenopausal women. Design: This was a prospective observational study. Settings/location: The subjects (N=70) from two communities were women aged 45 years and above who were experiencing menopausal symptoms. Subjects: Thirty-five (35) women from one community were assigned to a Ping Shuai Qigong intervention group, while 35 women from the other community were assigned to the control group. Interventions: This was a 12-week, 30-minute-a-day Ping Shuai Qigong program. Outcome measures: The Greene Climacteric Symptom scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were the outcome measures. Methods: Descriptive analysis and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used. Results: Pretest scores at baseline found no significant group differences in climacteric symptoms or sleep quality. Significant improvements in climacteric symptoms were found at 6 weeks and 12 weeks (t=4.07, p<0.001 and t=11.83, p<0.001) in the intervention group. They were also found to have significant improvements in sleep quality in those times (t=5.93, p<0.001 and t=10.58, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Ping Shuai Qigong improved climacteric symptoms and sleep quality in perimenopausal women at 6 weeks and 12 weeks. The longer a person practiced this form of meditative exercise, the greater the improvement in sleeping quality and climacteric symptoms. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.


Chakraborty C.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Roy S.S.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Hsu M.J.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Agoramoorthy G.,Tajen University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

The type 2 diabetes has increased rapidly in recent years throughout the world. The insulin signal transduction mechanism gets disrupted sometimes and it's known as insulin-resistance. It is one of the primary causes associated with type-2 diabetes. The signaling mechanisms involved several proteins that include 7 major functional proteins such as INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PIK3CA, Akt2, and GLUT4. Using these 7 principal proteins, multiple sequences alignment has been created. The scores between sequences also have been developed. We have constructed a phylogenetic tree and modified it with node and distance. Besides, we have generated sequence logos and ultimately developed the protein-protein interaction network. The small insulin signal transduction protein arrangement shows complex network between the functional proteins. © 2011 Chakraborty et al.


Chen H.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2014

Previous studies have proposed methods to reduce the effect of sound-speed variation in the water column on the precision of GPS/Acoustic positioning. However, the fit of temporal travel-time variation makes reference to sound-speed profiles without considering depth-dependent variation. Accordingly, the goal of this study is to provide a simple and precise approximation for a given sound-speed profile considering its depth-dependent variation. We propose two synthetic models for sound-speed profiles, one linear and the other bilinear, for better travel-time approximations of acoustic ranging in GPS/Acoustic seafloor geodesy. The linear and bilinear models are tested on three types of sound-speed profiles derived from conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts made at water depths of 300, 1000, and 2000 m, respectively. The change in error of the best acoustic travel-time approximation resulting from the change in break depth of the bilinear model is investigated for the three types of sound-speed profiles. Furthermore, the performance of the linear and bilinear models is evaluated using the data collected from a GPS/Acoustic survey. The evaluation results demonstrate that both the linear and bilinear models can effectively reduce the effect of sound-speed variation on the precision of GPS/Acoustic positioning. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hu N.-T.A.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Hu N.-T.A.,National Cheng Kung University
Ocean Development and International Law | Year: 2010

Part IX of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea deals with one particular kind of "special maritime situations and features"-"enclosed or semi-enclosed seas." There are only two articles within Part IX. Article 122 provides a descriptive definition of these maritime features. Article 123 stipulates cooperation among States bordering an enclosed or semi-enclosed sea as a treaty obligation while putting forward three substantive "spheres" in which bordering States can coordinate among themselves to perform such a treaty obligation. The South China Sea fits this wording and is in need of a cooperative mechanism in order to reduce the potential tension and conflicts in the region. By examining the practices of cooperation among bordering States in two other semi-enclosed seas, the Mediterranean Sea and the Caribbean Sea respectively, this article draws certain lessons for the bordering States of the South China Sea to consider for their potential application of Article 123. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Nien-Tsu A.H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Ocean Development and International Law | Year: 2010

As a semi-enclosed sea, the South China Sea is the location of conflicts and disputes arisen from intra-regional claims by bordering States over various insular features and the surrounding waters and from extra-regional interests projected in the region. Regional cooperation is an approach called for by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to address potential conflicts and disputes in semi-enclosed seas. The submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) by two bordering States and the improved cross-Strait relations between Taiwan and China are two recent developments that have implications for stability and cooperation in the region. This article provides a background to these developments and highlights the assessments on the situation and prospects of the South China Sea presented by articles in this and the next Special Issue. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Huang S.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University
International Journal of Modern Physics B | Year: 2012

In order to realize the spin-polarized field-effect-transistor, a controllable spinorbit interaction is necessary. Two kinds of spinorbit interaction, Dresselhaus and Rashba spinorbit interaction, in semiconductor heterostructures have been widely discussed and investigated in terms of both theories and experiments. Dresselhaus and Rashba spinorbit interaction mainly comes from the lack of inversion symmetry and effective electric field inside the quantum well, respectively. Many experimental investigations show that external voltages affect the carrier concentration of reservoirs, wavefunction distribution in the quantum well and the conduction band profile of the heterostructures. The details of the mechanisms and the efficiency of different effects on the spinorbit interaction intensity are discussed through different structures and materials. The results show that an increase in carrier concentration or a decrease in gate voltage enhances the Rashba spinorbit interaction intensity. On the other hand, the wavefunction penetration is the other important mechanism that affects the Rashba spinorbit interaction intensity. The carrier concentration asymmetry factor strongly affects the efficiency of the external gate voltage on the Rashba spinorbit interaction intensity. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Wang T.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Wu J.-Y.,National Chiao Tung University
IEEE Transactions on Communications | Year: 2013

