Khartoum, Sudan

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Mirghani M.,National Center for Research | Madane H.O.,Sudan Academy of Sciences
Proceedings - 2017 International Conference on Communication, Control, Computing and Electronics Engineering, ICCCCEE 2017 | Year: 2017

Digital audio compression is applied to reduce the data rate required to send audio stream through band limited communication networks, as well as reducing the size of data storage in case of recording audio streams. It is common to apply lossy audio compression algorithms in many applications, which provide higher compression at the expense of the fidelity. MPEG-1and2 Audio Layer III, or MP3, is encoding format for digital audio that uses a form of lossy data compression. It is a regular audio format for consumer audio streaming or storage, and a standard of digital audio compression for the transfer and playback of music on the majority of digital audio players. However, the quality of audio encoding depends on the phonemes of sound that distinguish one word from another in a particular language. Most of speech models applied in audio compression relies on phonemes of English language, rather than those of Arabic language. Therefore, audio encoding of Holly Quran for recording on digital media is highly affected by these differences in the models used. Consequently, serious errors could be produced during the playback of Quran Kareem, which may change the meaning and quality of the output stream. The main objective of this paper is to discuss and evaluate encoding methods for speech in Arabic language accents, focusing on deterioration occurs in producing correct and clear Quran digital audio recording. © 2017 IEEE.


Ahmed K.E.B.,Sudan Academy of Sciences | Saeed R.A.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Mokhtar R.A.,Sudan University of Science and Technology
Proceedings - 2017 International Conference on Communication, Control, Computing and Electronics Engineering, ICCCCEE 2017 | Year: 2017

Object tracking in real time is one of the most important topics in the field of computer Vision. The work undertaken in this dissertation is mainly focused on development of a reliable and robust real time tracking system that can track the object of interest in the video acquired from a stationary or moving camera. The proposed algorithm is a real time algorithm that operates in 25 frames per second depending on the input video properties and probability distribution of the intensity of the tracked object. The Digital Video Development Platform DM6437 EVM is used to obtain the real time video sequence and process the frame to extract the object using the CAMSHIFT algorithm. The information obtained from the frame is extracted and mean shift algorithm is used to search the object with in the frame. The experimental results obtained from the proposal prove the consistency and real time performance of the proposed algorithm. © 2017 IEEE.


Elebead F.M.,Sudan Academy of Sciences | Hilmi H.S.M.,University of Khartoum | Galal H.,Future University of Sudan
Journal of Community Health | Year: 2012

In Sudan, the prevalence of cancer cases increased and cancer ranked as the major cause of death. Therefore, forming a cancer control program and putting strategic action plans into practice became an important matter for the health industry. The correlation of variations in different societies and environmental factors should be examined spatially with reliable data. The aim of this study is to produce base maps for implementation of cancer control program and cancer density maps through the utilization of GIS in health work. In this study, a database was built with the use of GIS to examine the distribution of cancer cases and maps relating to cancer events in allocation units were created. Cancer cases data registered from 1999 to 2008, by the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology and Treatment of Tumors-University of Gezira in El Gezira State, was used as case in this study. Using ArcGIS, the distribution of cancer cases were presented on cancer maps including allocation units and incidence values, which were calculated for each villages and locality region. According to the world standards, cancer rates were determined and examined by the spatial analysis power of GIS. The research concluded that cancer cases were increased, in some localities over the past 10 years (1999-2008). This can be related to many reasons including the existence of the Gezira Scheme were farmers used fertilizers and pesticides, as well as increasing health awareness among the citizens through the establishment of use in the state. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Mubarak N.,University of Khartoum | Khalafalla K.E.,Rayan Specified laboratory Khartoum | Ali N.I.,Sudan Academy of Sciences | Adam I.,University of Khartoum
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Background: Helicobacter pylori is a common gut pathogen that is linked to many complications of pregnancy such as iron deficiency anemia, pre-eclampsia and thrombocytopenia. There are no published data on H. pylori in Sudan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period May-June 2012 at the antenatal care unit of Khartoum Hospital, Sudan, to investigate prevalence of H. pylori and its association, if any, with anemia and thrombocytopenia. Obstetric and medical histories were gathered using questionnaires. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin were measured and H. pylori antibodies (IgA and IgG) investigated using ELISA. Results: Among 179 women, rates of positivity for specific IgG formed against H. pylori were 69.8% (125/179), 94.0% (168/179) and 5.6% (10/179) for IgA, IgG and both IgG and IgA, respectively. There was no association between the expected risk factors (age, parity, education) and H. pylori seropositivity. Of these women, 42/179 (24.3%), 50/179 (28.9%) and 19/179 (11%), respectively, were anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dl) or had iron deficiency (serum ferritin <15 μg/l) or iron deficiency anemia. There was no association between H. pylori infection and anemia (OR=1.0, 95% CI=0.3-3.2, p=1.0), iron deficiency (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.1-3.8, p=0.367) or thrombocytopenia (OR=2.0, 95% CI=0.4-8.4, p=0.322). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of H. pylori infection among pregnant women in Khartoum, Sudan, and it is not associated with anemia or thrombocytopenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.


