Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Kurdistan, Iraq
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Freyhof J.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Abdullah Y.S.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Zootaxa | Year: 2017

Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males. © 2017 Magnolia Press.

Karim K.H.,University of Sulaimani | Khanaqa P.A.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2017

The current study focuses on roles of the synclines in building mountains of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt from Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan Region. The studied area is located in the Imbricated Zone, which is a continuation of Simply Folded Zone of Iran. In some parts of this zone, the synclines contribute to building nearly half of the mountains and increase the relief contrast of the landscapes. The role of syncline in building mountains is opposite to its apparent intrinsic shape which is located in low land and normally forms synclinal valleys. In studied area, this phenomenon is observable in the areas that are complexly deformed, deeply exhumed, and predominately composed of the carbonate rocks. In these areas, exhumation and stream erosion have removed high thickness of overburden rocks and the tectonic stresses have crenulated carbonate rocks in the synclines. Due to these processes, these synclines are observable on the peak of the mountains now. The contribution of synclines in mountain building is related to three properties: the first is folding of synclines in confined condition (relative to anticlines) by which they have transformed to highly compact and stiff rocks. The second is accumulation of hydrothermal or meteoric water in the synclines due to its downward bending which aids precipitation of minerals and heals the possible tectonically and lithostatically induced fractures. The third is ductile deformation of synclines in confined and deeper level as compared to brittle deformation of anticlines in relatively shallower level and unconfined condition during deformation. Consequently, these factors result in an inversion of topography by which synclines are remained as mountains (high topography) above surface during exhumation while erosion removes anticlines. The result of this study is applicable for geological, geomorphological, and structural mapping in highly deformed and deeply exhumed terrains. The possible prediction of geomorphological position of synclines and anticlines on the mountain peaks and valley bottoms respectively is the applicable result in the above terrains. © 2017, Saudi Society for Geosciences.

Awrahman B.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University | Alatas B.,Firat University
Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering | Year: 2017

Evaluations, opinions, and sentiments have become very obvious due to rapid emerging interest in e- commerce which is also a significant source of expression of opinions and analysis of sentiment. In this study, a general introduction on sentiment analysis, steps of sentiment analysis, sentiments analysis applications, sentiment analysis research challenges, techniques used for sentiment analysis, etc., were discussed in detail. With these details given, it is hoped that researchers will engage in opinion mining and sentiment analysis research to attain more successes correlated to these issues. The research is based on data input from web services and social networks, including an application that performs such actions. The main aspects of this study are to statistically test and evaluate the major social network websites: In this case Twitter, because it is has rich data source and easy within social networks tools. In this study, firstly a good understanding of sentiment analysis and opinion mining research based on recent trends in the field is provided. Secondly, various aspects of sentiment analysis are explained. Thirdly, various steps of sentiment analysis are introduced. Fourthly, various sentiment analysis, research challenges are discussed. Finally, various techniques used for sentiment analysis are explained and Konstanz Information Miner (KNIME) that can be used as sentiment analysis tool is introduced. For future work, recent machine learning techniques including big data platforms may be proposed for efficient solutions for opinion mining and sentiment analysis. © 2017, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka. All rights reserved.

Ahmed H.M.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2017

Kurdistan is an area where famous for its biodiversity of plants particularly Southern Kurdistan. Traditional uses of the medicinal plants have not been well-studied or documented. Thus, the study of Kurdish ethnobotany may be crucial for understanding local plant uses. This is the first study and therefore, the objective of this investigation was to document traditional uses of Kurdish medicinal plant Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica Zohary in Ranya, Sulaymaniyah Province, Iraqi Kurdistan. An ethnobotanical filed study was conducted via semi-structured interviews of Twenty-five elderly informants to document traditional knowledge in Ranya during 2016. Data was analysed by comparison with the ethnobotanical literature of Kurdistan. The use-value (UVd) index was developed and used to calculate the citation of diseases only for single plant species. The results found that the tree has a long history of therapy for 20 different types of human diseases and problems. The high UVd value recorded for peptic and duodenal ulcers, dysentery, cholesterol which were (1, 0.48, 0.32) respectively, by eating gum in raw internally application. While the external application for skin problems was (0.68). The high UVd of Kurdish chewing gum in the form of chewing for clearing mouth, gum diseases, relieving abdominal pain were (1, 0.92, 0.92) respectively. The high UVd of fruits of this plant in the form of bead for removing depression and stress relief were (1, 0.92). A comparison with the previous Kurdish ethnobotanical studies showed new medicinal uses. Unripe fruits from this plant are used as a snack, while the ripe and unripe fruits are used to make various different foods as an ingredient. The beautiful dried fruits are used to make a bead. The current study found that this is one of the valuable wild tree plants that grown in Kurdistan naturally for many years. It has played a vital role in the health and commerce in this area through the millennia and has economic and ethnopharmacological activity since antiquity. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Al-Arkawazi S.A.F.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2017

