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Gunes E.,Akdeniz University | Gubbuk H.,Akdeniz University | Ayala-Silva T.,Subtropical Horticulture Research Station | Gozlekci S.,Akdeniz University | Ercisli S.,Ataturk University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

In this study, Ceratonia siliqua L. carob seeds harvested from both wild and cultivated genotypes in Turkey were subjected to mechanical scarification, soaking in hot water and dipping in sulfuric acid. All treatments hastened seed germination and seedling growth of carob compared to control. The germination percentage of control seeds were similar for both wild and cultivated genotypes (13%) and it was increased up to 95% and 93% in wild and cultivated genotypes, respectively, following sulfuric acid treatment. Seed germination percentage of wild and cultivated carobs was similar in all treatments indicating that domestication does not appear to have influenced germination behavior in both genotype.

Epsky N.D.,Subtropical Horticulture Research Station | Espinoza H.R.,Subtropical Horticulture Research Station | Kendra P.E.,Subtropical Horticulture Research Station | Abernathy R.,Subtropical Horticulture Research Station | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine effective sampling range of a female-targeted protein-based synthetic attractant for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Multilure traps were baited with ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine lures (three-component attractant) and sampled over eight consecutive weeks. Field design consisted of 38 traps (over 0.5 ha) placed in a combination of standard and high-density grids to facilitate geostatistical analysis, and tests were conducted in coffee (Coffea arabica L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and orthanique (Citrus sinensis × Citrus reticulata). Effective sampling range, as determined from the range parameter obtained from experimental variograms that fit a spherical model, was ≈30 m for flies captured in tests in coffee or mango and ≈40 m for flies captured in orthanique. For comparison, a release-recapture study was conducted in mango using wild (field-collected) mixed sex C. capitata and an array of 20 baited traps spaced 10-50 m from the release point. Contour analysis was used to document spatial distribution of fly recaptures and to estimate effective sampling range, defined by the area that encompassed 90% of the recaptures. With this approach, effective range of the three-component attractant was estimated to be ≈28 m, similar to results obtained from variogram analysis. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on sampling range, which was ≈15 m greater upwind compared with downwind from the release point. Geostatistical analysis of field-captured insects in appropriately designed trapping grids may provide a supplement or alternative to release-recapture studies to estimate sampling ranges for semiochemical-based trapping systems. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.

Kendra P.E.,Subtropical Horticulture Research Station | Montgomery W.S.,Subtropical Horticulture Research Station | Deyrup M.A.,Archbold Biological Station | Wakarchuk D.,Synergy Semiochemicals Corporation
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2015

The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA, now established in eight southeastern states. Females are the primary vectors of a fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has caused extensive mortality in native Persea species, including redbay (P. borbonia), swampbay (P. palustris), and silkbay (P. humilis), and currently it threatens avocado (P. americana) in Florida. With continued spread, laurel wilt may impact additional Lauraceae throughout the Americas. Currently, the most effective lures for X. glabratus contain cubeb oil, an essential oil composed of a complex mixture of terpenoids. To elucidate the primary attractants of X. glabratus, fractional distillation was used to separate whole cubeb oil into 17 fractions. All fractions were used initially as substrates for electroantennographic (EAG) analyses to assess olfactory response; then eight representative fractions were chosen for binary-choice bioassays to assess behavioral response. Although fractions containing monoterpenes elicited the strongest EAG responses, significant attraction of X. glabratus was observed only with fractions that contained high percentages of the sesquiterpenes α-copaene and α-cubebene. This information was used to prepare two prototype lures, one of which contained copaiba oil (an essential oil consisting of 10 % α-copaene), and the other a proprietary product enriched to 50 % (−)-α-copaene content. In field trials, the copaiba and commercial cubeb lures captured equal numbers of X. glabratus, but the 50 % copaene lure captured significantly more beetles and had field longevity of 3 months. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA)

Motamayor J.C.,Mars Inc | Mockaitis K.,Indiana University | Schmutz J.,Mars Inc | Schmutz J.,HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology | And 30 more authors.
Genome Biology | Year: 2013

Background: Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders.Results: We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina. 1-6. The genome of the Matina 1-6 cultivar is 445 Mbp, which is significantly larger than a sequenced Criollo cultivar, and more typical of other cultivars. The chromosome-scale assembly, version 1.1, contains 711 scaffolds covering 346.0 Mbp, with a contig N50 of 84.4 kbp, a scaffold N50 of 34.4 Mbp, and an evidence-based gene set of 29,408 loci. Version 1.1 has 10x the scaffold N50 and 4x the contig N50 as Criollo, and includes 111 Mb more anchored sequence. The version 1.1 assembly has 4.4% gap sequence, while Criollo has 10.9%. Through a combination of haplotype, association mapping and gene expression analyses, we leverage this robust reference genome to identify a promising candidate gene responsible for pod color variation. We demonstrate that green/red pod color in cacao is likely regulated by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor TcMYB113, homologs of which determine pigmentation in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Brassicaceae. One SNP within the target site for a highly conserved trans-acting siRNA in dicots, found within TcMYB113, seems to affect transcript levels of this gene and therefore pod color variation.Conclusions: We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L. and demonstrate its utility in identifying candidate genes regulating traits. © 2013 Motamayor et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Kendra P.E.,Subtropical Horticulture Research Station | Epsky N.D.,Subtropical Horticulture Research Station | Heath R.R.,Subtropical Horticulture Research Station
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

Releaserecapture studies were conducted with both feral and sterile females of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine sampling range for a liquid protein bait (torula yeast/borax) and for a two-component synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests were done in a guava, Psidium guajava L., grove and involved releasing flies at a central point and recording the numbers captured after 7 h and 1, 2, 3, and 6 d in an array of 25 Multilure traps located 946 m from the release point, In all tests, highest rate of recapture occurred within the first day of release, so estimations of sampling range were based on a 24-h period. Trap distances were grouped into four categories (<10, 10-20, 20-30, and >30 m from release point) and relative trapping efficiency (percentage of capture) was determined for each distance group. Effective sampling range was defined as the maximum distance at which relative trapping efficiency was ≥25%. This corresponded to the area in which 90% of the recaptures occured. Contour analysis was also performed to document spatial distribution of fly dispersal. In tests with sterile flies, immature females dispersed farther and were recovered in higher numbers than mature females, regardless of attractant, and recapture of both cohorts was higher with torula yeast. For mature feral flies, range of the synthetic lure was determined to be 30 m. With sterile females, effective range of both attractants was 20 m. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on the active space of attractants, as reflected by distribution of captured flies.

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