Freyhof J.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries |
Abdullah Y.S.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Zootaxa | Year: 2017
Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males. © 2017 Magnolia Press.
Saleem R.A.,Maternity Unit |
Othman N.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Women and Health | Year: 2013
The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p <.001). Children of uneducated mothers were eight times as likely to have had genital mutilation compared to children of mothers with over nine years of education (OR 8.0, p <.001). Among women aged 17 years and younger, 34% of those who were married had been circumcised versus 17% of those who were not married (p <.001). Participants residing in the northeast of Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
PubMed | Heartland Alliance International, Sulaimani Polytechnic University and University of Chicago
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Global health, science and practice | Year: 2016
Supportive counseling type interventions are frequently provided to meet the mental health needs of populations in emergency and post-conflicts contexts, but it has seldom been rigorously evaluated. Existing evaluations from low- and middle-income countries provide mixed evidence of effectiveness. While Iraqi Kurdistan experienced relative stability following the fall of Saddam Husseins government, the population in the northern Dohuk region has continued to experience periodic violence due to conflicts with neighboring Turkey as well as more recent ISIS-associated violence. We evaluated the impact of a trauma-informed support, skills, and psychoeducation intervention provided by community mental health workers (CMHWs) on depressive symptoms and dysfunction (primary outcomes) as well as post-traumatic stress, traumatic grief, and anxiety symptoms (secondary outcomes). Between June 2009 and June 2010, 295 adults were screened; 209 (71%) met eligibility criteria (trauma exposure and a symptom severity score indicating significant distress and functional impairment, among others) and consented to participate. Of these, 159 were randomized to supportive counseling while 50 were randomized to a waitlist control condition. Comparing average symptom severity scores post-treatment among those in the intervention group with those in the waitlist control group, the supportive counseling program had statistically and clinically significant impacts on the primary outcomes of depression (Cohens d, 0.57; P = .02) and dysfunction (Cohens d, 0.53; P = .03) and significant but smaller impacts on anxiety. Although studies by the same research team of psychotherapeutic interventions in other parts of Kurdistan and in southern Iraq found larger effects, this study adds to the global research literature on mental health and psychosocial support and shows that a well-trained and supervised program of trauma-informed support, skills, and psychoeducation that emphasizes the therapeutic relationship can also be effective.
PubMed | Leibniz Institute for Animal Biodiversity, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani Polytechnic University and Charmo University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2016
Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.
Othman N.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University |
Kendrick D.,University of Nottingham |
Al-Windi A.,Linköping University
Burns | Year: 2015
Background: While it is globally observed that young children are at a higher risk of burn injuries, little is known about childhood burns in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to describe the epidemiology of burns amongst pre-school children in this region. Methods: A prospective study was undertaken from November 2007 to November 2008 involving all children aged 0-5 years attending the burns centre in Sulaimaniyah province for a new burn injury whether treated as an outpatient or admitted to hospital. Results: 1,122 children attended the burns centre of whom 944 (84%) were interviewed (male 53%, female 47%). Mean age was 1.9 years with children aged 1 year comprising 32% and those aged 2 years comprising 21% of the sample. The incidence of burns was 1044/100,000 person-years (1030 in females and 1057 in males). Mechanisms of injury included scalds (80%), contact burns (12%) flames (6%) and other mechanisms (2%). Almost 97% of burns occurred at home including 43% in the kitchen. Winter was the commonest season (36%) followed by autumn (24%). There were 3 peak times of injury during the day corresponding to meal times. The majority of burns were caused by hot water (44%) and tea (20%) and the most common equipment/products responsible were tea utensils (41%). There were 237 admissions with an admission rate of 95 per 100,000 person-years. Scald injuries accounted for most admissions (84%). Median total body surface area affected by the burn or scald (TBSA) was 11% and median hospital stay was 7 days. In-hospital mortality was 8%. Mortality rate was 4% when TBSA was ≤25%, and 100% when TBSA was over 50%. Conclusion: Burn incidence is high in young children especially those aged 1-2 years. Preventive interventions targeted at families with young children & focusing on home safety measures could be effective in reducing childhood burns. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Sulaymaniyah Emergency Hospital, University of Sulaimani, Hiwa Hospital and Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Type: | Journal: International journal of surgery case reports | Year: 2016
Parotid duct or gland injury can be caused by assault with a knife, bottle, electrical-saw, road traffic accident, or rarely gunshot and fractures of the facial skeleton. The injury can be in the form of laceration, ductal exposure, total cutting, or crushing of the duct. These conditions are difficult to diagnose because of complex anatomy and variable forms of the injury. A successful management of parotid duct injuries depends on early diagnosis and appropriate intervention; improper surgery may lead to complications such as sialocele or salivary fistulaA 27-years-old man was presented to the maxillofacial unit, complaining of bleeding over the right side of his face after accidental exposure to a chain-saw three hours before admission. On examination, a 6cm deep lacerated wound was found over the right buccal area, suspecting facial nerve-buccal branch and parotid duct injury. Under general anesthesia the parotid duct injury diagnosed, microsurgical anastomosis of the cut-ends of the parotid duct performed using the double J catheter. Sutures and JJ stent removed seven and twenty postoperative days respectively. After a proper supportive treatment a complete healing of the duct was obtained with normal amount of saliva.Herein, we described an easy yet efficient technique in management of parotid duct injury using a JJ stent which is often used for urethra. We think that use of JJ stent is a valuable technique to be used in the diagnosis and surgical repair of the parotid duct during traumatic facial and/or parotid injuries.