Solid-liquid fluidized beds containing binary mixture of spherical particles of different size and density has been studied. A combine of Eulerian-Langrangian model is used for predicting the hydrodynamics flow behavior of binary solid-liquid fluidized beds for a range of liquid velocities. The combining takes into account the effect of forces between particle-particle, and particle-liquid. The interaction between the liquid and each particle is performed through a drag force. In this study, three cases (pure species A, pure species B and mixture of pure species A & B) for a range of liquid (water) of fluidization have been investigated in the simulations. The simulations results demonstrate a good stability during the simulation time. The hydrodynamic behaviors for fluidized beds like the bed voidage (porosity), mean particle Reynolds number and bed height are presented as a function of simulation time. The binary solid consider the smaller (denser) component as species A and the bigger (less dense) component as species B, in terms of the bed expansion height and porosity of the fluidized beds at a range of liquid velocities. The analysis of the hydrodynamics in the bed allows to understands the govern mechanisms of mixing and segregation for binary solid system. The comparisons results of each species (A, B) alone with the mixture of species revealed that; the hydrodynamic behavior (bed height, bed voidage and mean particle Reynolds number) of the mixture is less than for species A and species B each one alone, this illustrates and explains the tendency of the mixture to segregate, especially with the increase of the inlet liquid velocity. Thus, the results of combining model prove the effectiveness of the model to predictions the actual system behavior. © 2017, University of Mohammed Premier, Oujda Morocco.

Ahmed A.M.,Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research | Ahmed S.H.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University | Ahmed O.H.,University of Technology, Iraq
International Conference on Current Research in Computer Science and Information Technology, ICCIT 2017 | Year: 2017

This paper was primarily conducted to develop an Online Booking System where users can search for different varieties of hotels and are able to sort them according to their price, number of stars or their location distance to any particular place in the city. Once the hotel is selected, Users are able to guess the fastest routes to all the tourist attraction places and restaurants nearby each hotel using Dijkstra algorithm. The system is more designed to help Iraqi tourists to prior explore and reserve rooms during peak times, Therefore, one if the main goal of the system is to adopt a payment agent that fits situation. This is because banking systems is not as efficient as it supposed to be. Hence, users are able to do the payment process through Visa cards or through their cell phones using payment services providers like Asia hawala or Zain Cash. Agile methodology, as one of the software engineering models has been used to design and implement this approach. © 2017 IEEE.

Saleem R.A.,Maternity Unit | Othman N.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Women and Health | Year: 2013

The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p <.001). Children of uneducated mothers were eight times as likely to have had genital mutilation compared to children of mothers with over nine years of education (OR 8.0, p <.001). Among women aged 17 years and younger, 34% of those who were married had been circumcised versus 17% of those who were not married (p <.001). Participants residing in the northeast of Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Othman N.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University | Kendrick D.,University of Nottingham | Al-Windi A.,Linköping University
Burns | Year: 2015

