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Suhaimi S.,Sultan Idris Educational University | Mamat K.,University Technology of MARA
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2014

Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a technology that operates on portable devices such as IPAQ Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), smartphones, laptops and other mobile devices. Habitually, all these devices run on batteries; therefore, the need of sufficient power poses a critical issue in the operations of these devices in the network. This research was conducted to compare and analyse the number of nodes keeps alive in the Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) in order to find out the best way to manage the mobile devices. The NS2 simulation tool was used to conduct the experiment focused on Optimize Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol. The scenario was created based on four elements; the space of network, the different number of nodes located in the network, the different speed of nodes and the different speed of the network. The results from the experiment show that all the four elements give a significant impact to the energy usage for mobile devices. Lastly, the matrix solution table for high speed of nodes and high speed of networks is proposed. This matrix solution table can be used as a guideline for the decision maker or researcher to select the suitable elements that suite to their scenario. © Medwell Journals, 2014. Source

Suhaimi S.,Sultan Idris Educational University | Suhaimi S.,University Technology of MARA | Mamat K.,University Technology of MARA | Azzuhri S.R.,University of Malaya
2010 Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference, ATNAC 2010 | Year: 2010

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have become one of the popular key technology and solution for the new wireless implementation especially for wireless end user. One of the widely used routing protocols in WMNs is Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocols. In this paper, we investigate the performance of AODV in situations of link failures due to mobility of nodes and consequent route recovery mechanism using ns2 simulators. We defined a different set of threshold for routing protocols to do local repair based on the link breaks location with respect to the total number of hops from source to destination. Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) or overhead were used as performance metrics in our simulations. For link-failure detection, HELLO message and Link Layer Feedback (LLF) were used separately in the simulations. Simulations were done by varying the number of source-destination pair and speed of the mobile node. ©2010 IEEE. Source

Daud N.,RMIT University | Daud N.,Sultan Idris Educational University | Shanks R.,RMIT University
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2014

Wood is a composite of cellulose fibers interspersed with lignin and hemicellulose. The structure has a complexity of cells, pores and channels serving the living wood and mechanical framework. The aim was to extract all materials except the cellulose framework, without cellular collapse and form a replica by infiltration with synthetic materials. Cellular microstructure replication of wood was achieved either with retention of cellulose fiber skeleton or with a completely synthetic silica replica. Deposition of silica gels deep into the cell walls facilitated in the replication of wood structures after removing the organic constituents. The cellular structure was strengthened by conversion to epoxy composites. Minimal distortion of the original wood cells occurred in the epoxy composite derived from the replicas. The techniques described demonstrate biomimetic preparations of semi-synthetic and synthetic composites based on wood that retain the morphology of the wood. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sethuprakhash V.,Sultan Idris Educational University | Basirun W.J.,University of Malaya
Materials Research Innovations | Year: 2011

Three types of lithium nickel cobalt oxides doped with aluminium have been synthesised by a solid state reaction at 800uC for 18 h. The compounds were analysed using X-ray diffraction and gave sharp and well defined peaks. Electrical impedance spectroscopy was performed on all three materials, and conductivity measurements gave negative activation energies, which increased with the aluminium content. The largest variation in conductivities with temperature was found with the material with the highest aluminium content. Conductivity decreased with the increase in aluminium for all temperatures. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd. 2011. Source

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