This study presents a new relay strategy and associated diversity combining technique for improving the communication performance in semi-blind cooperative networks. In constructing the network model, it is assumed that each relay can obtain the perfect channel state information (CSI) from the source to itself, and the destination can acquire the perfect CSI from all the relays to itself, but does not require the CSI from the source to the participating relays. In performing the considered semi-blind cooperative communications, the relays forward their reliability to the destination using a quantized reliability-relaying (QRR) scheme. Specifically, the relays partition their reliability into three levels in accordance with the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) value of the received signal, and forward a regenerative symbol to the destination if the quantized reliability falls within the "send +1" or "send-1" region; and remain silent otherwise. It is shown theoretically that the QRR scheme achieves a higher deflection coefficient than the regular decode-and-forward (DF) scheme, in which all the participating relays forward their regenerative messages to the destination irrespective of their reliability. Moreover, the simulation results show that given the same semi-blind model, the QRR scheme achieves a lower bit error rate (BER) than existing relay selection DF schemes for all considered values of the average input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). © 2013 IEEE.


Perng J.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Aerospace Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The main purpose of this paper is to predict the phenomenon of pilot-induced oscillations (PIOs) by the use of parameter plane method. The position-limited and rate-limited are always existed in the practical pilot-vehicle systems. Based on the approximation of classical describing functions, the stability of linearized pilot-vehicle systems can be easily analyzed. In addition, the effects of varying controller or plant parameters on stability must be considered to achieve a robust design by parameter plane approach. In this work, a PID pilot-vehicle system with rate-limited is given for analyzing PIOs first. Although the control structure is simple, it still makes some complex situations. The effect of phase delay is also addressed. Finally, the stability analysis to a pilot-vehicle system with multiple nonlinearities is extended. Computer simulations demonstrate the estimation of PIOs by this method. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Lin H.-E.,National Sun Yat - sen University | McDonough E.F.,Northeastern University
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2014

While there is general agreement about the need for firms to both exploit and explore, there has been little empirical research that has focused on understanding how firms can manage the tension that arises from engaging in these two activities. Some writers have theorized that the cognitive frames that individuals, teams, and organizations possess may play an important role in managing these tensions and fostering ambidextrous outcomes. However, a review of the extant literature on cognition and cognitive frames reveals that their role in managing this tension has not been examined at any level, including the strategic business unit (SBU) level. This paper has taken a first step in providing empirical validation for the notion that ambidextrous cognitive frames play an important role in generating innovation ambidexterity. To test the hypotheses, primary data were gathered from 178 Taiwanese companies (190 SBUs) operating in chemicals, pharmaceuticals, financial management, mechanical engineering, and electronic engineering sectors. Questionnaires were administered to senior level managers and middle-level managers in each SBU. Because the theory and hypotheses of this study require an SBU level of analysis, respondents' individual scores on each variable were aggregated, and the SBU mean responses for each question were computed. Multiple regression analyses were performed to test the hypotheses. Different cognitive styles were found to impact different types of learning. An independent cognitive style was found to have a positive impact on intra-SBU learning, while a reflection cognitive style had a positive impact on inter-SBU learning. More importantly, ambidextrous cognitive frames, i.e., the combination of these two styles, were found to indirectly foster innovation ambidexterity by facilitating intra-SBU learning and inter-SBU learning simultaneously. These results suggest that managing the tension that arises from exploiting and exploring begins with the presence of dual cognitive styles. Ambidextrous cognitive frames enable SBUs to cognitively juxtapose contradictions and tensions in ways that allow them to "embrace" rather than avoid or deny these tensions. These findings provide validation for viewing SBUs as separate, holistic entities that collaboratively shape their cognitive frames. And it is these cognitive frames that enable their information processing which in turn causes the SBU to act or perform in a distinctive or characteristic manner. Additionally, these findings suggest that management teams may need to adopt ambidextrous cognitive frames that broaden the "problem space" to include multiple sources of learning that emanate from inside, as well as outside of the SBU or organization. © 2014 Product Development & Management Association.


Wei G.,Shaanxi Normal University | Xu H.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Xu H.-K.,King Abdulaziz University
Inverse Problems | Year: 2013

The uniqueness problem of determining a spherically symmetric wave speed v is considered in a bounded spherical region of radius b from the set of the transmission eigenvalues for which the corresponding eigenfunctions are also spherically symmetric. Let a denote the integral of 1/v on the interval [0, b]. If a = b then v is uniquely determined by the data consisting of all the transmission eigenvalues plus an appropriate value of v or its derivative at the endpoint b. If a > b, the unique recovery is obtained by the data consisting of all the transmission eigenvalues together with the normalizing constants corresponding to the partial simple eigenvalues. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.