Background: While it is globally observed that young children are at a higher risk of burn injuries, little is known about childhood burns in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to describe the epidemiology of burns amongst pre-school children in this region. Methods: A prospective study was undertaken from November 2007 to November 2008 involving all children aged 0-5 years attending the burns centre in Sulaimaniyah province for a new burn injury whether treated as an outpatient or admitted to hospital. Results: 1,122 children attended the burns centre of whom 944 (84%) were interviewed (male 53%, female 47%). Mean age was 1.9 years with children aged 1 year comprising 32% and those aged 2 years comprising 21% of the sample. The incidence of burns was 1044/100,000 person-years (1030 in females and 1057 in males). Mechanisms of injury included scalds (80%), contact burns (12%) flames (6%) and other mechanisms (2%). Almost 97% of burns occurred at home including 43% in the kitchen. Winter was the commonest season (36%) followed by autumn (24%). There were 3 peak times of injury during the day corresponding to meal times. The majority of burns were caused by hot water (44%) and tea (20%) and the most common equipment/products responsible were tea utensils (41%). There were 237 admissions with an admission rate of 95 per 100,000 person-years. Scald injuries accounted for most admissions (84%). Median total body surface area affected by the burn or scald (TBSA) was 11% and median hospital stay was 7 days. In-hospital mortality was 8%. Mortality rate was 4% when TBSA was ≤25%, and 100% when TBSA was over 50%. Conclusion: Burn incidence is high in young children especially those aged 1-2 years. Preventive interventions targeted at families with young children & focusing on home safety measures could be effective in reducing childhood burns. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

Dimonte S.,BioMolecular Laboratory | Babakir-Mina M.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University | Aquaro S.,University of Calabria
Virus Genes | Year: 2014

The HIV-1 pre-integration phase and the subsequent integration of viral genome to the host of nuclear chromosomes are not well analyzed so far. Many studies are discussing the question of pre- and post-nuclear viral entry which is to support the assumption that HIV-1 integrase (IN) is maintained in the volume of intact conical structure's capsids through HIV entry. The aim of the current study is to identify the prevalence of capsid's (CA) signatures among drug-naïve and antiretroviral (ARV)-treated patients in a cohort of 827 HIV-1 B-subtype-infected individuals, and subsequently the relationship between IN and CA amino acid's changes was evaluated. These analyses suggest a conceivable co-evolution of IN-CA sequences, especially in relation to steps of nuclear viral entry. The frequency of mutations was calculated, and statistically has been compared between treatment-naïve and ARV-treated patients. The binomial correlation coefficient was used to assess covariation among CA and IN mutations; then, the average linkage hierarchical agglomerative clustering was performed. The results show a detailed conservation of HIV-1 CA protein both in drug-naïve and in ARV-treated patients. Moreover, the specific CA substitutions are significantly associated with different IN signatures at the amino acid level and the topology of the dendrogram has revealed the existence of two strong sub-clusters associated with hypothetical different mutational pathways. The in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to exclude the hypothetical statistical false positive results and in order to confirm that some CA amino acid signatures are going to establish specific and precise implication in the HIV life cycle. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.

Ahmed H.M.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2016

Background: Medicinal plants still play an important role in the Kurdish community. Sulaymaniyah Province in South Kurdistan (Iraq) has a great diversity of plants, including medicinal plants, yet very few scattered ethnobotanical studies conducted in Kurdistan are available in the scientific literature. Thus the study of Kurdish ethnobotany may be crucial for understanding local medicinal plant uses and their relationships to surrounding areas. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to document traditional medicinal plant uses among healers of southern Kurdistan. Methods: An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document traditional knowledge on medicinal plants uses among traditional healers in the Province of Sulaymaniyah during 2014 and 2015. The data were collected by interviewing 45 traditional healers (36 males and 9 females between the ages of 25 and 80 years) who retain traditional knowledge on medicinal plants. Furthermore, the use value (UV) of taxa was determined and informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Further analysis was carried out to compare the field data with the Kurdish ethnobotanical literature. Results: The present study found a total of sixty-six plant species, belonging to sixty-three genera within thirty-four plant families, used to treat ninghty-nine different types of ailments and diseases. The most important family was Lamiaceae (7 species), followed by Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae (6 species each). The most frequently used parts were leaves (46 %), followed by flowers (15 %), and seeds (10 %). The most common preparation method was decoction (68 %), whereas few taxa were consumed as a vegetable (13 %) or ingested in powder form (10 %). The respiratory issues category had the highest ICF value (0.68), followed by inflammations and women's diseases (0.58 and 0.54, respectively). The highest UVs were recorded for the species Zingiber officinale (0.48), Matricaria chamomilla (0.37), Adiantum capillus-veneris (0.31), Thymus vulgaris (0.31) and Pimpinella anisum (0.31). Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the area is rich in medicinal plant knowledge. The information reported by the traditional healers of this region is invaluable for further research in the field of cross-cultural ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology. © 2016 Ahmed.

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