Bardstown, KY, United States

Sullivan University
Bardstown, KY, United States

Sullivan University is licensed to offer bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees by the Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education in accordance with the provisions of KRS 164.945-164.99, based in Louisville, Kentucky and is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools—the first for-profit college or university to receive this accreditation. Sullivan University currently has physical campuses in Louisville, Lexington, and Fort Knox, and an online campus. With approximately 6,000 students, Sullivan is Kentucky's largest private university. Wikipedia.

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Spiller H.A.,Kentucky Regional Poison Center | Ryan M.L.,Louisiana Poison Center | Weston R.G.,Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation | Jansen J.,Sullivan University
Clinical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Recently, there has been a worldwide rise in the popularity and abuse of synthetic cathinones. In 2009 and 2010, a significant rise in the abuse of a new group of synthetic cathinones was reported in Western Europe. In 2010, the rapid emergence of a new drug of abuse, referred to as bath salts or "legal high," occurred in the USA. The growing number of cases along with the alarming severity of the effects caused by the abuse of these substances prompted significant concern from both healthcare providers and legal authorities. We report the experience of the first 8 months of two regional poison centers after the emergence of a new group of substances of abuse. Method. This was a retrospective case series of patients reported to two poison centers with exposures to bath salts. Additionally, 15 "product samples" were obtained and analyzed for drug content using GC/MS. Results. There were 236 patients of which 184 (78%) were male. Age range was 1664 years (mean 29 years, SD 9.4). All cases were intentional abuse. There were 37 separate "brand" names identified. Clinical effects were primarily neurological and cardiovascular and included: agitation (n = 194), combative behavior (n = 134), tachycardia (n = 132), hallucinations (n = 94), paranoia (n = 86), confusion (n = 83), chest pain (n = 40), myoclonus (n = 45), hypertension (n = 41), mydriasis (n = 31), CPK elevations (n = 22), hypokalemia (n = 10), and blurred vision (n = 7). Severe medical outcomes included death (n = 1), major (n = 8), and moderate (n = 130). Therapies included benzodiazepines (n = 125), antipsychotics (n = 47), and propofol (n = 10). Primary dispositions of patients were: 116 (49%) treated and released from ED, 50 (21%) admitted to critical care, 29 (12%) admitted to psych, and 28 (12%) lost to follow up. Nineteen patients had blood and/or urine analyzed using GC/MS. MDPV was detected in 13 of 17 live patients (range 24241 ng/mL, mean 58 ng/mL). The four samples with no drug detected, reported last use of bath salts >20 h prior to presentation. Three of five patients had MDPV detected in urine (range 341386 ng/mL, mean 856 ng/mL). No mephedrone or methylone was detected in any sample. Quantitative analysis performed on postmortem samples detected MDPV in blood at 170 ng/mL and in urine at 1400 ng/mL. No other synthetic cathinones were detected. Discussion. This is the first report of MDPV exposures with quantitative blood level confirmation. Clinical effects displayed a sympathomimetic syndrome, including psychotic episodes often requiring sedation, movement disorders, and tachycardia. Within 8 months of their appearance, 16 states had added synthetic cathinones to the controlled substances list as a Schedule I drug. Conclusion. We report the emergence of a new group of substances of abuse in the USA, known as bath salts, with quantitative results in 18 patients. State and federal authorities used timely information from poison centers on the bath salt outbreak during investigations to help track the extent of use and the effects occurring from these new drugs. Close collaboration between state authorities and poison centers enhanced a rapid response, including legislation. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Al-Ghananeem A.M.,Sullivan University | Smith M.,Sullivan University | Coronel M.L.,Sullivan University | Tran H.,Sullivan University
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2013

Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a neurotropic virus that enters the central nervous system (CNS) early in the course of infection. Although antiretroviral drugs are able to eliminate the majority of the HIV virus in the bloodstream, however, no specific treatment currently exist for CNS infections related to HIV. This is mainly attributed to the poor penetrability of antiretroviral therapy across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the protective nature of the BBB. Therefore, in order to increase the efficacy of anti-HIV drugs, novel drug delivery methodologies that can exhibit activity in the CNS are most needed and warranted. Areas covered: In this review article, the authors discussed the challenges with delivering drugs to the brain especially under HIV infection pathophysiology status. Also, they discussed the approaches currently being investigated to enhance brain targeting of anti-HIV drugs. A literature search was performed to cover advances in major approaches used to enhance drug delivery to the brain. Expert opinion: If drugs could reach the CNS in sufficient quantity by the methodologies discussed, mainly through intranasal administration and the utilization of nanotechnology, this could generate interest in previously abandoned therapeutic agents and enable an entirely novel approach to CNS drug delivery. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Malcom D.R.,Sullivan University
Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning | Year: 2015