He S.,Civil Aviation University of China | Xu H.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2013

A uniqueness theorem of supporting hyperplanes for a class of convex level sets in a Hilbert space is obtained. As an application of this result, we prove an alternative theorem on solutions of variational inequalities defined on convex level sets. Three examples are given to demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of our alternative theorem. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Chiang Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2012

In this paper, some characterizations for the solidness of dual cones are established. As applications, we prove that a Banach space is reflexive if it contains a solid pointed closed convex cone having a weakly compact base, and prove an analogue of a Karamardian's result for the linear complementarity problem in reflexive Banach spaces. The uniqueness of the solution of the linear complementarity problem is also discussed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Gao X.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | Chen C.T.A.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Water Research | Year: 2012

Bohai Bay, the second largest bay of Bohai Sea, largely due to the huge amount of pollutants discharged into it annually and its geohydrologic condition, is considered to be one of the most polluted marine areas in China. To slow down, halt and finally reverse the environmental deterioration of Bohai Sea, some researchers have proposed to connect it with Jiaozhou Bay in the western coast of Southern Yellow Sea by digging an interbasin canal through Shandong Peninsula. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution and provide background information for such a large geoengineering scheme, surface sediments from 42 stations covering both riverine and marine regions of the northwestern coast of Bohai Bay were analyzed for heavy metal content and fractionation (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Three empirically derived sediment quality guidelines were used to assess the pollution extent of these metals. The studied metals had low mobility except for Cd at all stations and Zn at some riverine stations. Although a high mobility of Cd was observed, it could hardly cause a bad effect on the environment owing to its low total concentrations. Anthropogenic influence on the accumulation of studied heavy metals in sediments of Bohai Bay was obvious, but their contents were relatively lower to date comparing with some other marine coastal areas that receive important anthropogenic inputs. Taking as a whole, surface sediments of northwestern Bohai Bay had a 21% probability of toxicity based on the mean effects range-median quotient. © 2012.


Chang S.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

As catch and effort statistics including fishing time and location are essential for producing abundance indices for utilized fish stocks, fishing states are encouraged under the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries to collect and maintain such statistics. However, for coastal fisheries (including artisanal fisheries) that are mainly composed of small-sized vessels which are usually too numerous to monitor, fisheries statistics collection systems are often either lacking or of insufficient quality (e.g. incomplete or inaccurate). Vessel monitoring system (VMS) data are commonly used to construct or improve estimation of fishing effort and fishing location in large-scale fisheries. Most coastal fisheries lack VMS but their countries do have coastal surveillance radar systems (CSRS) for security and enforcement purposes. This study illustrates and recommends opportunistic use of CSRS data to provide similar scientific benefits to VMS data for coastal fisheries. CSRS in combination with market landings data can construct logbook-like catch and effort statistics. This study introduces a method and demonstrates its usefulness for scientific research and management purposes, including the potential to obtain a higher accuracy and precision, particularly for fishing location and catch amount. Limitations of the CSRS data and challenges to managers involved in its application are also discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Wu T.-C.E.,National Dong Hwa University | Scott D.,Texas A&M University | Yang C.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Leisure Sciences | Year: 2013

The popularity of online games has generated research interest in the flow experiences they may induce and the possibility of game addiction. Our study focuses on the dynamics of progression within online games, a perspective largely overlooked in previous investigations. Recreation specialization is used for exploring progression among online gamers and clarifying relationships between flow experiences and addiction tendencies. Data from online questionnaires completed by 357 players of Massively Multiplayer Role-Playing Games showed that specialized players are more likely to experience flow and exhibit game addiction than inexperienced players. Additionally, recreation specialization intensifies the effect of flow experiences on addiction tendencies. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Perng J.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2012

The main purpose of this paper is to consider the robust stability analysis of time-delay systems based on the parameter plane method. The simple and systematic procedure proposed for solving this problem easily obtains the exact stability boundaries of time-delay systems. First, the relation between state-space representation and s-domain characteristic equations is analyzed. The effects of both the state matrix and time-delay on stability are addressed by this approach. System stabilization by state feedback gain is also derived. Performance tests of the proposed procedure confirm that it obtains more information compared with procedures reported in the literature. © ICIC International 2012.


Chakraborty C.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Agoramoorthy G.,Tajen University | Hsu M.J.,National Sun Yat - sen University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) harbors proteins such as IRS1, IRS2, IRS3, IRS4, IRS5 and IRS6. These key proteins act as vital downstream regulators in the insulin signaling pathway. However, little is known about the evolutionary relationship among the IRS family members. This study explores the potential to depict the evolutionary relationship among the IRS family using bioinformatics, algorithm analysis and mathematical models. © 2011 Chakraborty et al.


Lin D.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

The application of the transformation design method developed in transformation optics in a quantum system with the interaction of central force fields is explored. It is shown that altering an interaction from a specific type to a desired form is possible and that it may result in the possibility of creating a new quantum state to share the well-known energy spectrum and offer an alternative way of designing a new atomic system. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Chen J.-C.,National Kaohsiung Normal University | Wen C.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Signal Processing Letters | Year: 2010

This paper considers the use of the sign-selection technique to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. In the sign-selection technique, a set of subcarrier signs is selected to significantly reduce the PAPR statistics for OFDM signals. However, the considerable computational complexity for an exhaustive search over all combinations of 2L different sign patterns is a potential problem for practical implementation, where L is the number of subcarriers. To reduce the computational complexity while still improving the PAPR statistics, we introduce the quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA), an effective algorithm that solves various combinatorial optimization problems, to determine a good set of subcarrier signs. The computer simulation results show that as compared to the conventional selected mapping (SLM) scheme and the cross-entropy (CE) method, the proposed QEA obtains the desirable PAPR reduction with low computational complexity. © 2006 IEEE.


