Sugar Beet Seed Institute

Karaj, Iran

Sugar Beet Seed Institute

Karaj, Iran

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Ebrahim-Ghomi M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Mahmoodi B.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Rakhshanderoo F.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Naderpour M.,Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute | Norouzi P.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2016

Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is the most devastating pathogen of sugar beet worldwide. This virus has been reported in the majority of sugar beet growing regions of Iran as well. For the present study, we collected samples from different sugar beet varieties with suspected symptoms of BNYVV from the main important sugar beet growing regions in eight provinces of Iran. Infection of collected samples to BNYVV was tested by ELISA and RT-PCR. Upon testing of 167 collected samples of BNYVV suspected through ELISA and RT-PCR, 115 (68.9%) were infected. Different incidences of BNYVV through surveyed provinces may represent the presence of diverse infective viral sources or resistance genes in tested sugar beet varieties which need further attempts to develop control strategies. Results also showed that BNYVV has been recently distributed throughout some surveyed regions. Otherwise, trace infection or resistance to BNYVV infection in some varieties of distinct regions may represent proper sources of resistance to BNYVV. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

Bahrami S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Honarvar M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Mizani M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | AbdollahianNoghabi M.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute
Sugar Tech | Year: 2016

The aim of this experiment was to study the sugar and weight losses and non-sugar impurities of sugar beet during the storage by coverage containing phase change material (PCM). The combination of six coverage types and two storage intervals of 20 and 40 days was arranged in a greenhouse with temperature ranging from 8.5 to 24.5 °C and relative humidity between 47 and 80 %, and paraffin was used as PCM. The polyethylene coverages containing 0, 7 and 14 % paraffin with and without lamination were utilized. The results showed that during the course of 40 days, weight and sugar losses of sugar beet in samples without coverage were 10 and 6.5 times higher than the sample with coverage containing 14 % paraffin (P < 0.05). After 40 days of storage, the amount of K, Na and non-protein nitrogen increased 56, 50 and 65 %, respectively, in sugar beets without coverage as compared to sugar beets covered with 7 % paraffin containing film, laminated film containing 14 % paraffin and 7 % paraffin containing film, respectively (P < 0.05). The lowest degree days between covered samples was found in sugar beets were placed inside of coverage containing 14 % paraffin which was significant (P < 0.05). This shows that the technical quality of sugar beet depends on the rate at which dehydration, sugar loss and non-sugar impurities are minimized. Based on this, covering of sugar beet with polymeric film containing paraffin can be recommended. © 2016 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion

Mohammadzadeh R.,Islamic Azad University at Maragheh | Mohammadzadeh R.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Motallebi M.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Zamani M.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | And 4 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2015

Numerous diseases caused by fungal pathogens influence the annual production of sugar beet. In order to obtain a plant resistant to fungi, genetic transformation has been applied to the sugar beet. To invade a plant tissue, phytopathogenic fungi produce several cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs); polygalacturonases (PGs) are pathogenicity factors produced at the earlier stages of a fungal infection that depolymerize the homogalacturonan. One of the strategies used by plants to limit the degradation of the cell wall polysaccharides by fungal CWDEs is the production of proteinaceous inhibitors. Against fungal, microbial, and insect PGs, plants produce cell wall-associated polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs). The overexpression of PGIPs improves the resistance to fungal and bacterial necrotrophs in different plants. In this research, the gene encoding the PGIP1 fused downstream of the leader sequence for secretion in the extracellular environment was isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris and cloned into the expression vector pBI121 for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet. Modified transformation protocol and selection strategies were developed. In comparison with the preexisting methods, the transformation efficiency was increased and different cultivars were transformed, highlighting the general effectiveness of the method applied. The presence of the transgene and the activity of PvPGIPl were confirmed by PCR and agarose diffusion assay analyses, respectively, and the present and copy number of the transgene in the TO plants' genome were demonstrated by Southern blot. © 2015 TÜBİTAK.

