Narayan G.R.,Sun System
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2012
The barcode system is used as one of the most useful tools for detecting and recognizing information related to each product. Handy type bar-code readers are normally used where small amounts of products are considered. A Barcode recognition system which quickly and automatically read out bar-code data for a continuous flow of products is required in production and distribution centers where large volumes of products are considered. High performance level with less noise level system is needed. To satisfy this requirement the bar-code recognition devices have been developed using image processing technology. In this paper real time bar code detection and recognition by combining Image processing and Xilinx is proposed. Using Xilinx block set filters can be developed which can reduce the amount of noise level. For barcode recognition video images are used as inputs. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sullivan P.P.,Sun System |
McWilliams J.C.,University of California at Los Angeles
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010
We discuss the coupling processes between surface gravity waves and adjacent winds and currents in turbulent boundary layers. These processes mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, and gases between the atmosphere and ocean and thus are of global significance for climate. Surface waves grow primarily by pressure-form stress from airflow over the waveforms, and they dissipate in the open sea by wave breaking that injects and stirs momentum, energy, and bubbles into the ocean. Wave motions pump wind eddies that control fluxes across the lower atmosphere. Flow separation occurs behind steep wave crests, and at high winds the crests flatten into spume, which diminishes the drag coefficient. In the ocean the Lagrangian-mean wave velocity, Stokes drift, induces a vortex force and material transport. These generate Langmuir circulations penetrating throughout the boundary layer and enhancing entrainment at the stratified interior interface in combination with other turbulent eddies and inertial-shear instability. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Liu X.-Y.,China Institute of Technology |
Qi X.-M.,China Institute of Technology |
Zheng S.-S.,China Institute of Technology |
Chen D.-M.,Sun System |
Wang F.,China Institute of Technology
Xitong Fangzhen Xuebao / Journal of System Simulation | Year: 2012
Partial shading makes PV array output voltage-current curve to be ladder shape, and the corresponding voltage-power curve contains multi-local maximum points, so that the traditional solar cell models are no longer applicable in this condition. A PV array model for partially shading was proposed, and the experiments were carried out to evaluate the model. Results demonstrate that the proposed model works well for the shading condition, and the corresponding computer simulation model was built in MATLAB. Based on the proposed model, PV array characteristics of more shading patterns were analyzed. The analysis and final optimal design scheme provide strong support for the engineering design of PV systems.
News Article | November 25, 2009
Solyndra, the well-funded maker of tube-shaped solar panels based in Fremont, Calif., has just scored a deal with Milan, Italy-based solar integrator Sun System. Under an agreement that Solyndra says could be worth up to $105 million over several years, Sun System will use the 4-year-old startup’s cylindrical thin film systems for commercial rooftop installations in southern Italy. Today’s agreement will help Solyndra continue to ramp up its presence in Europe, where the company set up headquarters in January as part of an effort to get more business in the region’s most active photovoltaic markets, including France, Germany, Greece, Italy and Spain. Solyndra has a mountain of capital behind it. The company snagged the first loan guarantee — for $535 million — since the 1980s under a long-delayed Department of Energy program earlier this year. And it became one of the most capitalized startups this fall when it approached the $800 million mark for private equity financing. The company has announced several major deals this year that will boost its European business outside of Germany (Solyndra’s previous focus in the region). This spring, Solyndra announced a $115 million deal to sell panels to EBITSCHenergietechnik, a solar integrator in Zapfendorf, Germany, as well as a $189 million agreement to sell an undisclosed number of panels to Amsterdam-based solar integrator SunConnex — both through 2013. Other customers include Germany-based integrators Phoenix Solar and GeckoLogic, and as of May of this year, Solyndra said its backlog of sales contracts totaled nearly $1.7 billion. According to today’s release, Sun System installed a large project with Solyndra panels back in September at textile maker Tessitura Uboldi’s facility in Northern Italy. Sun System does projects across Italy, and this new agreement could open doors for Solyndra in the country, where as early as next year solar electricity costs could reach competitive prices with conventional power sources “thanks to its abundant sunshine and high electricity prices,” although bureaucracy often slows the permitting process, according to a report from the European Photovoltaics Industry Association (EPIA) cited by Greentech Media. The market that Solyndra and Sun System plan to target — medium- to large-scale commercial rooftop installations — will be the strongest market segment in Italy in 2010, according to forecasts from the EPIA. As the two companies seek to ride that wave, it will be solar panels made in California (at Solyndra’s Milpitas and Fremont facilities) soaking up the Italian sun.
