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Matsui H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Kumaki D.,Yamagata University | Takahashi E.,Sumika Chemical Analysis Service Ltd | Takimiya K.,Hiroshima University | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

Microscopic charge dynamics inside microcrystal domains and across domain boundaries in polycrystalline organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) were resolved by angle- and temperature-dependent field-induced electron spin resonance (FI-ESR) spectroscopy. We utilized small-molecule and polymer-based polycrystalline OTFTs, both of which are composed of planar microdomains oriented uniaxially on the substrates. Two types of motional narrowing effect are observed at magnetic fields perpendicular and parallel to the substrate: In the former, we observed the motional narrowing effect due to intradomain transport, while in the latter, we observed another motional narrowing effect due to the carrier hopping across the domain boundaries, which averaged out the variation in g factors between respective microdomains. The analyses revealed that the activation energies for the intradomain transport are between 5 and 21 meV, while those for the interdomain carrier hopping are between 45 and 90 meV. The latter ones coincide with those for the apparent mobility for the respective OTFTs. These results demonstrate that the charge transport is limited by the domain boundaries, which form rate-determining barrier potential both in small-molecule and polymer-based polycrystalline OTFTs. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Abe K.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Nakamura K.,Sumika Chemical Analysis Service Ltd | Arao T.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Sakurai Y.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2011

A simple and quick on-site test for trace levels of cadmium (Cd) in food is needed because of the human toxicity of this heavy metal. We developed an immunochromatography kit which uses the antigen-antibody complex reaction between the Cd-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Cd-EDTA) complex and an anti-Cd-EDTA antibody. We previously reported the successful use of this kit to determine Cd concentrations in brown rice with respect to the international standard: 0.4 mg kg -1. Here, we measured, using this immunochromatography kit, Cd concentrations in crops with lower international standards than rice. RESULTS: Cadmium extracted with 0.1 mol L -1 HCl from wheat grain and fresh eggplant was purified sufficiently using an ion-exchange column treatment. Appropriate HCl extraction rates and dilution rates for the column eluate were selected; Cd concentrations in wheat grain and fresh eggplant were determined successfully by immunochromatography with respect to the international standards of 0.2 mg kg -1 and 0.05 mg kg -1 fresh weight, respectively. CONCLUSION: Approximate Cd concentrations in wheat grain and fresh eggplant can be monitored easily and quickly by this method at locations where facilities for acid digestion and precision analysis are not available. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Yasuhara M.,University of Hong Kong | Yasuhara M.,Smithsonian Institution | Yasuhara M.,Kochi University | Hunt G.,Smithsonian Institution | And 5 more authors.
Paleobiology | Year: 2012

There is growing evidence that changes in deep-sea benthic ecosystems are modulated by climate changes, but most evidence to date comes from the North Atlantic Ocean. Here we analyze new ostracod and published foraminiferal records for the last 250,000 years on Shatsky Rise in the North Pacific Ocean. Using linear models, we evaluate statistically the ability of environmental drivers (temperature, productivity, and seasonality of productivity) to predict changes in faunal diversity, abundance, and composition. These microfossil data show glacial-interglacial shifts in overall abundances and species diversities that are low during glacial intervals and high during interglacials. These patterns replicate those previously documented in the North Atlantic Ocean, suggesting that the climatic forcing of the deep-sea ecosystem is widespread, and possibly global in nature. However, these results also reveal differences with prior studies that probably reflect the isolated nature of Shatsky Rise as a remote oceanic plateau. Ostracod assemblages on Shatsky Rise are highly endemic but of low diversity, consistent with the limited dispersal potential of these animals. Benthic foraminifera, by contrast, have much greater dispersal ability and their assemblages at Shatsky Rise show diversities typical for deep-sea faunas in other regions. Statistical analyses also reveal ostracod-foraminferal differences in relationships between environmental drivers and biotic change. Rarefied diversity is best explained as a hump-shaped function of surface productivity in ostracods, but as having a weak and positive relationship with temperature in foraminifera. Abundance shows a positive relationship with both productivity and seasonality of productivity in foraminifera, and a hump-shaped relationship with productivity in ostracods. Finally, species composition in ostracods is influenced by both temperature and productivity, but only a temperature effect is evident in foraminifera. Though complex in detail, the global-scale link between deep-sea ecosystems and Quaternary climate changes underscores the importance of the interaction between the physical and biological components of paleoceanographical research for better understanding the history of the biosphere. © 2012 The Paleontological Society. Source

Sailstad J.M.,NC Associates | Amaravadi L.,Biogen Idec | Clements-Egan A.,Janssen Research and Development Johnson and Johnson | Gorovits B.,Pfizer | And 8 more authors.
AAPS Journal | Year: 2014

The Global Bioanalysis Consortium (GBC) set up an international team to explore the impact of immunogenicity on pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments. The intent of this paper is to define the field and propose best practices when developing PK assays for biotherapeutics. We focus on the impact of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) on the performance of PK assay leading to the impact on the reported drug concentration and exposure. The manuscript describes strategies to assess whether the observed change in the drug concentration is due to the ADA impact on drug clearance rates or is a consequence of ADA interference in the bioanalytical method applied to measure drug concentration. This paper provides the bioanalytical scientist guidance for developing ADA-tolerant PK methods. It is essential that the data generated in the PK, ADA, pharmacodynamic and efficacy/toxicity evaluations are viewed together. Therefore, the extent for the investigation of the PK sensitivity to the presence of ADA should be driven by the project needs and risk based. © 2014 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. Source

Asako H.,Sumitomo Chemical | Shimizu M.,Sumika Chemical Analysis Service Ltd | Makino Y.,Toyama Prefectural University | Itoh N.,Toyama Prefectural University
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2010

An effective method for producing methyl 4-bromo-3-hydroxybutyrate enantiomers was developed using an engineered protein. Escherichia coli transformant cells containing a mutant β-keto ester reductase (KER-L54Q) from Penicillium citrinum and a cofactor-regeneration enzyme such as glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) or Leifsonia sp. alcohol dehydrogenase (LSADH) were used to produce methyl (S)-4-bromo-3-hydroxybutyrate from methyl 4-bromo-3-oxobutyrate. On the other hand, the production of methyl (R)-4-bromo-3-hydroxybutyrate was achieved by asymmetric reduction of methyl 4-bromo-3-oxobutyrate with a mutant phenylacetaldehyde reductase (PAR-HAR1) from Rhodococcus sp. ST-10. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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