Mahmoudi S.B.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Ghashghaie S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Interactions of 17 sugar beet lines and cultivars with four isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina (the causal agent of charcoal rot) and one isolate of Rhizoctonia solani (the causal agent of crown and root rot) were studied in separate experiments under greenhouse conditions. The isolates of Macrophomina were taken from their host plants, sugar beet (two isolates), soybean and sesame. In the first experiment, the colonized toothpick was used as inoculum. In the second experiment, six-month-old sugar beet plants were inoculated with barley seeds colonized with M. phaseolina. For the inoculation of sugar beet lines with R. solani, the colonized corn seeds were used. Root symptoms were recorded four weeks after inoculation, by estimating the proportion of the root surface infected by the pathogens, using a 1-9 standard scale. Our results showed a significant difference among lines and cultivars in their resistance to these two pathogens. Line B8618 was found to be considerably resistant to the isolates of the both pathogens. The inoculation methods of Macrophomina isolates had no significant effect on the results. The interaction between isolate and cultivar was not also significant in Macrophomina-resistant lines. Therefore, it appears that the response of sugar beet lines to the tested fungal isolates was not differential. These resistant lines showed a high resistance to all the tested M. phaseolina isolates. Our results revealed that the Macrophomina-resistant lines also showed resistance to R. solani. Furthermore, the sugar beet drought tolerant lines (M293, M362 and M345) were susceptible to the tested M. phaseolina and R. solani isolates. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Stevanato P.,University of Padua | Trebbi D.,University of Padua | Norouzi P.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Broccanello C.,University of Padua | Saccomani M.,University of Padua
International Sugar Journal | Year: 2012

The productivity of sugar beet is strongly limited by several biotic stresses. These include rhizomania (induced by beet necrotic yellow vein virus, BNYVV) that causes yield losses of 20-50% or more. The only way to control this disease is the use of resistant varieties. Rz1 is the major resistance gene present within commercial sugar beet varieties. A linkage analysis was carried out on F2 individuals to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers linked to Rz1. From the 384 SNPs evaluated, three SNPs (SNP1, SNP2 and SNP3) resulted tightly linked to Rz1. Linkage analysis confirms that the Rz1 gene is located on chromosome 3 and is flanked by two closely linked markers named SNP1 and SNP2 with genetic distances of 0.7 cM and 5.2 cM, respectively. The SNP3 is located at 8.9 cM. These first reported SNPs provide a valuable basis for marker assisted introgression of Rz1 resistance to rhizomania.

Amiri R.,University of Tehran | Sarafraz E.,University of Tehran | Sadat noori S.A.,University of Tehran | Norouzi P.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Seyedmohammadi N.,University of Tehran
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

Monogermity is a character that is controlled by one pair of recessive allele in sugar beet. This character is used in many breeding projects. If the character is tagged with molecular markers, it will be possible to easily distinguish monogerm and multigerm plants by DNA extraction followed by PCR analysis in seedling stage. Bulked segregant analysis using 297 RAPD primers in an F 2 population of a hybrid between monogerm and multigerm sugar beet accessions was performed for identification of RAPD marker linked to monogerm gene. DNA of 10 plants from multigerm and monogerm plants were separately mixed. At first, the primers were tested on DNA bulks and then on individual plants of the bulks. When the polymorphism of the primers was confirmed, they were tested on other individual plants. Eventually, two coupling and three repulsion markers were identified in F2 population, which their distances to monogerm gene were lower than 50 cM. OP-S 4-2000r marker was the nearest marker to monogerm gene. The distance of between this marker and monogerm locus was estimated to 6.1 rf.

Sayfzadeh S.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Habibi D.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Taleghani D.F.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Kashani A.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2011

In order to evaluate the response of antioxidant defense system of three sugar beet genotypes to drought stress and enhancing management of soil water content, a two-years field experiment was conducted at the Research Site of Sugar Beet Seed Institute in Karaj, Iran during 2008 and 2009. Irrigation treatments arranged in main plots during growing seasons included: 80 mm (I1: as control), 130 mm (I2) and 180 mm (I3) evaporation from A class pan under surface irrigation method, 30 mm (I4), 80 mm (I5), 130 mm (I6) and 180 mm (I7: as severe drought) evaporation with 100% volume of water requirement under trickle irrigation (Tape) method and 30 mm (I8) evaporation with 75% volume of water requirement under trickle irrigation (Tape) method. Genotypes included: 7112 (G1), BP-Karaj (G2) and BP-Mashhad (G3) were in sub plots. Results of the study showed that drought stress decreased root yield (RY) increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in sugar beet leaves. There were significant differences among genotypes for antioxidant enzyme activity. Also, irrigation × genotype interactions showed significant difference on CAT and GPX activities. There was a negative correlation between enzymes activities and RY. Results of the study also indicated that water deficit stress causes production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), which results in greater membrane permeability i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA) content and oxidative stress in the plants. Moreover, genotypes having greater levels of antioxidants showed better resistance to drought stress. © 2011 Friends Science Publishers.

