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Mohammadzadeh R.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Mohammadzadeh R.,University of Maraghe | Zamani M.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Motallebi M.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | And 4 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2012

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop, the yield of which is strongly affected by numerous diseases caused by fungal pathogens. To the aim of developing transgenic plants resistant to fungi, two transgenic diploid sugar beet genotypes expressing the gene encoding the polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 2 of Phaseolus vulgaris (PvPGIP2) were generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PGIPs are plant cell wall leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins that bind to and inhibit fungal polygalacturonase (PG), thus slowing down the plant cell wall degradation and limiting fungal colonization of the plant tissues. Leaf blade explants carrying the bases of regenerated shoots, a highly regenerative tissue, were used for transformation. PCR screening using specific primers showed the presence of the transgene in more than 40% of the regenerated kanamycin-resistant plants. A transformation rate of 4.4-4.2% (depending on the genotype) was achieved as revealed by agarose diffusion assay of the PvPGIP2 activity in the crude protein extracts of shoot tissues. The intact integration of the transgene cassette into the genome was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The inhibitory activity against Fusarium phyllophilum polygalacturonase (FpPG) was found at various levels in several transgenic plants. No alterations of growth and development of the transgenic plants were observed.

Bakooie M.,Tarbiat Modares University | Pourjam E.,Tarbiat Modares University | Mahmoudi S.B.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute SBSI | Safaie N.,Tarbiat Modares University | Naderpour M.,Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute SPCRI
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Linked and/or gene-based molecular markers have been used widely in markerassisted selection (MAS) to differentiate resistant and susceptible genotypes. Resistance to Meloidogyne spp. in Beta vulgaris L. is mediated by a single dominant gene (R6m-1). Using allele-specific primers (ASPs), an SNP marker harboring a single nucleotide polymorphism (A/G), linked to the resistance gene was developed to differentiate resistant genotypes. The differentiation among the resistant and susceptible genotypes was elucidated in the polymorphic bands of 555, 478 and 124 bp in size, using PCR amplification. The genotyping data using the SNP marker was firmly associated with the bioassay evaluation in the greenhouse for 100 sugar beet genotypes. This data indicated that the present robust marker allowed reliable, sensitive, faster, and cheaper large scale screening of B. vulgaris genotypes for nematode resistance breeding programs. © 2015, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

Ober E.S.,Rothamsted Research | Rajabi A.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute SBSI
Sugar Tech | Year: 2010

The production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is often limited by environmental conditions that cause decreased rates of photosynthesis, canopy expansion, root growth and sucrose accumulation. These conditions include insufficient water, heat, freezing temperatures and salinity. Compared to other crops such as cereals, harvestable sugar yields can be obtained even under harsh growing conditions. However, the realization of maximum production efficiency and profits demands that varieties must show less susceptibility to abiotic stress and improved yield stability across a range of environments. This is particularly urgent in light of climate change models that predict hotter and drier growing conditions for many areas. There are only limited breeding efforts to improve the tolerance of new varieties to these stresses, in part because the mechanisms of tolerance are poorly understood and methods to screen germplasm for resistant genotypes have not been fully developed. Fortunately, there appears to be significant genotypic diversity for tolerance to drought, heat, cold and salinity within sugar beet germplasm, so opportunities exist for varietal improvements. Developments in irrigation technologies and innovations in agronomy and soil management techniques may also contribute to improved yields of crops faced with abiotic stresses. © 2011 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Fasahat P.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute SBSI
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

Heavy metal bioaccumulation in the soil, water and atmosphere may be seriously hazardous to both human and animals with the contamination of food supply chain. Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal with no defined biological function. It is provided to environment mostly through effluent from sewage sludge, mining, burning, industries and fertilization with phosphate. Cadmium uptake and accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) results in negative effect on plant growth. It inhibits physiological activities, such as photosynthesis, respiration, mineral nutrition, and cell elongation, leading to low yield and poor growth. Cadmium damages the photosynthesis system by lowering chlorophyll content and preventing stomata opening. The discrepancy in genotype, cellular distribution, and binding forms of cadmium has a significant role in rice tolerance and cadmium accumulation. Current progress on heavy metals and their interaction with important elements has widely increased our understanding of toxicity in the plants. In this review, the important aspects of cadmium uptake and effects in rice growth, yield, and yield components elucidated.

Karimi E.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | Sadeghi A.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | Dehaji P.A.,University of Tehran | Dalvand Y.,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran | And 2 more authors.
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Biological control of fungi causing root rot on sugar beet by native Streptomyces isolates (C and S2) was evaluated in this study. The dry weight and colony forming unit (CFU) of S2 and C increased when 300 mM NaCl was added to medium. The in vitro antagonism assays showed that both isolates had inhibitory effect against Rhizoctonia solani AG-2, Fusarium solani and Phytophthora drechsleri. In dual culture, Streptomyces isolate C inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani, F. solani and P. drechsleri 45%, 53% and 26%, respectively. NaCl treatment of medium increased biocontrol activity of soluble and volatile compounds of isolate C and S2. After salt treatment, growth inhibition of R. solani, F. solani and P. drechsleri by isolate C increased up to 59%, 70% and 79%, respectively. To elucidate the mode of antagonism, protease, chitinase, beta glucanase, cellulase, lipase and α-amylase activity and siderophore and salicylic acid (SA) production were evaluated. Both isolates showed protease, chitinase and α-amylase activity. Also, biosynthesis of siderophore was detectable for both isolates. Production of siderophore and activity of protease and α-amylase increased after adding salt for both isolates. In contrast, chitinase activity decreased significantly. Production of SA, beta glucanase and lipase by isolate S2 and biosynthesis of cellulase by isolate C were observed in presence and absence of NaCl. Soil treatment with Streptomyces isolate C inhibited root rot of sugar beet caused by P. drechsleri, R. solani and F. solani. Results of this study showed that these two Streptomyces isolates had potential to be utilized as biocontrol agent against fungal diseases especially in saline soils. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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