Background: Veterinary medicine and pet care are increasingly common topics encountered in community pharmacy practice. However, current pharmacy curricula include limited didactic training on the safety and efficacy of medicine in veterinary practice. Our goal was to design and implement a new veterinary medicine and pet care elective course for second-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in a three-year accelerated program. Educational activity: Faculty provided didactic lectures and hands-on practice related to various areas of veterinary medicine. Students were assessed on communication skills, including their ability to respond to inquiries typically encountered in the community setting, and were required to develop and present educational posters to grade-school students about pet issues. They were also assessed on appropriate use of references and resources throughout the course. A cumulative final exam covered all didactic topics. This elective course in practical veterinary medicine and pet care was viewed positively by students based on standard course evaluation results. Students appreciated the focus on an area of community practice that is not currently a major part of the curriculum. Critical analysis: This veterinary medicine elective course was evaluated highly by students. It provided useful information related to care of animals and pets, as well as practice and training for patient communication. Students offered productive feedback to enhance the course in the future. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Tran T.,Sullivan University | Nguyen T.,Oregon State University
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2016

Recent approaches using network coding (NC) to mix data from different flows show significant throughput improvement in wireless networks. However, in this paper, we argue that exhaustively mixing packets from different flows may decrease network quality of service (QoS), particularly in the presence of flows with different service classes. We therefore propose a context-aware interflow network coding and scheduling (CARE) framework, which adaptively encodes data across the traffic to maximize the network QoS. First, we develop a perception-oriented QoS (PQoS) to measure the user satisfaction of different types of services. Next, based on the characteristics of the traffic, we optimally combine data across the flows and schedule the encoded packets in each time frame to maximize the PQoS at the receivers. Solving CARE is NP-hard; thus, we devise a computationally efficient approximation algorithm based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo method to approximate the optimal solution. We prove that the proposed approximation algorithm is guaranteed to converge to the optimal solution. The analytical and simulation results show that, under certain channel conditions, the proposed CARE-based schemes not only improve the network QoS but achieve high throughput across all receivers as well. Additionally, the results show that the approximation algorithm is efficient and robust to the number of data flows. In some transmission conditions, our CARE-based schemes can improve the network QoS up to 50% compared with the existing randomized NC techniques. © 2016 IEEE.

Malcom D.R.,Sullivan University
American journal of pharmaceutical education | Year: 2012

To design, implement, and measure the effectiveness of a critical care elective course for second-year students in a 3-year accelerated doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. A critical care elective course was developed that used active-learning techniques, including cooperative learning and group presentations, to deliver content on critical care topics. Group presentations had to include a disease state overview, practice guidelines, and clinical recommendations, and were evaluated by course faculty members and peers. Students' mean scores on a 20-question critical-care competency assessment administered before and after the course improved by 11% (p < 0.05). Course evaluations and comments were positive. A critical care elective course resulted in significantly improved competency in critical care and was well-received by students.

Palmer E.C.,Sullivan University | Binns L.N.,Southern Arizona Veterans Affairs Healthcare System | Carey H.,Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Objective: To provide a clinical overview of the antidepressant levomilnacipran. Data Sources: Articles were identified by searching the MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and databases through March 2014 using the keyword levomilnacipran. The manufacturer provided additional information from unpublished phase II and phase III trials. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Any clinical trial conducted for at least 3 weeks and published in the English language was selected for review. Additional documentation, including the product dossier, package insert, pharmacokinetic studies, and poster presentations supplied by the manufacturer, was also evaluated. Data Synthesis: Levomilnacipran is the more potent enantiomer of milnacipran. It is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), dosed from 20 to 120 mg daily for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Efficacy and tolerability were established during 3 phase III randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trials finding levomilnacipran to be significantly more efficacious than placebo in reduction of Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores. It is not known whether this agent is more efficacious than other antidepressants because direct comparison studies have not been conducted as of the time of this review. Conclusions: Levomilnacipran demonstrates efficacy and tolerability for short-term treatment of MDD in adults. Available evidence does not strongly indicate that there is a specific subpopulation of patients who would benefit from levomilnacipran over currently available SNRIs. Full characterization of the agent's place in therapy alongside multiple other agents with similar mechanisms and efficacy requires trials with longer duration and active comparators. © The Author(s) 2014.

BACKGROUND: Recent changes in the United States (US) economy have radically disrupted revenue generation among many institutions within higher education within the US. Chief among these disruptions has been fallout associated with the financial crisis of 2008-2009, which triggered a change in the US higher education environment from a period of relative munificence to a prolonged period of scarcity. The hardest hit by this disruption have been smaller, less wealthy institutions which tend to lack the necessary reserves to financially weather the economic storm. Interestingly, a review of institutional effectiveness among these institutions revealed that while many are struggling, some institutions have found ways to not only successfully cope with the impact of declining revenue, but have been able to capitalize on the disruption and thrive. OBJECTIVE: Organizational response is an important factor in successfully coping with conditions of organizational decline. The study examined the impacts of organizational response on institutional effectiveness among higher education institutions experiencing organizational decline. The study's research question asked why some US higher educational institutions are more resilient at coping with organizational decline than other institutions operating within the same segment of the higher education sector. More specifically, what role does organizational resilience have in helping smaller, private non-profit institutions cope and remain effective during organizational decline? PARTICIPANTS: A total of 141 US smaller, private non-profit higher educational institutions participated in the study; specifically, the study included responses from participant institutions' key administrators. METHODS: 60-item survey evaluated administrator responses corresponding to organizational response and institutional effectiveness. Factor analysis was used to specify the underlying structures of rigidity response, resilience response, and institutional effectiveness. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the direct and interaction effects between organizational decline, organizational rigidity response, organizational resilience response, and institutional effectiveness, controlling for age of institution and level of endowment. RESULTS: The study validated previous threat-rigidity response findings that organizational decline alone does not adversely impact institutional effectiveness. The direct effect of Goal-Directed Solution Seeking and Role Dependency organizational resilience factors had a positive, significant correlation with the Student Personal Development institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Goal-Directed Solution Seeking organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Professional Development and Quality of Faculty institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Avoidance during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Faculty and Administrator Employment Satisfaction institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Diminished Innovation, Morale, and Leader Credibility rigidity response factor and Avoidance organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Professional Development and Quality of Faculty institutional effectiveness factor. Lastly, the interactive effect of Increased Scapegoating of Leaders, Interest group Activities, and Conflict rigidity response factor and Avoidance organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Faculty and Administrator Employment Satisfaction institutional effectiveness factor. CONCLUSIONS: Factors of organizational resilience were found to have a positive effect among smaller, private non-profit higher educational institutions associated with this study toward sustaining institutional effectiveness during organizational decline. Specifically, the organizational resilience factors of Goal-Directed Solution Seeking (i.e., mission-driven solutions) and Avoidance (i.e., skepticism toward new ideas) play a significant, collaborative role among smaller, private non-profit higher educational institutions when it comes to sustaining institutional effectiveness during organizational decline. © 2016 - IOS Press and the authors.

Le U.M.,Sullivan University
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2015

Gemcitabine is utilized as the first-line treatment for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas that has been considered as one of the most challenging diseases. The major drawback of the gemcitabine formulations is its high hydrophilicity and short half-life. To compensate for those shortcomings, a large dose of infused gemcitabine is usually used to achieve the desire therapeutic effects. However, using this dose, could lead to a high toxicity and severe adverse effects. Hence, there has been a great of interest in the development of gemcitabine to increase the hydrophobicity, half-life, and stability of the drug. In this review, we summarize the latest approaches in drug delivery of gemcitabine to clarify the unsolved problems of drug resistance and discuss the effectiveness of the advanced delivery systems on different types of cancer. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Todd R.,Sullivan University
Dental Clinics of North America | Year: 2014

Cone beam computed tomography has gained acceptance in the endodontic community for assistance with diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of outcomes. This article reviews a multitude of applications, from basic principles to clinical applications, using specific cases and supporting literature to demonstrate the benefits for both the specialist and general practitioner. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Sullivan T.D.,Sullivan University
Geologically Active - Proceedings of the 11th IAEG Congress | Year: 2010

The Geological Model is the fundamental basis for all geotechnical analysis and design. Notwithstanding this there is very little information available that describes what The Geological Model is, what it should contain and how to formulate an effective model. This paper brings together the understanding, concepts, ideas and processes developed over more than 35 years of making geological models. The fundamental problem with anything built from geology, are the gaps and the limited vision. This leads to uncertainty and risk, which can only be successfully managed with sound geological models. The lessons from cognitive science and psychology about the way the brain functions provide powerful insights into the thinking processes and skills required to develop good geological models. These are supplemented by reinforcement of the essential role of the scientific method, inductive reasoning, education and mentoring. The general principles guiding geological models are presented and the problems normally associated with poor models highlighted. Guidelines and frameworks for developing sound geological models are presented together with the key questions that need to be answered at each stage of the process. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

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