Alpine, TX, United States

Sul Ross State University

www.sulross.edu
Alpine, TX, United States

Sul Ross State University is a public university in Alpine, Texas, United States. Named for former Texas governor and Civil War general Lawrence Sullivan Ross, it was founded in 1917 as Sul Ross Normal College and was made a university in 1969.Sul Ross State University offers certificate programs and associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees. The main campus is situated in the unique environment of the Big Bend region and is the primary institution of higher education serving a 19-county area in far West Texas. SRSU has Rio Grande College branch campuses in Uvalde, Del Rio, and Eagle Pass.The university is governed by the Board of Regents of the Texas State University System, which guides seven universities in the state. Wikipedia.

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Powell A.M.,Sul Ross State University | Powell S.A.,Sul Ross State University | Jackson C.,Sul Ross State University
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas | Year: 2017

Thirty meiotic chromosome counts are reported for 18 species in six families of plants from western Texas, mostly the Trans-Pecos region, and one count each from New Mexico and Mexico. The counts for Perityle microcephala, Echinocereus coccineus var. paucispinus from Bandera County (= subsp. roemeri), Dayia havardii, and the tetraploid counts for Solanum tenuipes var. tenuipes are first reports. The chromosome numbers listed here for other species are consistent with previous reports.


Terry M.,Sul Ross State University | Trout K.,Cactus Conservation Institute
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas | Year: 2017

The peyote cactus, Lophophora williamsii, is presently classified as a Schedule 1 Controlled Substance in the USA, with an exemption for use as a sacrament in bona fide religious ceremonies of the Native American Church (NAC). Any botanist or other researcher seeking to work with peyote or any of its alkaloids, must comply with applicable (nontrivial) regulatory requirements. This paper presents an examination of the prohibition efforts that paved the way for current peyote regulation, accompanied by documentation of the religion-based political origins of such efforts, which involved the "acculturation" of Native Americans (i.e., the destruction of American Indian cultures). We also look at the historical emergence of a nationally organized and coordinated effort by missionaries and other prohibitionists to sell a federal anti-peyote law to Congress, which manifested itself repeatedly over a period of more than fifty years, before finally realizing success in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In view of ongoing changes in the legal/regulatory status of Cannabis sp. (another Schedule 1 plant that was targeted for illegality during the prohibitionists' rise to political predominance), we compare and contrast the two plants with speculation on peyote's future.


Ogunbodede O.,Sul Ross State University | McCombs D.,Sul Ross State University | Trout K.,Cactus Conservation Institute | Daley P.,California Pacific Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2010

Aim of the study: The aim of the present study is to determine in a procedurally uniform manner the mescaline concentrations in stem tissue of 14 taxa/cultivars of the subgenus Trichocereus of the genus Echinopsis (Cactaceae) and to evaluate the relationship (if any) between mescaline concentration and actual shamanic use of these plants. Materials and methods: Columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis, some of which are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes by South American shamans in traditional medicine, were selected for analysis because they were vegetative clones of plants of documented geographic origin and/or because they were known to be used by practitioners of shamanism. Mescaline content of the cortical stem chlorenchyma of each cactus was determined by Soxhlet extraction with methanol, followed by acid-base extraction with water and dichloromethane, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: By virtue of the consistent analytical procedures used, comparable alkaloid concentrations were obtained that facilitated the ranking of the various selected species and cultivars of Echinopsis, all of which exhibited positive mescaline contents. The range of mescaline concentrations across the 14 taxa/cultivars spanned two orders of magnitude, from 0.053% to 4.7% by dry weight. Conclusions: The mescaline concentrations reported here largely support the hypothesis that plants with the highest mescaline concentrations - particularly E. pachanoi from Peru - are most associated with documented shamanic use. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


