Sugar Beet Seed Institute

Karaj, Iran

Sugar Beet Seed Institute

Karaj, Iran
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Shojaei E.,Bu - Ali Sina University | Mirzaie-Asl A.,Bu - Ali Sina University | Mahmoudi S.B.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Nazeri S.,Bu - Ali Sina University
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is an important stage in plant’s life. Flowering pathways including photoperiod, vernalization, gibberellins, and autonomous pathway are regulated by different genes. Identification of flowering genes is essential for the development of bolting-resistant sugar beet cultivars. In this study, a set of 118 Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in flowering time control were used as a reference to identify homologous counterparts in Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) and Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly (TSA) sequence of sugar beet. Based on obtained ESTs, primers were designed for Suppressor of Frigida 4 (SUF4), Curly Leaf (CLF), Constitutive Photomorphogenesis1 (COP1), and Cycling Dof Factor (CDF) genes. SUF4 and CLF are components of vernalization pathway and COP1 and CDF are in photoperiod pathway. The sequence regions of these genes were amplified using cDNA PCR technique, and compared with other identified sequences in Gene Bank. Four genes namely CLF, COP1, CDF and SUF4 were deposited in Gene Bank. Results showed that most of the flowering pathway genes in Arabidopsis are detectable in sugar beet which can be contributed to the understanding of the genetic control of bolting resistance. © 2017, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

Khayamim S.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Noshad H.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Jahadakbar M.R.,Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Iran | Fotuhi K.,Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Iran
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science | Year: 2017

Increase of saline lands in most regions of the world and Iran, limit of production increase based on land enhancement and also threat of saline water and soils for crop production make related researches and production of salt tolerant variety to be more serious. There have been many researches about salt stress in Sugar Beet Seed Institute of Iran (SBSI) during several years. Accordingly, the new screening methods for stress tolerance to be continued based on these researches. Previous researches in SBSI were reviewed and results concluded to this study which is presented in this article in three categories including: Agronomy, Breeding and Biotechnology. In agronomy researches, suitable planting medium, EC, growth stage and traits for salinity tolerance screening were determined and agronomic technique such as planting date, planting method and suitable nutrition for sugar beet under salt stress were introduced. Sand was salinizied by saline treatments two times more than Perlit so large sized Perlit is suitable medium for saline studies. Sugar beet genotypes screening for salt tolerance and should be conducted at EC=20 in laboratory and EC= 16 dS/M in greenhouse. Although sugar beet seed germination has been known as more susceptible stage to salinity, it seems establishment is more susceptible than germination in which salinity will cause 70-80% decrease in plant establishment. Measurements of leaves Na, K and total carbohydrate at establishment stage would be useful for faster screening of genotypes, based on high and significant correlation of these traits at establishment with yield at harvest time. In breeding section, SBSI genotypes with drought tolerance background would be useful for salinity stress studies and finally there is a need for more research in the field of biotechnology in Iran. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Norouzi P.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Mahmoudi S.B.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Darabi S.,Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Iran | Kakueinezhad M.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2017

For the involvement of Rhizomania resistance genes in breeding programs, tagging these genes by molecular markers is necessary. In this study, some breeding populations and commercial varieties of sugar beet originated from Holly source were used for the validation of three repulsion SCAR molecular markers correlated with ELISA and field resistance. Comparison between ELISA and field resistance and molecular markers showed that repulsion marker ZN5 had 96% and 98% agreement with ELISA and field resistance, respectively with 95% and 100% presence in susceptible and resistant varieties, respectively. Therefore, this marker can be used for screening of homozygous lines resistant to rhizomania originated from Rz1 gene source. © 2017, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

Kakueinezhad M.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Taheri P.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Mahmoudi B.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Tarighi S.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Euphytica | Year: 2017

Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker is one of the most devastating sugar beet diseases in tropical areas. To identify genetic resources resistant to this disease, an aggressive isolate of P. drechsleri was selected. Then, a screening method was optimized based on the standard scoring scales of 1–9 (1: no symptoms, 9: complete plant death). Finally, 19 sugar beet lines, three cultivars, and 14 accessions of the wild species Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, B. macrocarpa, B. procumbens, and B. webbiana were evaluated for resistance to the most aggressive isolate of P. drechsleri by using the optimized method (inoculum included 20 g of rice seed together with superficial wound creation). The isolates of P. drechsleri had significant variation in aggressiveness, and Kv10 was the most aggressive isolate on the susceptible variety Rasoul. The lines O.T.201-15, SP85303-0 (resistant check), and S2-24.P.107 had the lowest disease index with scores of 3.09, 3.13, and 3.27 respectively; they were categorized into the resistant group. The interaction between isolates and genotypes was not significant, which indicated the same response of each genotype to different isolates. Investigating the resistance of different generations of sugar beet revealed that progeny selection would be an effective method for increasing the resistance level of breeding materials to P. drechsleri. Among the wild species, the accession 9402 belonging to B. macrocarpa and the accession 7234 of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima had the lowest disease index (2.29 and 2.60, respectively) and were categorized into the resistant group. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hemayati S.S.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Jahad-e Akbar M.-R.,Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Iran | Ghaemi A.-R.,Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Iran | Fasahat P.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2017

Crop damage by the sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN) can be mitigated by trap plants planting. We studied the effect of planting two commercial cultivars of oilseed radish ‘Adagio’ and ‘Colonel’ and white mustard ‘Luna’ and ‘Accent’ on SBCN population levels in two locations in Iran in 2009–11, and the subsequent response of sugar beets. Trap plants significantly reduced the number of nematode eggs + J2 with differences between cultivars. Reproductive rates reduction were 70 and 82–93% respect to the fallow control plots in the Isfahan and Khorasan Razavi locations, respectively. Sugar beets grown after incorporating oilseed radish and white mustard forage to soil in Isfahan had significantly higher yields (1.29–1.91%) compared with the fallow control. However, in Khorasan Razavi the sugar yield increased by 1.36% only in plots planted with oilseed radish ‘Adagio’. Sugar beet after oilseed radish ‘Adagio’ and ‘Colonel’ and white mustard ‘Accent’ in Isfahan, and after oilseed radish ‘Colonel’ in Khorasan Razavi also had higher sugar content (1.66–1.95 and 1.23%, respectively) compared with the control. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Alaei H.,Vali e Asr University of Rafsanjan | Molaei S.,Vali e Asr University of Rafsanjan | Mahmoodi S.B.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Saberi-Riseh R.,Vali e Asr University of Rafsanjan
Journal of Crop Protection | Year: 2017

A total of ten isolates of fungi with Rhizoctonia-like mycelia were obtained from infected roots and stems of Pistachio Pistacia vera grown in a commercial nursery in Rafsanjan, Iran, during the autumn of 2011. The infected seedlings showed symptoms of chlorosis that later turned to necrosis. All of the isolates were identified as binucleate Rhizoctonia on the basis of hyphal characteristics and nuclear number. They were tested for detection of the anastomosis group, optimum growth temperature, rDNA-ITS region traits and pathogenicity on pistachio seedlings in vitro and in vivo. The analysis of hyphal anastomosis reaction was carried out with the tester isolates of binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-A, AG-Ba, AG-G and AG-F as well as multinucleate Rhizoctonia AG4 as already detected on pistachio seedlings. The optimum temperature for growth of binucleate Rhizoctonia sp. was 35ºC. In in vivo test, the symptoms of root rot were observed 30 days after inoculation and mortality happened two weeks thereafter. According to molecular characteristics and anastomosis test groups, all isolates showed greatest similarity to anastomosis group AG-F. This finding is the first report of anastomosis group F (AG-F) of binucleate Rhizoctonia, as causal agent of root and stem rot disease of pistachio in the world and Iran. © 2017, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

Bahrami S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Honarvar M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Mizani M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | AbdollahianNoghabi M.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute
Sugar Tech | Year: 2016

The aim of this experiment was to study the sugar and weight losses and non-sugar impurities of sugar beet during the storage by coverage containing phase change material (PCM). The combination of six coverage types and two storage intervals of 20 and 40 days was arranged in a greenhouse with temperature ranging from 8.5 to 24.5 °C and relative humidity between 47 and 80 %, and paraffin was used as PCM. The polyethylene coverages containing 0, 7 and 14 % paraffin with and without lamination were utilized. The results showed that during the course of 40 days, weight and sugar losses of sugar beet in samples without coverage were 10 and 6.5 times higher than the sample with coverage containing 14 % paraffin (P < 0.05). After 40 days of storage, the amount of K, Na and non-protein nitrogen increased 56, 50 and 65 %, respectively, in sugar beets without coverage as compared to sugar beets covered with 7 % paraffin containing film, laminated film containing 14 % paraffin and 7 % paraffin containing film, respectively (P < 0.05). The lowest degree days between covered samples was found in sugar beets were placed inside of coverage containing 14 % paraffin which was significant (P < 0.05). This shows that the technical quality of sugar beet depends on the rate at which dehydration, sugar loss and non-sugar impurities are minimized. Based on this, covering of sugar beet with polymeric film containing paraffin can be recommended. © 2016 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion

Mahmoudi S.B.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Ghashghaie S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Interactions of 17 sugar beet lines and cultivars with four isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina (the causal agent of charcoal rot) and one isolate of Rhizoctonia solani (the causal agent of crown and root rot) were studied in separate experiments under greenhouse conditions. The isolates of Macrophomina were taken from their host plants, sugar beet (two isolates), soybean and sesame. In the first experiment, the colonized toothpick was used as inoculum. In the second experiment, six-month-old sugar beet plants were inoculated with barley seeds colonized with M. phaseolina. For the inoculation of sugar beet lines with R. solani, the colonized corn seeds were used. Root symptoms were recorded four weeks after inoculation, by estimating the proportion of the root surface infected by the pathogens, using a 1-9 standard scale. Our results showed a significant difference among lines and cultivars in their resistance to these two pathogens. Line B8618 was found to be considerably resistant to the isolates of the both pathogens. The inoculation methods of Macrophomina isolates had no significant effect on the results. The interaction between isolate and cultivar was not also significant in Macrophomina-resistant lines. Therefore, it appears that the response of sugar beet lines to the tested fungal isolates was not differential. These resistant lines showed a high resistance to all the tested M. phaseolina isolates. Our results revealed that the Macrophomina-resistant lines also showed resistance to R. solani. Furthermore, the sugar beet drought tolerant lines (M293, M362 and M345) were susceptible to the tested M. phaseolina and R. solani isolates. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Norouzi P.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Sabzehzari M.,University of Tehran | Zeinali H.,University of Tehran
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is one of the two major products supplying sugar (sucroses) in the world. Rhizomania is one of the most destructive diseases of sugar beet world-wide. Holly is the major source of resistance to rhizomania. The objectives of this study were to identify the dominant homozygous genotypes resistant to rhizomania using ZN1 molecular marker, to field evaluate S1 progenies of plants already proved to be containing the marker and also to determine the relationship of this and other SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) markers with SNP1 (single nucleotide polymorphism) marker associated with the Rz 1 gene. Molecular analysis was carried out on 27 O-type populations (consisting of 13 susceptible and 6 resistant genotypes). Field evaluation and scoring of the phenotypic traits including greenness, growth, uniformity and disease score of 12 O-type populations were carried out on a rhizomania-infested field. The percent agreement of coupling marker ZN1 and repulsion marker ZN8 with disease score was 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. Although all O-types had the Rz 1 resistance gene but the phenotypic differences were observed due to the effect of different genetic backgrounds and modifier genes. Overall, the results showed that the selected markers can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to reduce the time and cost of breeding programs and increase the efficiency of selection. © 2015 Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Haratian M.,Tarbiat Modares University | Safaie N.,Tarbiat Modares University | Sharifnabi B.,Isfahan University of Technology | Mahmudi S.B.,Sugar Beet Seed Institute | Ariana A.,Isfahan University of Technology
Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4 (AG-4) is a serious pathogen causing damping off and root rot in many important crop plants. A total of 190 isolates of R. solani AG-4 HG-I were collected from host fields in five provinces of Iran. The genetic structure of this pathogen was evaluated using seven microsatellite loci, focusing particularly on geographic differentiation. Most of the multilocus genotypes (MLGTs) were unique, with few MLGTs shared among populations. High to moderate levels of gene flow among populations was indicated by low to moderate differentiation between pairs of populations based on the fixation index (FST). Gametic equilibrium of most pairs of microsatellite loci and moderate genotypic diversity were found for two out of five populations, indicating that these populations were sexually recombining in structure. High genotypic diversity, moderate clonal fractions and site-specific genotypes were consistent with mixed reproductive systems for the remaining populations. The findings of departures from Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium, gametic disequilibrium and a significant excess of homozygotes in half or more than half of the loci were probably caused by the presence of null alleles and the Wahlund effect. This is the first study to consider the population genetics of the root and crown rot pathogen R. solani AG-4. © 2012 BSPP.

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