Ōsaka, Japan
Ōsaka, Japan

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Hamada N.,Sumire Hospital | Noh J.Y.,Ito Hospital | Okamoto Y.,Sumire Clinic | Ueda M.,Sumire Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Endocrine Journal | Year: 2010

There is some debate over the clinical utility of measuring serum TgAb to assess the presence of thyroid autoimmunity. To clarify the relationship between TgAb levels and thyroid autoimmunity, a histological examination of thyroid tissue was carried out on unselected living individuals with detectable serum TgAb. 146 patients with a pathological diagnosis of follicular adenoma were selected as subjects. Focal lymphocytic infiltration (FLI) was defined as lymphocytic aggregates of more than 200 in number. A thyroid gland in which 0-1 FLI was observed in a few visual fields of low magnification (20 × 4) in thyroid tissue adjacent to a tumor was judged to be normal and a thyroid gland in which 2 or more FLI were observed was diagnosed as focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT). Serum levels of TgAb and TPOAb were measured by radioimmunoassay. Out of the 146 patients, 18 had detectable serum TgAb and 16 had detectable serum TPOAb. All but one (i.e. 94%) of the 18 TgAb positive patients had FLT and 14 out of the 16 TPOAb positive patients had FLT. The sensitivity (17/32; 53.1%) and specificity (113/114; 99.1%) of TgAb for detecting FLT were higher than those (14/32; 43.7% and 112/114; 98.2%) of TPOAb, but the differences were not significant. In 9 patients who were TgAb positive (but TPOAb negative), 8 (88.9%) had FLT. These results throw doubt on the Laboratory medicine practice guidelines published in Thyroid 2003, in which measuring TgAb is not usually necessary for detecting autoimmune thyroid disease. At least measuring TgAb by sensitive assay is useful for assessing the presence of thyroid autoimmunity in Japan, an area with high iodine intakes.


Konishi T.,Sumire Hospital | Okamoto Y.,Sumire Clinic | Ueda M.,Sumire Hospital | Fukuda Y.,Sumire Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Endocrine Journal | Year: 2011

According to the guideline issued by the Japan Thyroid Association in 2006 for treatment of Graves' disease, discontinuing antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy is recommended when serum free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations have been maintained within the reference range for a certain period after treatment with one ATD tablet every other day (minimum maintenance dose therapy, MMDT). In this retrospective study, the relationship between MMDT duration and remission rate was investigated. The participants were 107 consecutive patients with Graves' disease whose ATD therapy was stopped according to the guideline. Serum FT4, TSH, and TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) levels were measured when ATD was discontinued and every 3 months thereafter. The percentage of patients in remission was 86.9% at 6 months, 73.8% at 1 year, and 68.2% at 2 years after ATD discontinuation. The remission rate increased with MMDT duration, being signiicantly higher in patients with MMDT durations of 19 months or more than those with MMDT durations of 6 months or less. In patients with MMDT durations of 6 months or less, the remission rate was signiicantly lower in TRAb-positive patients than in TRAb-negative patients at the time of withdrawal of ATD; however, this was not observed in patients with MMDT durations of 7 months or more. These indings suggest that in patients who discontinue ATD after a certain MMDT duration, the remission rate increases as the MMDT duration increases, and ATD should not be discontinued in TRAb-positive patients with MMDT durations of 6 months or less.© The Japan Endocrine Society.


Serum levels of TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) often increase after radioiodine treatment for Graves disease, and high-serum levels of maternal TRAb in late pregnancy indicate a risk of neonatal hyperthyroidism. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the characteristics of Graves women who had a history of radioiodine treatment for intractable Graves disease, and whose neonates suffered from hyperthyroidism. The subjects of this study were 45 patients with Graves disease who became pregnant during the period from 1988 to 1998 after receiving radioiodine treatment at Ito Hospital. 25 of the 45 subjects had had a relapse of hyperthyroidism after surgical treatment for Graves disease. 19 pregnancies were excluded because of artificial or spontaneous abortion. In the remaining 44 pregnancies of 35 patients, neonatal hyperthyroidism developed in 5 (11.3%) pregnancies of 4 patients. Serum levels of TRAb at delivery were higher in patients whose neonates suffered from hyperthyroidism (NH mother) than those of patients who delivered normal infants (N mother). Furthermore, serum levels of TRAb in NH mother did not change during pregnancy, although those of 4 patients of N mother, in which serum levels of TRAb before radioiodine treatment were as high as in NH mother, decreased significantly during pregnancy. In conclusion, women who delivered neonates with hyperthyroidism following radioiodine treatment seem to have very severe and intractable Graves disease. Persistent high TRAb values during pregnancy observed in those patients may be a cause of neonatal hyperthyroidism.


According to the guideline issued by the Japan Thyroid Association in 2006 for treatment of Graves disease, discontinuing antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy is recommended when serum free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations have been maintained within the reference range for a certain period after treatment with one ATD tablet every other day (minimum maintenance dose therapy, MMDT). In this retrospective study, the relationship between MMDT duration and remission rate was investigated. The participants were 107 consecutive patients with Graves disease whose ATD therapy was stopped according to the guideline. Serum FT4, TSH, and TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) levels were measured when ATD was discontinued and every 3 months thereafter. The percentage of patients in remission was 86.9% at 6 months, 73.8% at 1 year, and 68.2% at 2 years after ATD discontinuation. The remission rate increased with MMDT duration, being significantly higher in patients with MMDT durations of 19 months or more than those with MMDT durations of 6 months or less. In patients with MMDT durations of 6 months or less, the remission rate was significantly lower in TRAb-positive patients than in TRAb-negative patients at the time of withdrawal of ATD; however, this was not observed in patients with MMDT durations of 7 months or more. These findings suggest that in patients who discontinue ATD after a certain MMDT duration, the remission rate increases as the MMDT duration increases, and ATD should not be discontinued in TRAb-positive patients with MMDT durations of 6 months or less.

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