News Article | November 22, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

The Community for Accredited Online Schools (AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org), has named it’s picks for the top Trade & Vocational Training Programs at colleges in Texas for 2016-2017. A total of 62 schools were chosen for displaying excellence in career training in the state, with Midland College, University of Texas at Brownsville (now Rio Grande Valley), LeTourneau University, Tarleton State University and Brazosport College scoring highest among four-year schools and El Paso Community College, Lee College, Texas State Technical College Waco, Houston Community College and Grayson College scoring highest among two-year schools. “Job projections through 2024 show trade industries growing at some of the fastest rates in the country,” said Doug Jones, CEO and Founder of the Community for Accredited Online Schools. “The best trade and vocational programs in Texas are found at both two- and four-year schools, and are noted on our list for their dedication to student success both inside the classroom and after graduation.” The Community for Accredited Online Schools analyzes more than a dozen unique data points to determine their “Best of” rankings. Colleges and universities must be regionally accredited and hold public or private not-for-profit status to qualify. For the Best Trade & Vocational Programs list, schools must also offer career counseling and placement services to students. To determine top programs, each qualifying school is scored and ranked based on statistics most important to student success, such as student-teacher ratios, program variety and graduation rates. Complete rankings of the Best Vocational & Trade School Programs in Texas can be found at the link below, along with more information on the data and methodology used to determine school scores: Alvin Community College Amarillo College Angelina College Brookhaven College Cedar Valley College Central Texas College Coastal Bend College College of the Mainland Collin College Covenant School of Nursing and Allied Health Del Mar College Eastfield College El Centro College El Paso Community College Frank Phillips College Galveston College Grayson College Hill College Houston Community College Howard College Kilgore College Lamar Institute of Technology Lamar State College-Orange Lamar State College - Port Arthur Laredo Community College Lee College Lone Star College Mountain View College Navarro College North Central Texas College North Lake College Northeast Texas Community College Northwest Vista College Odessa College Palo Alto College Panola College Ranger College Remington College - Fort Worth Campus Remington College - Houston Campus Remington College - Houston Southeast Campus Remington College - North Houston Campus Richland College San Antonio College San Jacinto College South Plains College Southwest Texas Junior College St. Philip's College Tarrant County College District Temple College Texarkana College Texas State Technical College - West Texas Texas State Technical College - Harlingen Texas State Technical College - Marshall Texas State Technical College - Waco Trinity Valley Community College Tyler Junior College Vernon College Weatherford College Western Texas College Brazosport College LeTourneau University Midland College Parker University Remington College - Dallas Campus Schreiner University South Texas College Sul Ross State University Tarleton State University The University of Texas at Arlington The University of Texas at Brownsville (now University of Texas Rio Grande Valley) The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio About Us: The Community for Accredited Online Schools (AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org) was founded in 2011 to provide students and parents with quality data and information about pursuing an affordable education that has been certified by an accrediting agency. Our community resource materials and tools span topics such as college accreditation, financial aid, opportunities available to veterans, people with disabilities, as well as online learning resources. We feature higher education institutions that have developed online learning programs that include highly trained faculty, new technology and resources, and online support services to help students achieve educational success. environments that include highly trained faculty, new technology and resources, and online support services to help students achieve educational and career success.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

The Community for Accredited Online Schools, a leading resource provider for higher education information, has released its list of the Best Online Colleges in Texas for 2017. Highlighting both two- and four-year schools, more than 90 Texas colleges received accolades, with the University of Texas at Austin, Texas A&M University, University of North Texas, Texas Tech University and Baylor University coming in as the top four-year schools and St. Philip’s College, Odessa College, Del Mar College, Western Texas College and Texas State Technical College Waco ranking highest among two-year schools. “About 1.5 million students enrolled in post-secondary education in Texas in fall 2016,” said Doug Jones, CEO and founder of AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org. “As Internet-based coursework becomes more accessible, students may find that online programs suit their needs better. Schools on our list have been ranked for overall quality, providing excellent options for anyone who wants more flexible education options.” To determine the Best Online Schools in Texas, each college in the state was evaluated using over a dozen unique data points to find which schools best meet students’ needs, including graduation rates, career placement services and financial aid availability. AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org also requires each school highlighted on the lists to carry institutional accreditation and hold public or private not-for-profit status. Find each school’s score and ranking or read more about the data and methodology used to determine the lists here: The Best Four-Year Online Schools in Texas for 2017 include the following: Abilene Christian University Angelo State University Baylor University Concordia University-Texas Dallas Baptist University Dallas Christian College Grace School of Theology Houston Baptist University Howard Payne University Lamar University LeTourneau University Lubbock Christian University Messenger College Midwestern State University Our Lady of the Lake University Prairie View A & M University Sam Houston State University Schreiner University Southern Methodist University Southwestern Adventist University Southwestern Assemblies of God University St Mary's University Stephen F Austin State University Sul Ross State University Tarleton State University Texas A & M International University Texas A & M University-College Station Texas A & M University-Commerce Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi Texas A & M University-Kingsville Texas A & M University-Texarkana Texas Christian University Texas Southern University Texas State University Texas Tech University Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Texas Woman's University The University of Texas at Arlington The University of Texas at Austin The University of Texas at Dallas The University of Texas at El Paso The University of Texas at Tyler The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio The University of Texas of the Permian Basin The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Trinity University University of Dallas University of Houston University of Houston-Clear Lake The Best Two-Year Online Schools in Texas for 2017 include the following: Alvin Community College Amarillo College Austin Community College District Central Texas College College of the Mainland Collin College Del Mar College El Paso Community College Frank Phillips College Grayson College Houston Community College Kilgore College Lamar Institute of Technology Lamar State College-Port Arthur Lone Star College Navarro College North Central Texas College Northwest Vista College Odessa College Palo Alto College Panola College San Antonio College South Plains College St Philip's College Tarrant County College District Temple College Texas State Technical College - West Texas Texas State Technical College-Waco Trinity Valley Community College Tyler Junior College Western Texas College ### About Us: AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org was founded in 2011 to provide students and parents with quality data and information about pursuing an affordable, quality education that has been certified by an accrediting agency. Our community resource materials and tools span topics such as college accreditation, financial aid, opportunities available to veterans, people with disabilities, as well as online learning resources. We feature higher education institutions that have developed online learning programs that include highly trained faculty, new technology and resources, and online support services to help students achieve educational success. environments that include highly trained faculty, new technology and resources, and online support services to help students achieve educational and career success.


News Article | October 29, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

The 2016 ranking of the Best Online Colleges in Texas has been released by leading higher education and online student resource provider, AffordableCollegesOnline.org. Four-year colleges earning the highest marks include the University of Texas of the Permian Basin, the University of Texas, Victoria, and Southwestern Adventist University. Frank Phillips College, Western Texas College and Odessa College received top honors for two-year colleges. Between the two lists, more than 70 colleges in Texas were recognized for their variety of online education options and their strong focus on affordability. "The number of Texans earning college degrees has increased dramatically over the past five years,” said Dan Schuessler, CEO and Founder of AffordableCollegesOnline.org. "We’ve found the schools in Texas who are designing learning options to be more flexible and accessible than ever before, for both in-state students and learners located across the nation.” To earn a place on AffordableCollegesOnline.org’s list, schools are required to meet certain baseline criteria. Colleges must be accredited, public or private not-for-profit institutions. Schools had to also meet baseline affordability standards, offering in-state tuition for under $5,000 per year at two year schools and under $25,000 per year at four year schools. Each college’s ranking is determined by an in-depth analysis of more than a dozen different metrics, ranging from financial aid options to graduation rate to online program variety. The full list of colleges is included below. To see where each ranks specifically and to get more specific details about the methodology used to compare each college, visit the following page: The Best Two-Year Online Colleges in Texas for 2016: Alvin Community College Amarillo College Central Texas College College of the Mainland Collin College Del Mar College El Paso Community College Frank Phillips College Grayson College Houston Community College Kilgore College Lamar Institute of Technology Lone Star College Navarro College North Central Texas College Odessa College Panola College South Plains College Tarrant County College District Temple College Texas State Technical College - Waco Trinity Valley Community College Tyler Junior College Western Texas College The Best Four-Year Online Colleges in Texas for 2016: Amberton University Angelo State University Arlington Baptist College Dallas Baptist University Dallas Christian College Grace School of Theology King's University Lamar University Lubbock Christian University Messenger College Midwestern State University Our Lady of the Lake University Parker University Prairie View A & M University Sam Houston State University South Texas College Southwestern Adventist University Southwestern Assemblies of God University Southwestern Christian College Stephen F. Austin State University Sul Ross State University Tarleton State University Texas A & M University - Central Texas Texas A & M University - College Station Texas A & M University - Commerce Texas A & M University - Corpus Christi Texas A & M University - Kingsville Texas A & M University - Texarkana Texas Tech University Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Texas Woman's University The University of Texas at Arlington The University of Texas at Brownsville The University of Texas at El Paso The University of Texas at Tyler The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center The University of Texas Medical Branch The University of Texas of the Permian Basin University of Houston - Clear Lake University of Houston - Downtown University of Houston - Victoria University of North Texas University of North Texas at Dallas Wayland Baptist University West Texas A & M University AffordableCollegesOnline.org began in 2011 to provide quality data and information about pursuing an affordable higher education. Our free community resource materials and tools span topics such as financial aid and college savings, opportunities for veterans and people with disabilities, and online learning resources. We feature higher education institutions that have developed online learning environments that include highly trained faculty, new technology and resources, and online support services to help students achieve educational and career success. We have been featured by nearly 1,100 postsecondary institutions and nearly 120 government organizations.