News Article | December 21, 2009
One of the most interesting parts about a startup registering for an IPO is that the company has to file an S-1 form, which is made publicly available on the Securities and Exchange Commission’s web site. If the startup is particularly stealthy, then an S-1 can be the first time a lot of information about the company’s financials, business model, and operating costs become available. That’s the case with Solyndra, a thin film solar tube maker that kept quiet for several years and which registered for an IPO just this past Friday (SEC filing here). We spent a couple hours today wading through the over 145-page document and decided to pull out these tidbits, including that as of Oct. 3, Solyndra says, it has raised “approximately $970 million through equity financings.” As of early September the company was saying it had raised close to $800 million. Grid Parity by 2012: Solyndra hopes by 2012 it will be able “to deliver photovoltaic systems for commercial rooftops that produce electricity at rates that are competitive with the retail price of electricity in key markets on a non-subsidized basis.” In other words, it basically wants to reach grid parity — the holy grail of the solar biz — within, give or take, two years. Just Started Selling: Solyndra just started commercial shipments in July 2008 and says it sold 17.2 MW of panels in the nine months ended Oct. 3, compared with 1.6 MW for the fiscal year ended Jan. 3, 2009. Solyndra says its first factory has produced less than 30 MW of output. Bulk of Customers in Germany, Europe: Solyndra says during the fiscal year ended Jan. 3, 69 percent of revenue was from sales to customers in Germany. And over 85 percent of its shipments to date have been to Europe. Customers include Alwitra GmbH, Carlisle Syntec, Geckologic, Phoenix Solar, Premier Solar Systems, Solar Power, Sunconnex, Sun System and USE Umwelt Sonne Energie. Those customers also make up a large percentage of business currently. Solyndra says for the fiscal year ended Jan. 3, revenue from Geckologic and Phoenix Solar accounted for 29 percent and 27 percent, respectively, of total revenue. For the nine months ended Oct. 3, revenue from USE Umwelt Sonne Energie, Carlisle Syntec and Alwitra accounted for 19 percent, 17 percent and 13 percent, respectively, of total revenue. Future Volume Plans: Solyndra says it has “framework agreements with system integrators and roofing materials manufacturers outlining general terms for the delivery of up to 865 MW of our photovoltaic systems by the end 2013.” Its first factory will have an annualized production run rate of 110 MW by the fourth fiscal quarter of 2010, and its second factory will have an annualized production run rate of 500 MW. Formerly Known As: Quick trivia. When Solyndra was incorporated back in May 2005 it was originally named Gronet Technologies, for founder and CEO Christian Gronet. In January 2006 it was renamed Solyndra. Argonaut’s Share: Argonaut Private Equity and its affiliates have “approximately 35.7 percent” of the “outstanding common stock on an as-converted basis,” and has the right to purchase “up to 15 percent of the aggregate number of shares offered in this offering at the initial price to the public, but is under no obligation to purchase any shares.” Revenues, Losses: Solyndra generated revenues of $58.82 million for the nine months ending Oct 3, 2009, but has had an expanding net loss of $27.2 million in 2006, $114.1 million in 2007, $232.1 million in 2008 and $119.8 million in the first nine months of fiscal 2009. Cost Per Factory: Solyndra estimates that it will cost $1.38 billion to build its second factory, Fab 2. Those costs include “the total capital required for the land, buildings, improvements, manufacturing equipment and certain sales, marketing and other startup costs. Solyndra says after its first two factories, it will look to build others using the proprietary info it learned through these first two. What’s The Warranty?: Solyndra’s tubular panels have a warranty guarantee that they will have a minimum peak power output under standard test conditions of at least 90 percent of their initial power rating for the first decade, and at least 80 percent of their initial power rating during the following 15 years. Valuable Founder: Founder and CEO Gronet has a base salary of $400,000 for fiscal year 2009, and has key person life insurance. R&D Budget: To date Solyndra has invested at least $290 million into research and development. Raised Almost a Billion Dollars: Solyndra says through Oct. 3, 2009, the company has raised “an aggregate of approximately $970 million through equity financings, including $286 million from the issuance of Series F convertible preferred stock in the quarter ended October 3, 2009.” As of early September Solyndra had raised close to $800 million. Capital Expenditure Ramp-up: The capital expenditures at Solyndra are quickly ramping up, growing from $5.1 million in 2006, $94.8 million in 2007, $144.5 million in 2008, and $101.5 million for the nine months ended Oct. 3, 2009. Solyndra estimate its total capital expenditures for the remaining three months of 2009 will be about $87 million, and estimates that in 2010 its capital expenditures will reach $590 million. Cool Roof Project: Solyndra says that installers can bundle its tube-shaped solar panels with “a new reflective ‘cool’ roof,” that can offer “building energy efficiency and solar electricity production.” And that cool roof project could be eligible for a 30 percent U.S. federal investment tax credit. Efficiency Metrics: Solyndra says its solar cells have a conversion efficiency of approximately 11-14 percent. How Many Patents?: The company has had five patents issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and has filed over 150 patent applications, covering both domestic and foreign rights. Who Owns What: Shares beneficially owned prior to the offering include 35.74 percent for Argonaut Ventures, 6.81 percent for CMEA Ventures, 8.06 percent for Gronet, 11 percent for Madrone Partners, 5.94 percent for Redpoint Ventures, 7.5 percent for RockPort Capital Partners, and 10.19 percent for US Venture Partners.