Norouzi P.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Sabzehzari M.,University of Tehran | Zeinali H.,University of Tehran
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is one of the two major products supplying sugar (sucroses) in the world. Rhizomania is one of the most destructive diseases of sugar beet world-wide. Holly is the major source of resistance to rhizomania. The objectives of this study were to identify the dominant homozygous genotypes resistant to rhizomania using ZN1 molecular marker, to field evaluate S1 progenies of plants already proved to be containing the marker and also to determine the relationship of this and other SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) markers with SNP1 (single nucleotide polymorphism) marker associated with the Rz 1 gene. Molecular analysis was carried out on 27 O-type populations (consisting of 13 susceptible and 6 resistant genotypes). Field evaluation and scoring of the phenotypic traits including greenness, growth, uniformity and disease score of 12 O-type populations were carried out on a rhizomania-infested field. The percent agreement of coupling marker ZN1 and repulsion marker ZN8 with disease score was 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. Although all O-types had the Rz 1 resistance gene but the phenotypic differences were observed due to the effect of different genetic backgrounds and modifier genes. Overall, the results showed that the selected markers can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to reduce the time and cost of breeding programs and increase the efficiency of selection. © 2015 Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Haratian M.,Tarbiat Modares University | Safaie N.,Tarbiat Modares University | Sharifnabi B.,Isfahan University of Technology | Mahmudi S.B.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Ariana A.,Isfahan University of Technology
Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4 (AG-4) is a serious pathogen causing damping off and root rot in many important crop plants. A total of 190 isolates of R. solani AG-4 HG-I were collected from host fields in five provinces of Iran. The genetic structure of this pathogen was evaluated using seven microsatellite loci, focusing particularly on geographic differentiation. Most of the multilocus genotypes (MLGTs) were unique, with few MLGTs shared among populations. High to moderate levels of gene flow among populations was indicated by low to moderate differentiation between pairs of populations based on the fixation index (FST). Gametic equilibrium of most pairs of microsatellite loci and moderate genotypic diversity were found for two out of five populations, indicating that these populations were sexually recombining in structure. High genotypic diversity, moderate clonal fractions and site-specific genotypes were consistent with mixed reproductive systems for the remaining populations. The findings of departures from Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium, gametic disequilibrium and a significant excess of homozygotes in half or more than half of the loci were probably caused by the presence of null alleles and the Wahlund effect. This is the first study to consider the population genetics of the root and crown rot pathogen R. solani AG-4. © 2012 BSPP.

Nooralvandi T.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Habibi D.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Taleghani D.F.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Kashani A.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Paknejad F.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia | Year: 2016

One of the main problems about cultivation of sugar beet in Moghan region is the growth of aerial organ, while in Karaj the problems is reduction of sugar cutie and yield that are due to high temperature of harvest time and water stress. Present paper was carried out for 1 year using strip split block experiment in the form of complete accidental blocks with 4 times repetition in 2 different regions; irrigation was done in tape form. Experimental factors included 4 levels of N: non-application, 13, 19 and 25 mg/kg and 4 different varieties of sugar beet were experimented: Pars, Ekbatan, Razor and Flores; and the third factor was methanol spraying in 3 levels: non-application, 10 and 20% by volume. In Karaj region, the most yield achieved due to interaction effect of Razor∗non application of methanol (78043 kg/hectare). In Moghan region, the most root yield achieved due to Pars var.∗ 20% by volume of methanol (92286 kg/hectare) that was classified in the same statistical group with Flores∗ 10% and 20% by volume of methanol and Pars var.∗ 10% by volume of methanol (91296, 85725 and 87543 kg/hectare in order). The result of compound analysis indicated that the main effects of region, N, variety and methanol had significant effect on catalase activity amount in 1% level as well as interaction effects of N∗variety, N∗ methanol, variety∗ methanol and N∗variety∗methanol. According to the results of experiment in two regions, selection of proper variety can be the most crucial factor beside application of balanced level of methanol and management of N fertilizer at optimum level in order to improve the yield.

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