Dimonte S.,BioMolecular Laboratory |
Babakir-Mina M.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University |
Aquaro S.,University of Calabria
Virus Genes | Year: 2014
The HIV-1 pre-integration phase and the subsequent integration of viral genome to the host of nuclear chromosomes are not well analyzed so far. Many studies are discussing the question of pre- and post-nuclear viral entry which is to support the assumption that HIV-1 integrase (IN) is maintained in the volume of intact conical structure's capsids through HIV entry. The aim of the current study is to identify the prevalence of capsid's (CA) signatures among drug-naïve and antiretroviral (ARV)-treated patients in a cohort of 827 HIV-1 B-subtype-infected individuals, and subsequently the relationship between IN and CA amino acid's changes was evaluated. These analyses suggest a conceivable co-evolution of IN-CA sequences, especially in relation to steps of nuclear viral entry. The frequency of mutations was calculated, and statistically has been compared between treatment-naïve and ARV-treated patients. The binomial correlation coefficient was used to assess covariation among CA and IN mutations; then, the average linkage hierarchical agglomerative clustering was performed. The results show a detailed conservation of HIV-1 CA protein both in drug-naïve and in ARV-treated patients. Moreover, the specific CA substitutions are significantly associated with different IN signatures at the amino acid level and the topology of the dendrogram has revealed the existence of two strong sub-clusters associated with hypothetical different mutational pathways. The in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to exclude the hypothetical statistical false positive results and in order to confirm that some CA amino acid signatures are going to establish specific and precise implication in the HIV life cycle. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.
Dimonte S.,BioMolecular Laboratory |
Dimonte S.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University |
Babakir-Mina M.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Current HIV Research | Year: 2015
Background: The conversion to HIV-1 single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA for nuclear integration is an essential viral step in replication: this process is mediated by Reverse-Transcriptase (RT) and by central polypurine tract (cPPT), a domain where the plus-strand synthesis requires viral primers produced by RNase-H cleavage. Recent studies highlighted the need of investigating the role of RNase-H in RT nucleoside-inhibitors-resistance, because specific mutation(s) could affect cPPT removal and RNase-H cleavage specificity. Thus, the variability of RNase-H and cPPT were studied. Methods: HIV-1 subtype-B sequences from 746 drug-naïve and 806 antiretroviral-(ARV)-treated patients were used and analysed. Results: In drug-naïve patients, among 54 RNase-H variable residues, 25 were mutated in >5% of patients, and 7 of them were highly variable (>25%), whilst in ARV-treated individuals, 53 RNase-H variable residues were observed, which 24 were mutated in >5% of patients and 6 of them were highly variable (>25%). Differently, a high conservation was observed in cPPT-area, with no statistically significant differences observed between the two datasets analysed. Nevertheless, in ARV-treated patients the variability of cPPT nucleotide at position 6 was found three times higher with respect to the drug-naïve dataset. The topology of the dendrogram has revealed the existence of a cluster (boostrap=0.98) grouping the A6GcPPT with V531I and S519N RNase-H signatures. Conclusion: These signatures observed within cPPT and mostly in RNase-H, warrant advanced structural analysis to delineate their potential roles in the affinity/recognition of RT and the cleavage capacity of RNase-H. Exploring further the implications such changes may have on drug-resistance may be relevant. © 2015, Bentham Science Publishers.