Davis F.R.,Sul Ross State University
World Oil | Year: 2011

The US Interior Department's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) issued new requirements for oil and gas companies working on the US outer continental shelf to develop and implement a Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) program. The new regulation, which became effective November 15, 2011, incorporates and makes mandatory the American Petroleum Institute's Recommended Practice for Development of a Safety and Environmental Management Program for Offshore Operations and Facilities. The audit is the initial step in determining if an operator's SEMS program is effective. The company must develop a SEMS auditing program, which should define who is responsible for conducting the audit. All companies must define and document an emergency action plan and designate responsibilities for implementation of the plan. The first SEMS audit must be completed within two years of the initial implementation of the SEMS program. The audit scope should include a review of all company procedures addressing the SEMS elements.


Yue Y.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Yue Y.,Sul Ross State University | Fulvio P.F.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Dai S.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Dai S.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2015

ConspectusMetal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a new family of microporous materials; however, microporous-mesoporous hierarchical MOF materials have been less investigated because of the lack of simple, reliable methods to introduce mesopores to the crystalline microporous particles. State-of-the-art MOF hierarchical materials have been prepared by ligand extension methods or by using a template, resulting in intrinsic mesopores of longer ligands or replicated pores from template agents, respectively. However, mesoporous MOF materials obtained through ligand extension often collapse in the absence of guest molecules, which dramatically reduces the size of the pore aperture. Although the template-directed strategy allows for the preparation of hierarchical materials with larger mesopores, the latter requires a template removal step, which may result in the collapse of the implemented mesopores. Recently, a general template-free synthesis of hierarchical microporous crystalline frameworks, such as MOFs and Prussian blue analogues (PBAs), has been reported. This new method is based on the kinetically controlled precipitation (perturbation), with simultaneous condensation and redissolution of polymorphic nanocrystallites in the mother liquor. This method further eliminates the use of extended organic ligands and the micropores do not collapse upon removal of trapped guest solvent molecules, thus yielding hierarchical MOF materials with intriguing porosity in the gram scale. The hierarchical MOF materials prepared in this way exhibited exceptional properties when tested for the adsorption of large organic dyes over their corresponding microporous frameworks, due to the enhanced pore accessibility and electrolyte diffusion within the mesopores.As for PBAs, the pore size distribution of these materials can be tailored by changing the metals substituting Fe cations in the PB lattice. For these, the textural mesopores increased from approximately 10 nm for Cu analogue (mesoCuHCF), to 16 nm in Co substituted compound (mesoCoHCF), and to as large as 30 nm for the Ni derivative (mesoNiHCF). While bulk PB and analogues have a higher capacitance than hierarchical analogues for Na-batteries, the increased accessibility to the microporous channels of PBAs allow for faster intercalated ion exchange and diffusion than in bulk PBA crystals. Thus, hierarchical PBAs are promising candidates for electrodes in future electrochemical energy storage devices with faster charge-discharge rates than batteries, namely pseudocapacitors. Finally, this new synthetic method opens the possibility to prepare hierarchical materials having bimodal distribution of mesopores, and to tailor the structural properties of MOFs for different applications, including contrasting agents for MRI, and drug delivery. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


