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Khayamim S.,Sugar Beet Seed Research Institute | Tavakkol Afshari R.,University of Tehran | Sadeghian S.Y.,Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute | Poustini K.,University of Tehran | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2014

It is well known that sugar beet is sensitive to salinity stress at the germination stage. Three separate experiments were conducted to study the effects of salinity on seed germination, plant establishment, and yield of sugar beet genotypes for screening purposes. These included: (a) A laboratory study using four water salinity levels (with EC values < 0.1 as the control, 16, 20, and 24 dS m-1) with 20 sugar beet genotypes, which were evaluated in a factorial completely randomized design with four replications, and seedling characteristics were measured; (b) A greenhouse experiment where the same statistical design as the lab study was used for seed germination and establishment of 19 sugar beet materials, with irrigation water EC= 3 and 16 dS m-1; and (c) A field experiment that was carried out to study the response of nine selected genotypes to irrigation waters with EC= 4 and EC= 16 dS m-1, using a split plot design with three replications. Interaction effects of salinity and genotypes were statistically significant (α= 0.01) for percentage of germination, abnormal seedling, and root and hypocotyls lengths. Indeed, sugar beet germination decreased to 35% and dead seedlings increased to 80 % under salinity stress (EC= 16 dS m-1) in the greenhouse. Genotypes were ranked from tolerant to susceptible. The results of field experiment were consistent with that obtained in the greenhouse. It can be concluded that salt stress decreased seed germination and, later on, crop establishment by increasing dead seedlings; consequently, sugar beet yield decreased. It seems that establishment is more susceptible to salinity than germination. Root length and abnormal seedling are good indexes for screening sugar beet genotypes for salinity tolerance at the primary growth stages.

Davarani F.H.,Islamic Azad University | Safarpour H.,Nanobiosensors Research Group | Safarpour H.,Pharmaceutical science Research Center | Safarnejad M.R.,Nanobiosensors Research Group | And 7 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2014

Identification of resistance resources of sugar beet germplasm against Polymyxa betae has always been a critical concern among sugar beet breeders. In the present study, two different methods including the DAS-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and a nanobiosensor method based on florescent resonance transfer energy (FRET) were compared in order to achieve resistant germplasm. More specifically, 58 sugar beet germplasm as well as two negative and two positive controls were cultivated in infested soil under greenhouse conditions. The contamination level or in another words sensitivity and specificity observed based on the ELISA readings was inaccurately lower in comparison with the investigated nanobiosensor. Moreover, the nanobiosensor was 70 folds less time consuming compared to the ELISA method, for the immuno-reaction was much faster and no sample treatment steps were required. As a result, the quantum dots-FRET-based nanobiosensor investigated herein could well suit the task of everyday screening of resistance resource and could be efficiently used in breeding programs. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

PubMed | Sugar Beet Seed Research Institute and University of Tehran
Type: | Journal: Microbiological research | Year: 2016

The use of biocontrol strains recently has become a popular alternative to conventional chemical treatments. A set of bacteria isolated from sugar beet rhizosphere and from roots and shoots of apple and walnut were evaluated for their potential to control sugar beet seedling damping-off caused by R. solani AG-4 and AG2-2.The results of in vitro assays concluded that three isolates, SB6, SB14, SB15, obtained from rhizosphere of sugar beet and five isolates, AP2, AP4, AP6, AP7, AP8, obtained from shoots and roots of apple were the most effective antagonists that inhibited the mycelial growth of both R. solani isolates. Combination of several biochemical tests and partial sequencing of 16S rRNA and gyrBgenes revealed that eight efficient bacterial isolates could be assigned to the genus Bacillus and all could tolerate high temperatures and salt concentrations in their vegetative growth. The potential biocontrol activity of the eight bacterial antagonists were tested in greenhouse condition. The results indicated that four strains,B. amyloliquefaciens SB14, B. pumilus SB6,B. siamensis AP2 and B. siamensisAP8 exerted a significant influence on controlling of seedling damping-off and performed significantly better than others.However, the treatment of the seeds with bacteria was most effective when the isolate SB14 was used, which significantly controlled damping-off disease by 58% caused by R. solani AG-4 and by 52.5% caused by R. solani AG-2-2. This indicates that the use of beneficial bacterial native to the host plant may increase the success rate in screening biocontrols, because these microbes are likely to be better adapted to their host and its associated environmental conditions than are strains isolated from other plant species grown in different environmental conditions. We can infer from the results reported here that sugar beet plantsmay recruitbeneficial microbes to the rhizosphere to help them solve context-specific challenges.

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