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Akron, OH, United States

Gilloteaux J.,Northumbria University | Gilloteaux J.,Summa Research Foundation | Ekwedike N.N.,Northumbria University
Ultrastructural Pathology | Year: 2010

Comparisons of atrial tissues from Syrian hamster offspring born from cocaine-treated mothers during the last days of pregnancy with sham-treated ones demonstrate irreversible focal ischemic damage in the Purkinje myofibers and minor endocardial damages as well as minute cardiomyocyte vacuolization. These defects are consistent with the pharmacotoxicity of cocaine or its metabolites. The damaged Purkinje myocytes apparently remain in contact with adjacent cardiomyocytes but undergo autolytic process similar to that found in autoschizic cell death. Adjacent cell type(s) appear to segregate or engulf the injured cells. Data collected in this report demonstrate why clinical bradyarrhythmias, arrhythmias, or sudden death as cardiac arrest can be found in pre- and postnatal cocaine-abused babies as well as those found in young individuals caused by acute or chronic cocaine abuse. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

Gilloteaux J.,Summa Research Foundation | Ott D.W.,University of Akron | Oldham-Ott C.K.,Walsh University
Anatomical Record | Year: 2013

The gallbladder of Torpedo marmorata exhibits a mucosal surface layer of simple columnar epithelium with very tall cholecystocytes. The apical domain of each cell has few microvilli, but many mucous vesicles that are secreted by exocytosis at the cell apices. The apical regions may also elongate and undergo self-excision while shedding mucus and cell debris into the gallbladder lumen in a manner similar to that described in mammals as a result of sex steroid treatment to induce gallstones and to that found in the cholecystitis associated with cholelithiasis. Numerous small mitochondria, spherical to elongated, are distributed throughout the cells, while the nuclei are often located in the lower third of each cell. In the lower part of the cholecystocytes, large and very densely contrasted lysosomes can be found. All cells are tightly joined by junctional complexes, including long, highly contrasted desmosomes. The fibromuscular layer is made of a loose stroma with a limited muscular component and a poor blood supply. Large diameter blood vessels can only be found in the subserosal layer. It is hypothesized that the obligatorily carnivorous diet of this ureotelic fish has resulted in the evolution of a gallbladder ultrastructure resembling that found in cholecystitis but without the associated cholelithiasis. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Gilloteaux J.,Northumbria University | Gilloteaux J.,Summa Research Foundation | Jamison J.M.,Summa Research Foundation | Neal D.R.,Summa Research Foundation | And 3 more authors.
Ultrastructural Pathology | Year: 2010

A human bladder carcinoma cell line RT4 was sham-treated with buffer or treated with ascorbate (VC) alone, menadione alone (VK3), or a combination of ascorbate:menadione (VCVK3) for 1, 2, and 4h. Cytotoxic damage was found to be treatment-dependent in this sequence: VCVK3>VC>VK3>sham. The combined treatment induced the greatest oxidative stress, with early tumor cell injury affecting the cytoskeletal architecture and contributing to the self-excisions of pieces of cytoplasm freed from organelles. Additional damage, including a reduction in cell size, organelle alterations, nuclear damage, and nucleic acid degradation as well as compromised lysosome integrity, is caused by reactivation of DNases and the redox cycling of VC or VCVK3. In addition, cell death caused by VCVK3 treatment as well as by prolonged VC treatment is consistent with cell demise by autoschizis, not apoptosis. This report confirms and complements previous observations about this new mode of tumor cell death. It supports the contention that a combination of VCVK3, also named Apatone, could be co-administered as a nontoxic adjuvant with radiation and/or chemotherapies to kill bladder tumor cells and other cancer cells without any supplementary risk or side effects for patients. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

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