News Article | December 21, 2016
Site: phys.org

"Most people think a snake is more likely to strike after you have handled or harassed it," said Tracy Langkilde, professor and department head of biology. "Our results show this is not true. We show that how stressed a snake gets when handled or harassed does not determine how likely it is to strike." The researchers found that cottonmouths with high baseline levels of corticosterone, a hormone that is used to estimate the amount of stress an animal experiences, were more likely to strike during an encounter with a person than were cottonmouths with lower baseline levels of corticosterone. Surprisingly, an increase in corticosterone levels that occurred after a standardized stressful experience did not make the snakes more likely to strike. Only eleven of the thirty-two snakes in the experiment struck after being held by snake tongs on their first encounter. After a short period of stressful confinement, just seven of the snakes attempted to strike when held by tongs. These results, recently published online in the journal, General and Comparative Endocrinology, suggest that cottonmouths are not as aggressive as popular lore suggests and that the level of aggression a cottonmouth displays during an encounter may often be exaggerated. Based on this work, the researchers suggest that protecting the habitats of snakes so they do not routinely experience high stress may be an effective way to reduce the incidence of snakebite. If snakes are not stressed, they may be less likely to strike humans when encountered. These results may have implications in the developing world where snakebites from all species result in 25,000 to 125,000 deaths a year and up to 400,000 amputations annually. Although stress is considered an important factor affecting behavior, the interaction between stress hormones and behavior in wild animals is not well understood. This motivated the researchers to design an experiment that could gain insight into how stress drives behavior in snakes in the real world. The researchers selected the cottonmouth snake, a venomous pit viper endemic to the southeastern United States because it has a clear suite of anti-predator behaviors that are easy to measure. Anti-predator behaviors include flashing the white lining of mouth—which gives the snake its common name—vibrating the end of its tail, flicking its tongue, hissing, fleeing the scene and striking. The research team included Herr, Langkilde and Sean Graham, a former post-doctoral researcher in the Langkilde lab who is now assistant professor at Sul Ross State University. Langkilde, an expert in animal behavior, Graham, an expert in stress physiology with previous experience studying cottonmouth snakes, and Herr combined their expertise to design the field experiment. Herr and Graham then set out to selected field sites in Alabama to collect data. The team explored beaver marshes and cypress swamps in search of cottonmouth snakes to stage threatening encounters. In an encounter, Herr and Graham would stand one meter away from a snake and record any anti-predator behavior. After 15 seconds, Graham would grab the snake at mid-body with tongs and observe the snake for 15 seconds for any changes in behavior. After placing a clear plastic tube around the head of the snake to prevent it from striking, Herr would draw a blood sample from the tail. Blood samples were used to measure corticosterone levels. The snake was then placed in a 5-gallon bucket for 30 minutes to subject it to a stressful confined environment. The researchers then held the snake with tongs again, recorded its behavior, and took another blood sample to measure post-confinement corticosterone levels. They found that confinement did raise corticosterone levels in the snakes, but that whether a given snake would strike during the subsequent encounter was not related to its post-confinement corticosterone level or to how much its corticosterone went up during the experiment. These results showed that a snake's striking behavior was related to its baseline level of corticosterone—its level of stress before the encounter—but not to its level of corticosterone after a short period of handling and confinement stress. "These are some of the first results we know of that connect stress biology with anti-predator behavior in the wild," said Herr. According to the researchers, the main limitation of this study is that the researchers only show a correlation between baseline corticosterone levels and behavior in cottonmouth snakes. In other words, the researchers did not demonstrate that high baseline stress levels cause a cottonmouth to strike. To answer this question and exclude other possible causes like genetics, they are planning an experiment to manipulate the stress levels of cottonmouths to understand the impact this factor has on snakes' behavior. Explore further: Australian man bitten by venomous snake twice in 3 days


News Article | December 21, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Whether a wild cottonmouth snake will attempt to strike in an encounter depends on its baseline stress level, according to a team of scientists led by undergraduate researcher Mark Herr. "Most people think a snake is more likely to strike after you have handled or harassed it," said Tracy Langkilde, professor and department head of biology. "Our results show this is not true. We show that how stressed a snake gets when handled or harassed does not determine how likely it is to strike." The researchers found that cottonmouths with high baseline levels of corticosterone, a hormone that is used to estimate the amount of stress an animal experiences, were more likely to strike during an encounter with a person than were cottonmouths with lower baseline levels of corticosterone. Surprisingly, an increase in corticosterone levels that occurred after a standardized stressful experience did not make the snakes more likely to strike. Only eleven of the thirty-two snakes in the experiment struck after being held by snake tongs on their first encounter. After a short period of stressful confinement, just seven of the snakes attempted to strike when held by tongs. These results, recently published online in the journal, General and Comparative Endocrinology, suggest that cottonmouths are not as aggressive as popular lore suggests and that the level of aggression a cottonmouth displays during an encounter may often be exaggerated. Based on this work, the researchers suggest that protecting the habitats of snakes so they do not routinely experience high stress may be an effective way to reduce the incidence of snakebite. If snakes are not stressed, they may be less likely to strike humans when encountered. These results may have implications in the developing world where snakebites from all species result in 25,000 to 125,000 deaths a year and up to 400,000 amputations annually. Although stress is considered an important factor affecting behavior, the interaction between stress hormones and behavior in wild animals is not well understood. This motivated the researchers to design an experiment that could gain insight into how stress drives behavior in snakes in the real world. The researchers selected the cottonmouth snake, a venomous pit viper endemic to the southeastern United States because it has a clear suite of anti-predator behaviors that are easy to measure. Anti-predator behaviors include flashing the white lining of mouth -- which gives the snake its common name -- vibrating the end of its tail, flicking its tongue, hissing, fleeing the scene and striking. The research team included Herr, Langkilde and Sean Graham, a former post-doctoral researcher in the Langkilde lab who is now assistant professor at Sul Ross State University. Langkilde, an expert in animal behavior, Graham, an expert in stress physiology with previous experience studying cottonmouth snakes, and Herr combined their expertise to design the field experiment. Herr and Graham then set out to selected field sites in Alabama to collect data. The team explored beaver marshes and cypress swamps in search of cottonmouth snakes to stage threatening encounters. In an encounter, Herr and Graham would stand one meter away from a snake and record any anti-predator behavior. After 15 seconds, Graham would grab the snake at mid-body with tongs and observe the snake for 15 seconds for any changes in behavior. After placing a clear plastic tube around the head of the snake to prevent it from striking, Herr would draw a blood sample from the tail. Blood samples were used to measure corticosterone levels. The snake was then placed in a 5-gallon bucket for 30 minutes to subject it to a stressful confined environment. The researchers then held the snake with tongs again, recorded its behavior, and took another blood sample to measure post-confinement corticosterone levels. They found that confinement did raise corticosterone levels in the snakes, but that whether a given snake would strike during the subsequent encounter was not related to its post-confinement corticosterone level or to how much its corticosterone went up during the experiment. These results showed that a snake's striking behavior was related to its baseline level of corticosterone -- its level of stress before the encounter -- but not to its level of corticosterone after a short period of handling and confinement stress. "These are some of the first results we know of that connect stress biology with anti-predator behavior in the wild," said Herr. According to the researchers, the main limitation of this study is that the researchers only show a correlation between baseline corticosterone levels and behavior in cottonmouth snakes. In other words, the researchers did not demonstrate that high baseline stress levels cause a cottonmouth to strike. To answer this question and exclude other possible causes like genetics, they are planning an experiment to manipulate the stress levels of cottonmouths to understand the impact this factor has on snakes' behavior. The National Science Foundation and a Summer Discovery Grant from Penn State Office of Undergraduate Education supported this work.

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