Lin K.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chen S.-L.,China Steel Corporation | Mittra R.,Pennsylvania State University
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2013

Design of a long read-range, reconfigurable operating frequency radio frequency identification (RFID) metal tag is proposed in this paper. The antenna structure consists of two nonconnected load bars and two bowtie patches electrically connected through four pairs of vias to a conducting backplane to form a looped-bowtie RFID tag antenna that is suitable for mounting on metallic objects. The design offers more degrees of freedom to tune the input impedance of the proposed antenna. The load bars, which have a cutoff point on each bar, can be used to reconfigure the operating frequency of the tag by exciting any one of the three possible frequency modes; hence, this tag can be used worldwide for the UHF RFID frequency band. Experimental tests show that the maximum read range of the prototype, placed on a metallic object, are found to be 3.0, 3.2, and 3.3 m, respectively, for the three operating modes, which has been tested for an RFID reader with only 0.4 W error interrupt pending register (EIPR). The paper shows that the simulated and measured results are in good agreement with each other. © 2012 IEEE.


Chen J.-C.,National Kaohsiung Normal University | Wen C.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Signal Processing Letters | Year: 2010

This letter considers the use of the tone injection (TI) scheme to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. TI is a distortionless technique that can reduce PAPR significantly without data rate loss and does not require the extra side information. However, the optimal TI scheme requires an exhaustive search over all combinations of possible permutations of the expanded constellation, which is a potential problem for practical applications. To reduce the computational complexity while still improving PAPR statistics, this letter first formulates the PAPR reduction with TI scheme as a particular combinatorial optimization problem. Next, it proposes the application of the cross-entropy (CE) method to solve the problem. Computer simulation results show that the proposed CE method obtains the desired PAPR reduction with low computational complexity. © 2006 IEEE.


Wang S.S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2013

This study explored whether agreeableness, extraversion, and openness function to influence self-disclosure behavior, which in turn impacts the intensity of checking in on Facebook. A complete path from extraversion to Facebook check-in through self-disclosure and sharing was found. The indirect effect from sharing to check-in intensity through life satisfaction was particularly salient. The central component of check-in is for users to disclose a specific location selectively that has implications on demonstrating their social lives, lifestyles, and tastes, enabling a selective and optimized self-image. Implications on the hyperpersonal model and warranting principle are discussed. © 2013 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Chen J.-C.,National Kaohsiung Normal University | Wen C.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Communications Letters | Year: 2010

This paper deals with the transmission parameter adaptation problem in a dynamic wireless channel environment for multicarrier-based cognitive radio systems. Given the environmental parameters returned by sensors, the cognitive radio will select a set of transmission parameters that can best respond to the new conditions. However, due to many possible values for the transmission parameters, the adaptation of radio parameters to generate optimum transmitted signals according to the changing environment and user needs is rather complex, especially for the multicarrier system with a large number of subcarriers. Inspired by the efficient ability of the cross-entropy (CE) method to find near-optimal solutions in huge search spaces, the application of the CE method to optimize cognitive radio parameters given a set of objectives is proposed. Computer simulation results show that the proposed CE method has significantly faster convergence than the conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. Moreover, the parameters optimized by the proposed CE method have higher fitness values than those optimized by PSO. © 2006 IEEE.


Lin D.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Annals of Physics | Year: 2014

It is shown that a quantum structure can be created by a set of chosen constraint conditions that emerge from the transformation design of the Dirac equation in general relativity. As an explanation, the constraints that cause novel bound states with the quantization rule of a 2D Coulomb system are presented. The discussion in this paper provides a systematic way to look for constraints that generate a required quantization rule. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Lin Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chen C.-K.,National Cheng Kung University
Romanian Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

This paper deals with the double singular boundary value problems of second order. The differential equation has two singular points and the singular points are just the boundary points. Nonlinear models are solved by this method to get more reliable and efficient numerical results. It can also be used to solve singular boundary value problems where the traditional methods fail.


Yang S.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Omega (United States) | Year: 2012

The concept of a "good death" reflects an individual's positive perceptions of and expectations about death. What constitutes a good death varies based on factors such as sociocultural norms, time, space, and even individual characteristics such as age, culture, and health status. Kehl (2006) maintained that this definitional ambiguity has impeded the implementation of measures intended to appropriately assist the dying because it has been difficult to determine what clinical evaluations and caregiving practices should be used to provide patients with more than "a good death" as it is medically defined. Thus, a more comprehensive and systematic conceptual understanding of this concept is urgently necessary. © 2012, Baywood Publishing Co., Inc.


Chiu C.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Huang H.-Y.,Soochow University of Taiwan
European Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2015

User loyalty or continued use is critical to the survival and development of any website. Focusing on the social network services (SNSs) context, this study proposes a research model for investigating individuals' use motivations and the moderating role of habit with regard to gratification and continuance intention. This research integrates two influential media communication theories, media system dependency (MSD) and uses and gratifications, to examine SNSs-related behaviors. To comprehend online users' motivations in depth, three motivations derived from MSD (understanding, orientation and play dependency relations) are operationalized as reflective, second-order constructs. The three motivations are theorized to affect parasocial interaction positively, and parasocial interaction is hypothesized to positively affect the gratification that individuals derive from SNSs usage. Furthermore, this study hypothesizes that gratification positively affects individuals' continuance intention. Finally, we theorize that habit moderates the impact of gratification on continuance intention. Data collected from 657 Facebook users provide strong support for all six hypotheses. The results indicate that individuals' motivations (i.e., the understanding, orientation and play dependency relations) positively affect parasocial interaction, which in turn has a positive effect on gratification, and subsequently continuance intention. In addition, the results show that habit has a small but negative moderating effect on the relationship between gratification and continuance intention. Implications for theory and practice are discussed, and suggestions are made for future research. © 2015 Operational Research Society Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chen J.-C.,National Kaohsiung Normal University | Li C.-P.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Signal Processing Letters | Year: 2010

This letter considers selection of the optimal peak reduction tone (PRT) set for the tone reservation (TR) scheme to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. In the TR scheme, PAPR reduction performance achieved by a randomly generated PRT set is superior to that by a consecutive PRT set and that achieved by an interleaved tone set. However, the optimal PRT set requires an exhaustive search of all combinations of possible PRT sets, which is known to be a nondeterministic polynomial-time (NP)-hard and cannot be solved for the practical number of tones. Inspired by the efficiency of the cross-entropy (CE) method for finding near-optimal solutions in huge search spaces, this letter proposes the application of the CE method to search the optimal PRT set. Computer simulation results show that the proposed CE method obtains near-optimal PRT sets and provides better PAPR performance. © 2006 IEEE.


Lopez G.,University of Seville | Martin-Marquez V.,University of Seville | Wang F.,Luoyang Normal University | Xu H.-K.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Inverse Problems | Year: 2012

The split feasibility problem (SFP) consists in finding a point in a given closed convex subset of a Hilbert space such that its image under a bounded linear operator belongs to a given closed convex subset of another Hilbert space. Iterative methods can be employed to solve the SFP. The most popular iterative method is Byrnes CQ algorithm. However, to employ Byrnes CQ algorithm, one needs to know a priori the norm (or at least an estimate of the norm) of the bounded linear operator (matrix in the finite-dimensional framework). It is the purpose of this paper to introduce a way of selecting the stepsizes such that the implementation of the CQ algorithm does not need any prior information about the operator norm. We also practise this way of selecting stepsizes for variants of the CQ algorithm, including a relaxed CQ algorithm where the two closed convex sets are both level sets of convex functions, and a Halpern-type algorithm. Both weak and strong convergence are investigated. Numerical experiments are included to illustrate the applications in signal processing of the CQ algorithm with stepsizes selected in an adaptive way. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Lee C.-C.,Fooyin University | Chiou W.-B.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2013

As social networking sites (SNS) increasingly provide social connections that meet the need for affiliation, people are developing symbiotic relationships with these sites. Drawing on the notion that people motivated by affiliation may increase their attention to sources that provide social connections, we conducted a lab experiment to explore whether priming affiliation needs would prompt the idea of online social networking. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three between-subjects conditions (affiliation arousal, social exclusion, control) in which we employed the scrambled-sentence paradigm to manipulate affiliation motivations. Each experimental condition was followed by a modified Stroop task (a color naming task) to test reaction times to SNS and non-SNS terms (including general terms and brand names). People who were primed to think about a topic typically showed slowed reaction times for naming the color of related words (i.e., Stroop interference), as those words become more interesting and accessible. Confirming our hypothesis, participants took longer to name the font color of SNS-related words than that of matched general words when affiliation motivation was evoked. Moreover, priming with affiliation motivation created more Stroop interference for SNS brand names rather than for other global brand names. These results suggest that the idea of online social networking seems to have become deeply rooted in human social practices. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.


Chen W.-C.,National Chiao Tung University | Kuo S.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chang F.-C.,National Chiao Tung University
Polymer | Year: 2010

In this study, we investigated the miscibility, phase behavior, and self-assembled nanostructures formed from the immiscible crystalline-amorphous diblock copolymer poly(e{open}-caprolactone- b-4-vinyl pyridine) (PCL- b-P4VP, A-B) when blended with the homopolymer poly(vinyl phenol) (PVPh, C) and the diblock copolymer poly(vinyl phenol- b-styrene) (PVPh- b-PS, C-D). Long-range-ordered microphase separation was difficult to achieve in the PCL- b-P4VP/PVPh (A-B/C) blend system because PVPh interacted with both the P4VP and PCL blocks simultaneously through hydrogen bonding interactions. In contrast, we observed sharp, multiple orders of diffraction in the SAXS profiles of the PCL- b-P4VP/PVPh- b-PS (A-B/C-D) blend system, indicating that perfect microphase separation occurred because the incorporation of the PS block induced the PVPh block to hydrogen bond preferentially with the P4VP block. This simple A-B/C-D (PCL- b-P4VP/PVPh- b-PS) diblock copolymer mixture exhibited self-assembly behavior (a three-lamella phase) similar to that of a corresponding ABC triblock copolymer. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Lin C.-T.,National Chiao Tung University | Kuo S.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Huang C.-F.,National Chiao Tung University | Chang F.-C.,National Chiao Tung University
Polymer | Year: 2010

A series of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylamide-co-tricyclodecyl methacrylate) (PMMA-co-PMAAM-co-PTCM) copolymers possessing high glass transition temperatures and high transparency are prepared. By incorporating the aliphatic tricyclodecyl methacrylate moiety into the PMMA-co-PMAA main chain results in high glass transition temperature and high transparency of PMMA-based polymeric material. The TCM content affects the fraction of hydrogen bonding in these terpolymers, small content of TCM does not sacrifice the fraction of hydrogen-bonded association in and does not cause Tg decrease. The extent of free amide group plays the major role in dictating moisture absorption of terpolymers. The incorporation of TCM significantly reduces the moisture absorption of terpolymers due to its hydrophobic and bulky tricyclodecyl group. In addition, the TCM plays the role of inert diluent to convert portion of the strong self-associated hydrogen bonded amide groups into inter-associated hydrogen bonding between carbonyl groups of ester units and MAAM. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chen S.-C.,National Chiao Tung University | Kuo S.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Jeng U.-S.,National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center | Su C.-J.,National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center | Chang F.-C.,National Chiao Tung University
Macromolecules | Year: 2010

We have investigated the phase behavior of poly(4-vinylphenol-b-styrene) (PVPh-b-PS) when respectively blended with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and PVPh homopolymers by mediated hydrogen bonding strengths with the PVPh block of the copolymer. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic result indicates that the PVPh-b-PS/P4VP blend has a much higher fraction (fH) of hydrogen-bonded PVPh blocks for a significantly higher miscibility compared with the blends with PMMA and PVPh homopolymers. Consequently, the PVPh-b-PS/P4VP blend, behaving as a neat diblock copolymer, exhibited a series of order-order phase transitions from the lamellar, gyroid, hexagonally packed cylinder to body-centered cubic structures when the P4VP content increases from 6 to 71 % (volume fraction), as evidenced consistently by transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. In contrast, both the PVPh-b-PS/PMMA and PVPh-b-PS/PVPh blends maintained essentially the lamellar structure upon a similar volume fraction increase in the homopolymers; the lamellar structure, however, was distorted to different extents at higher volume fractions of the additives, depending on the hydrogen bonding strength. On the basis of the results, the ratio of interassociation equilibrium constant (KA) over self-association equilibrium constant (KB), KA/KB, is introduced as a convenient guide in estimating the phase behavior of similar polymer blends featuring hydrogen bonding interactions between the homopolymer additive and copolymer; with a KA/KB ratio much larger than unity, the blend system tends to behave as a neat copolymer; with a K A/KB ratio significantly smaller than unity, phase separation instead of order-order phase transitions can be expected for the blend above certain volume fraction of homopolymer additive. © 2009 American Chemical Society.


Chen H.-T.,National Center for High Performance Computing | Chang J.-G.,National Center for High Performance Computing | Ju S.-P.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chen H.-L.,Chinese Culture University
Journal of Computational Chemistry | Year: 2010

We have elucidated the mechanism of CO oxidation catalyzed by gold nanoparticles through first-principle density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. Calculations on selected model show that the low-coordinated Au atoms of the Au29 nanoparticle carry slightly negative charges, which enhance the O2 binding energy compared with the corresponding bulk surfaces. Two reaction pathways of the CO oxidation were considered: the Eley-Rideal (ER) and Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH). The overall. LH reaction O 2(ads) + CO(gas) → O2(ads) + CO (ads) →OOCO(ads) → O(ads) + CO 2(gas) is calculated to be exothermic by 3.72 eV; the potential energies of the two transition states (TSLH1 and TSLH2) are smaller than the reactants, indicating that no net activation energy is required for this process. The CO oxidation via ER reaction Au29 + O2(gas) + CO(gas) → Au29-O2(ads) + CO (gas) → Au29-CO3(ads) → Au 29-O(ads) + CO2(gas) requires an overall activation barrier of 0.1.9 eV, and the formation of Au29-CO 3(ads) intermediate possesses high exothermicity of 4.33 eV, indicating that this process may compete with the LH mechanism. Thereafter, a second CO molecule can react with the remaining O atom via the ER mechanism with a very small barrier (0.03 eV). Our calculations suggest that the CO oxidation catalyzed by the AU29 nanoparticle is likely to occur at or even below room temperature. To gain insights into high-catalytic activity of the gold nanoparticles, the interaction nature between adsorbate and substrate is also analyzed by the detailed electronic analysis. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Wu N.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | Tsay T.-K.,National Taiwan University | Chen Y.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen Y.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Wave Motion | Year: 2014

The focus of present study is on how to generate solitary waves as pure as possible by using a piston type wave maker. A meshless numerical model, which can simulate the trajectories of fluid particles in a wave motion exerted by the wave paddle, is established for the purpose of present study. The present numerical model is verified by the comparison with experimental data before it is employed to the focused problem. Various wave paddle motions are considered. The results show that solitary waves generated by applying Fenton's solitary solution to the paddle motion proposed by Goring are purer than those generated by other paddle motions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Lin D.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
European Physical Journal D | Year: 2016

Abstract: It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the behavior of a chargedtransformation-wave in a uniform magnetic field. We first derive the equation which atransformation-wave needs to satisfy, and then, as the main application, the magneticduality of the Hooke-Newton transmutation is performed by a conformal mapping whichgenerates the novel states with the following characteristics: (a) bound or scatteringstates are classified by the signatures of the quantum number of the angular momentum andthe charge of the particle; (b) the angular momentum satisfies the half-integerquantization rule; and (c) the mass parameter to reach the states is isotropic. Finally,as an alternative application, we report the construction of the fractional angularmomentum and fractional Landau levels with the transformation design method. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016, EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Tsay S.-F.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Surface Science | Year: 2016