Ahmed H.M.,Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2016
Background: Medicinal plants still play an important role in the Kurdish community. Sulaymaniyah Province in South Kurdistan (Iraq) has a great diversity of plants, including medicinal plants, yet very few scattered ethnobotanical studies conducted in Kurdistan are available in the scientific literature. Thus the study of Kurdish ethnobotany may be crucial for understanding local medicinal plant uses and their relationships to surrounding areas. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to document traditional medicinal plant uses among healers of southern Kurdistan. Methods: An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document traditional knowledge on medicinal plants uses among traditional healers in the Province of Sulaymaniyah during 2014 and 2015. The data were collected by interviewing 45 traditional healers (36 males and 9 females between the ages of 25 and 80 years) who retain traditional knowledge on medicinal plants. Furthermore, the use value (UV) of taxa was determined and informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Further analysis was carried out to compare the field data with the Kurdish ethnobotanical literature. Results: The present study found a total of sixty-six plant species, belonging to sixty-three genera within thirty-four plant families, used to treat ninghty-nine different types of ailments and diseases. The most important family was Lamiaceae (7 species), followed by Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae (6 species each). The most frequently used parts were leaves (46 %), followed by flowers (15 %), and seeds (10 %). The most common preparation method was decoction (68 %), whereas few taxa were consumed as a vegetable (13 %) or ingested in powder form (10 %). The respiratory issues category had the highest ICF value (0.68), followed by inflammations and women's diseases (0.58 and 0.54, respectively). The highest UVs were recorded for the species Zingiber officinale (0.48), Matricaria chamomilla (0.37), Adiantum capillus-veneris (0.31), Thymus vulgaris (0.31) and Pimpinella anisum (0.31). Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the area is rich in medicinal plant knowledge. The information reported by the traditional healers of this region is invaluable for further research in the field of cross-cultural ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology. © 2016 Ahmed.
PubMed | Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Type: | Journal: Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine | Year: 2016
Medicinal plants still play an important role in the Kurdish community. Sulaymaniyah Province in South Kurdistan (Iraq) has a great diversity of plants, including medicinal plants, yet very few scattered ethnobotanical studies conducted in Kurdistan are available in the scientific literature. Thus the study of Kurdish ethnobotany may be crucial for understanding local medicinal plant uses and their relationships to surrounding areas. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to document traditional medicinal plant uses among healers of southern Kurdistan.An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document traditional knowledge on medicinal plants uses among traditional healers in the Province of Sulaymaniyah during 2014 and 2015. The data were collected by interviewing 45 traditional healers (36 males and 9 females between the ages of 25 and 80years) who retain traditional knowledge on medicinal plants. Furthermore, the use value (UV) of taxa was determined and informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Further analysis was carried out to compare the field data with the Kurdish ethnobotanical literature.The present study found a total of sixty-six plant species, belonging to sixty-three genera within thirty-four plant families, used to treat ninghty-nine different types of ailments and diseases. The most important family was Lamiaceae (7 species), followed by Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae (6 species each). The most frequently used parts were leaves (46%), followed by flowers (15%), and seeds (10%). The most common preparation method was decoction (68%), whereas few taxa were consumed as a vegetable (13%) or ingested in powder form (10%). The respiratory issues category had the highest ICF value (0.68), followed by inflammations and womens diseases (0.58 and 0.54, respectively). The highest UVs were recorded for the species Zingiber officinale (0.48), Matricaria chamomilla (0.37), Adiantum capillus-veneris (0.31), Thymus vulgaris (0.31) and Pimpinella anisum (0.31). A comparison with previous ethnobotanical studies conducted in Kurdistan (especially within the territory of present-day Turkey) and surrounding areas showed that several medicinal plant reports recorded in the current investigation are new to Kurdish ethnomedicine, and that they have possibly been influenced by other scholarly medical traditions.The present study demonstrates that the area is rich in medicinal plant knowledge. The information reported by the traditional healers of this region is invaluable for further research in the field of cross-cultural ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology.