Mogi Guaçu, Brazil
Mogi Guaçu, Brazil
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Alvarenga E.M.,University of Campinas | Mondin M.,University of Sao Paulo | Martins J.A.,University of Campinas | Rodrigues V.L.C.C.,SUCEN | And 5 more authors.
Micron | Year: 2011

Heterochromatin bodies in single- and multichromocentered interphase cell nuclei of Triatoma infestans, a vector of Chagas disease, have been suggested to contain AT-rich DNA, based on their positive response to Q-banding and Hoechst 33248 treatment. No information exists on whether GC-rich DNA is also present in these nuclei and whether it plays a role on chromatin condensation. Considering that methodologies more precise than those previously used to determine DNA base composition in situ are currently available, and that the spatial distribution of chromatin areas differing in composition in interphase cell nuclei of different species is a matter of interest, the localization of AT- and GC-rich DNA in T. infestans nuclei is revisited here. The methodologies used included DAPI/AMD and CMA3/Distamycin differential staining, Feulgen-DNA image analysis following Msp I and Hpa II enzymatic digestion, 5-methylcytidine immunodetection, AgNOR response, confocal microscopy, and the 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) demethylation assay. The results identified the presence of AT-rich/GC-poor DNA in chromocenters and evenly distributed AT and GC sequences in euchromatin. A GC-rich DNA zone encircling the chromocenters was also found but it could not be associated with NOR regions. To corroborate the DNA AT-richness in T. infestans nuclei, bioinformatic analyses were also performed. Methylated cytosine was evident at some points of the chromocenters' edge in single- and multichromocentered nuclei and at the euchromatin of multichromocentered nuclei and could be transiently affected by the 5-AZA treatment. The present results suggest that in the particular case of chromocenters of the hemipteran T. infestans, cytosine methylation is not a relevant factor involved in chromatin condensation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Alvarenga E.M.,University of Campinas | Mondin M.,University of Sao Paulo | Rodrigues V.L.C.C.,SUCEN | Andrade L.M.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Acta Histochemica | Year: 2012

The Malpighian tubule cell nuclei of male Panstrongylus megistus, a vector of Chagas disease, contain one chromocenter, which is composed solely of the Y chromosome. Considering that different chromosomes contribute to the composition of chromocenters in different triatomini species, the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of AT-, GC-, and methylated cytidine-rich DNA in the chromocenter as well as in euchromatin of Malpighian tubule cell nuclei of P. megistus in comparison with published data for Triatoma infestans. Staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole/actinomycin D and chromomycin A 3/distamycin, immunodetection of 5-methylcytidine and AgNOR test were used. The results revealed AT-rich/GC-poor DNA in the male chromocenter, but equally distributed AT and GC DNA sequences in male and female euchromatin, like in T. infestans. Accumulation of argyrophilic proteins encircling the chromocenter did not always correlate with that of GC-rich DNA. Methylated DNA identified by immunodetection was found sparsely distributed in the euchromatin of both sexes and at some points around the chromocenter edge, but it could not be considered responsible for chromatin condensation in the chromocenter, like in T. infestans. However, unlike in T. infestans, no correlation between the chromocenter AT-rich DNA and nucleolus organizing region (NOR) DNA was found in P. megistus. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

Yang H.M.,University of Campinas | Macoris M.D.L.D.G.,SUCEN | Galvani K.C.,SUCEN | Andrighetti M.T.M.,SUCEN
BioSystems | Year: 2011

The dengue virus is a vector-borne disease transmitted by mosquito Aedes aegypti and the incidence is strongly influenced by temperature and humidity which vary seasonally. To assess the effects of temperature on dengue transmission, mathematical models are developed based on the population dynamics theory. However, depending on the hypotheses of the modelling, different outcomes regarding to the risk of epidemics are obtained. We address this question comparing two simple models supplied with model's parameters estimated from temperature-controlled experiments, especially the entomological parameters regarded to the mosquito's life cycle in different temperatures. Once obtained the mortality and transition rates of different stages comprising the life cycle of mosquito and the oviposition rate, we compare the capacity of vector reproduction (the basic offspring number) and the risk of infection (basic reproduction number) provided by two models. The extended model, which is more realistic, showed that both mosquito population and dengue risk are situated at higher values than the simplified model, even that the basic offspring number is lower. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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