The atomic geometry, stability, and electronic properties of self-organized Au induced nanowires on the Ge(001) surface are investigated based on the density-functional theory in GGA and the stoichiometry of Au. A giant Ge zigzag chain structure is suggested for 0.75 ML Au coverage, which displays c(8 × 2) deep groove zigzag nanowire structure simulated STM images. The top layer Ge and Au atomic disorder introduces the chevron units into the zigzag nanowire structure STM image as per the experimental observations. The zigzag Ge nanowire exhibits a semi-metallic characteristic, and the electric transport occurs in between the Ge zigzag nanowire and the subsurface. The system exhibits obvious electronic correlations among the Ge nanowire, the nano-facet Au trimers and the deeper layer Ge atoms, that play an important role in the electronic structure. At surface Brillouin zone boundaries, an anisotropic two-dimensional upward parabolic surface-state band is consistent with the ARPES spectra reported by Nakatsuji et al. [Phys. Rev. B 80, 081406(R) (2009); Phys. Rev. B 84, 115411 (2011)]; this electronic structure is different from the quasi-one-dimensional energy trough reported by Schäfer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 236802 (2008); Phys. Rev. B 83, 121411(R) (2011)]. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wei C.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Lin C.-T.,National Chiao Tung University | Wang C.-Y.,National Chiao Tung University
Optics Express | Year: 2012

This work proposes a novel direct-detection polarization division multiplexed OFDM scheme without the need of dynamic polarization control at a polarization-diverse receiver, and the proposed scheme is robust against polarization mode dispersion. Setting the frequency difference between two polarization-orthogonal reference carriers as one subcarrier spacing, possible signal fading can be avoided, and the corresponding interference from adjacent subcarriers is eliminated by a novel MIMO algorithm. The penalty caused by high channel matrix condition number can be decreased by inserting empty tones among subcarriers, and the polarization-dependent OSNR penalty at the BER of 10 -3 is <3.6 dB with an empty tone inserted every 8 subcarriers. Moreover, the numerical results demonstrate the 16 ×103-ps/nm chromatic dispersion and the 300-ps differential group delay will not induce additional penalty. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


This study explores the Chinese contrastive marker dan in order to better understand how and why it is used to imply a contrast in discourse. It analyzes the marker as used in the evaluation reports on Taiwan's university programs, including their curriculum designs and teaching quality. The data consist of eighteen paragraphs selected from the evaluation reports on nine English Departments. The study shows that dan may be used as a discourse marker to indicate one of five potential relationships between the two discourse segments it conjoins. Based on an experiment, it examines whether such segments have an " inherent" contrastive relationship or contrast is better treated as related to perception and stance. The results support the latter. The study then considers dan as a metadiscourse marker, which has the interpersonal function of engaging and persuading the reader and the textual function of organizing the text. Next, the study proposes to view dan or its equivalent in Mandarin (e.g. wei, danshi, or ran) as a metapragmatic marker inasmuch as it indexes the writer's main concern. Overall, the study shows how dan can be used in the discourse to (i) mark contrast, (ii) mark the presence of the writer's voice, (iii) help the reader interpret two information segments, (iv) counteract a potential face-threatening act, (v) help the writer perform the act of evaluation, and (vi) signal the act of " pre-advice" © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Wang Y.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chen Y.-F.,National Chiao Tung University | Tseng Y.-C.,National Chiao Tung University
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2012

Due to hardware design or cost consideration, sensors may possess sector-like sensing coverage. Furthermore, by stepper motors, sensors can rotate to cover the objects around them. This type of sensors are called rotatable and directional (R&D) sensors. Through rotation, R&D sensors provide temporal coverage to objects by "periodically detecting their existence. In the paper, we first develop an event-driven surveillance system by R&D sensors, where objects are monitored by the sensors equipped with infrared detectors and cameras. When an object is taken away, the sensor monitoring the object reports a warning message along with detailed snapshots from the surroundings. Then, motivated by the system, we formulate an R&D sensor deployment problem, which tries to deploy the minimum number of R&D sensors to cover a given set of objects such that each object is covered by 0 δ ≤ 1 ratio of time in every frame. We show this problem to be NP-hard and propose two efficient heuristics. The maximum covering deployment (MCD) heuristic iteratively deploys a sensor to cover more objects, and performs well when objects congregate together. The disk-overlapping deployment (DOD) heuristic deploys sensors to cover the joint sectors of overlapped disks, so it works better when objects are arbitrarily placed in the sensing field. The paper contributes in defining a new temporal coverage model by R&D sensors, developing a surveillance application for this model, and proposing efficient heuristics to reduce the deployment cost. © 2012 IEEE.


Chiou W.-B.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Wan P.-H.,Carnegie Mellon University | Wan C.-S.,Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Human Computer Studies | Year: 2012

Soft lifting refers to the process whereby a legally licensed software program is installed or copied in violation of its licensing agreement. Previous research on this pervasive kind of unethical computer use has mainly focused on the determinants of this unethical act, which are rooted in personal, economic, technological, cultural, socio-political, or legal domains. However, little is known about the symbolic power that soft lifting has on the sense of self. Based on recent advances in behavioral priming, we hypothesized that soft lifting can influence the signals one sends to oneself; more specifically, soft lifting may prime individuals to experience an inauthentic sense of self, which, in turn, prompts further unethical behavior. In Study 1, we showed that participants, primed with the memory of a recent soft lifting experience, cheated more than participants recalling a recent experience of purchasing authentic software or than control participants. Moreover, feelings of inauthenticity mediated the priming effect of soft lifting on dishonest behavior. In Study 2, participants primed with soft lifting showed a greater willingness to purchase a wide range of counterfeit products over authentic products. Besides those antecedents or correlates of soft lifting already identified in the literature, educators should pay more attention to the negative impact of soft lifting on the self-images of users, which may go beyond computer-related behaviors. Priming may provide a new direction for HCI researchers to examine the impact of computer-use-related factors on users perceptions, motivations, and behaviors. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chen C.-L.,Johns Hopkins University | Chen C.-L.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Wang Y.,Johns Hopkins University | Sesaki H.,Johns Hopkins University | Iijima M.,Johns Hopkins University
Science Signaling | Year: 2012