Idris A.M.,King Khalid University | Naheid S.A.,Sudan Academy of Sciences | Elgorashe R.E.E.,King Faisal University | Eltayeb M.A.H.,Sudan Atomic Energy Commission | Alnajjar A.O.,King Faisal University
Analytical Methods | Year: 2012

Recently, a more efficient sequential injection chromatograph (SIC) with a high pressure selection valve has been developed at our laboratory. In the current work, the newly developed SIC system was exploited to optimize and validate a new method for the separation and quantification of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations. A multi-response optimization study was conducted to screen the effect of mobile phase composition on resolution, reagent consumption, retention time, peak symmetry, peak height and baseline. The factorial design approach was adopted and the effect factors were determined. The SIC method has proven to be a competitor to high performance liquid chromatographic methods with respect to sample frequency, reagent consumption and safety for the environment, besides instrumentation benefits with respect to inexpensiveness, simplicity and portability. Short C 18 monolithic columns (30 × 4.6 mm) were used to offer a rapid and reagent-saving procedure. Miniaturized fiber optic spectrometric devices were coupled with the SIC system to provide more instrumentation portability. Satisfactory separation, peak symmetry and theoretical plates were achieved. The SIC method was also accurate (the recovery range was 98.8-101.8%), precise (the RSD range was 0.95-2.29) and sensitive (the limits of detection were below 1.5 μg mL -1). © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Idris A.M.,King Khalid University | Naheid S.A.,Sudan Academy of Sciences | Elgorashe R.E.E.,King Khalid University | Eltayeb M.A.H.,Sudan Atomic Energy Commission | Al-Akra H.N.,University of Aleppo
Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies | Year: 2011

Sequential injection chromatography (SIC) has been recently proposed as an alternative separation technique with potential benefits and some limitations. In the current study, a more pressure resistant selection valve (SV) with additional ports was installed in an SIC assembly. The current SV allowed using a buffer in a Mobile phase (MP) without leakage and analyzing ten solutions with a one-shot run. In addition, a new method for sildenafil assay in tablets, bulk, and synthetic pharmaceutical samples was proposed utilizing the newly developed SIC assembly. Response surface approach was adopted to screen the effect of MP composition on t R, PH, and B and, accordingly, to optimize the method. Sample volume and flow rate were optimized using the univariate approach. The optimum chromatographic conditions were: C 18 monolithic column (4.6 × 25 mm), an MP composition of 0.3 M ammonium acetate:acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) at pH 6.8, sample volume 40 μL and flow rate 40 μL/s. UV detection at 240 nm was carried out using miniaturized fiber optic spectrometric devices. A comparative study on some analytical features of the SIC method with those of previous HPLC methods was conducted. The SIC method is more rapid and more reagent-saving and thus safer to the environment. The sample frequency was 40 samples/hr. The total volume of consumed reagents and sample was 2.54 mL. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Khattab I.,Sudan Academy of Sciences
Proceedings of the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems: Global Information Systems Challenges in Management, EMCIS 2010 | Year: 2010

Microenterprises have emerged as promising opportunities to eliminate poverty and create jobs. Microenterprises are confronted with many challenges such as accessing new markets and reaching out to customers. Along the same line, technology especially mobile phones have made significant contributions to business innovation and to the development of micro and small enterprises. The challenge of promotion and marketing are particularly acute for microenterprises due to their limited capabilities to initiate significant change without assistance. Thus the aim of this paper is to facilitate the communication between microentrepreneurs and customers through a call-centre that has -an easy phone number- using their mobile phone. The proposed call-centre is expected to orchestrate the interaction between microentrepreneurs and customers which will benefit both parties. Staff working at the proposed call centre will be able to create profiles for microentrepreneurs and link them through mobile phones with customers who are seeking skilled microentrepreneurs. This service is expected to help users as well as decision makers in their planning and development of micropenterpises.


El-Amin H.K.A.,Sudan Academy of Sciences | Hamza N.B.,National Center for Research
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is believed to be domesticated for the first time within the geographical range of Sudan, so, studying the genetic variation of sorghum genotypes collections attracts special interest. In this study, 17 sorghum accessions with important agronomic traits, representing four states in Sudan were assayed for polymorphism using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique (RAPD). Ten primers out of 40 tested (A-1, B-20, C-20, D-18, OPE-04, UBC-101, UBC-103, UBC-127, UBC-155 and UBC-157) showed high polymorphism among the accessions. The results indicated 110 polymorphic bands out of 145 bands with percentage of polymorphic bands of 77.6%. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) result showed two major clusters, with a clear trend of grouping of each region. A cluster contained all accessions from eastern Sudan (Red Sea). However, accessions from north Sudan (River Nile), western Sudan (North Kordofan) and south Sudan (Blue Nile) were diverse in another cluster. Based on the results of this study RAPD technique proved to be useful to study genetic variation among the Sudanese sorghum accessions. © 2013 Academic Journals Inc.


Badr E.,Sudan Academy of Sciences | Mohamed N.A.,Federal Ministry of Health | Afzal M.M.,World Health Organization | Bile K.M.,Somali Swedish Research Association
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2013

Problem Human resources for health (HRH) in the Sudan were limited by shortages and the maldistribution of health workers, poor management, service fragmentation, poor retention of health workers in rural areas, and a weak health information system. Approach A "country coordination and facilitation" process was implemented to strengthen the national HRH observatory, provide a coordination platform for key stakeholders, catalyse policy support and HRH planning, harmonize the mobilization of resources, strengthen HRH managerial structures, establish new training institutions and scale up the training of community health workers. Local setting The national government of the Sudan sanctioned state-level governance of the health system but many states lacked coherent HRH plans and policies. A paucity of training institutions constrained HRH production and the adequate and equitable deployment of health workers in rural areas. Relevant changes The country coordination and facilitation process prompted the establishment of a robust HRH information system and the development of the technical capacities and tools necessary for data analysis and evidence-based participatory decision-making and action. Lessons learnt The success of the country coordination and facilitation process was substantiated by the stakeholders' coordinated support, which was built on solid evidence of the challenges in HRH and shared accountability in the planning and implementation of responses to those challenges. The support led to political commitment and the mobilization of resources for HRH. The leadership that was promoted and the educational institutions that were opened should facilitate the training, deployment and retention of the health workers needed to achieve universal health coverage.


Alfaki M.M.,Sudan Academy of Sciences | Salih A.M.M.,Sudan Academy of Sciences | Elhuda D.A.,Sudan Academy of Sciences | Elhuda D.A.,University of Khartoum | Egail M.S.,Sudan Academy of Sciences
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2016

Background Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an infectious disease associated with a high fatality rate. Health care providers (HCPs) are frequently infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. Knowledge of, attitudes toward, and practices of HCP toward EVD, especially in hot spots, is an essential element to control the disease. Materials and methods In this descriptive, cross-sectional, health facility-based study, 258 HCPs were interviewed in different health facilities in hot spots in the targeted states, including district and federal hospitals and health centers, using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results The majority of respondents were house officers (40.7%), followed by nurses (26.4%). The remaining respondents were registrars, medical officers, and allied health professionals. All participants had heard about EVD. There were significant differences in the knowledge of doctors and allied health care providers regarding modes of transmission and clinical manifestations. Some false information, such as airborne transmission (53.1%) and insect transmission (20.2%), was reported by respondents. The majority of respondents (81.3%) claimed that they would treat patients with suspected EVD while taking a safe approach, 83.5% said they would notify health authorities about cases of suspected EVD, and 91.1% reported not attending any training sessions about EVD. Conclusion The media plays an important role in increasing awareness about EVD. Regardless, however, researchers recommend more in-service training for HCPs to increase their knowledge about EVD. © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc.

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