Class I myosins participate in various interactions between the cell membrane and the cytoskeleton. Several class I myosins preferentially bind to acidic phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], through a tail homology 1 (TH1) domain. Here, we show that the second messenger lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) binds to the TH1 domain of a subset of Dictyostelium class I myosins (ID, IE, and IF) and recruits them to the plasma membrane. The PIP3-regulated membrane recruitment of myosin I promoted chemotaxis and induced chemoattractant-stimulated actin polymerization. Similarly, PIP3 recruited human myosin IF to the plasma membrane upon chemotactic stimulation in a neutrophil cell line. These data suggest a mechanism through which the PIP3 signal is transmitted through myosin I to the actin cytoskeleton.


You B.,National Cheng Kung University | Lu J.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Yu C.-P.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Liu T.-A.,Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan | Peng J.-L.,Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan
Optics Express | Year: 2012

A dielectric pipe waveguide is successfully demonstrated as a terahertz refractive index sensor for powder and liquid-vapor sensing. Without additional engineered structures, a simple pipe waveguide can act as a terahertz resonator based on anti-resonant reflecting guidance, forming multiple resonant transmission-dips. Loading various powders in the ringcladding or inserting different vapors into the hollow core of the pipe waveguide leads to a significant shift of resonant frequency, and the spectral shift is related to the refractive-index change. The proven detection limit of molecular density could be reduced to 1.6nano-mole/mm3 and the highest sensitivity is demonstrated at around 22.2GHz/refractive-index-unit (RIU), which is comparable to the best THz molecular sensor [Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171113 (2009)]. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Cui H.-W.,Shanghai University | Cui H.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Fan Q.,Shanghai University | Li D.-S.,Shanghai University
Polymer International | Year: 2013

In this study, five different flexibilizers were added into a matrix resin to improve the flexibility of electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs). The flexible ECAs were fabricated from the matrix resin and electrically conductive fillers. Their curing was fixed at 150°C for 30min. Of the five flexibilizers, 1,3-propanediol bis(4-aminobenzoate) (PBA) had the best effect on the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of the ECAs. During curing, PBA reacted with the functional epoxy in the matrix resin. The soft ether segments in PBA were grafted into the crosslinked epoxy network to form an orderly spaced mesh structure. This led to high-temperature stability, with the pyrolysis temperature being above 350°C. Flexible ECAs with a 10% weight ratio of PBA in the matrix resin had the best properties. Their viscosity and bulk resistivity were the lowest. Their flexibility and electrical conductivity were the highest. They also had low storage modulus which could effectively dissipate or reduce the residual shear stress generated by the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient between chip and substrate. Their impact strength was the lowest, and the toughening effect was so significant that the improvement was about 48% compared to ECAs. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.


Guerrero J.M.,University of Aalborg | Loh P.C.,Nanyang Technological University | Lee T.-L.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chandorkar M.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

This paper summarizes the main problems and solutions of power quality in microgrids, distributed-energy-storage systems, and ac/dc hybrid microgrids. First, the power quality enhancement of grid-interactive microgrids is presented. Then, the cooperative control for enhance voltage harmonics and unbalances in microgrids is reviewed. Afterward, the use of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) in grid-connected microgrids is introduced in order to improve voltage sags/swells and unbalances. Finally, the coordinated control of distributed storage systems and ac/dc hybrid microgrids is explained. © 1982-2012 IEEE.


Chiu Y.-B.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2012

Deforestation is a serious environmental problem in many developing countries. This study re-examines whether the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) relationship between deforestation and real income exists for 52 developing countries during the 1972-2003 period by applying the recently developed panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) model. This paper also considers the potential endogeneity biases and other explanatory variables as a robustness check of the EKC hypothesis. The empirical results indicate the existence of a strong threshold effect between deforestation and real income, and that evidence of the EKC hypothesis for deforestation is apparent. Along with an increase in real income, deforestation increases initially, and after reaching certain income levels, deforestation drops. The turning points are US$3,021 and US$3,103, which the PSTR model endogenously determines. © 2012 Canadian Agricultural Economics Society.


Li K.S.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University
IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems | Year: 2013

We propose a full-chip synthesis methodology to construct custom network-on-chips (CusNoCs) for NoC-based systems. The proposed scheme generates irregular network topologies for application-specific designs with known communication demands. In this method, processors and the communication architecture can be synthesized simultaneously in the floorplanning process, and thus it is called CusNoC. CusNoC synthesizes CusNoC in two steps. The target network topology is first generated based on communication analysis. Processing elements are partitioned into groups such that the utility of routers will be maximized if a router is assigned to each group. In this way, the number of routers passed by a packet, or hops, is minimized, and so is the power consumption in the network. The final network topology is formed by properly connecting these groups. A wirelength-aware floor planning is then carried out to optimize circuit size as well as wirelength. Experimental results show that CusNoC produces custom NoCs with better performance than previous methods while the computation time is significantly shorter. This method is also more scalable, which makes it ideal for complicated systems. © 1993-2012 IEEE.


Kao S.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Ocean Development and International Law | Year: 2015

This article examines the National Plans of Action (NPOAs) adopted by selected States to combat illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing. Despite some minor differences between States’ NPOAs, the NPOAs generally are similar to what was envisioned in the International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter, and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing adopted in 2001. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Li K.-M.,National Taiwan University