Subtropical Horticultural Research Station

Cutler Ridge, FL, United States

Subtropical Horticultural Research Station

Cutler Ridge, FL, United States

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Epsky N.D.,Subtropical Horticultural Research Station | Kendra P.E.,Subtropical Horticultural Research Station | Pena J.,University of Florida | Heath R.R.,Subtropical Horticultural Research Station
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2011

Field tests were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), in Multilure traps baited with either of the liquid protein baits torula yeast/borax or Nulure/borax, or with food-based synthetic lures including two-component Biolure (ammonium acetate, putrescine) and three-component Biolure (ammonium acetate, putrescine, trimethylamine). The highest relative proportion of females captured was in traps baited with the two-component Biolure (44-61%), intermediate capture was in traps baited with the three-component Biolure (14-24%) or torula yeast/borax (8-25%), and the lowest capture tended to be in traps baited with Nulure/borax (0-19%). Similar results were obtained for capture of males. Tests of the unipak two-component Biolure, which has a reduced ammonium acetate release rate and is a single package with both ammonium acetate and putrescine sections, captured similar numbers of both females and males as Biolure formulated in 2 individual packages. Traps baited with unipak Biolure combined with the addition of a trimethylamine lure captured fewer females than the unipak alone, but this was greater than capture in traps baited with torula yeast/borax. Our studies confirmed that the best lure for A. suspensa is ammonium acetate and putrescine. However, C. capitata-targeted traps baited with three-component Biolure should be as effective for A. suspensa detection and monitoring as traps baited with torula yeast/borax. The unipak two-component Biolure will provide the improved handling that has been requested by users.


Epsky N.D.,Subtropical Horticultural Research Station | Dean D.,Center Plant Health Science and Technology | Fox A.,911 SW 34 Street | Fox A.,Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service | Kendra P.E.,Subtropical Horticultural Research Station
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2013

Field trials were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of wild Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), and sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in Multilure traps, which are McPhail-type traps that use an aqueous solution to retain attracted flies, and Phase 4 traps, which are open-bottom dry traps that use a sticky insert to retain attracted flies. One study was conducted in a guava orchard and compared capture of A. suspensa in both trap types baited with ammonium acetate plus putrescine alone (two-component BioLure) or in combination with trimethylamine (three-component BioLure). A second study compared captures of A. suspensa and sterile male C. capitata in traps baited with three-component BioLure in an urban area near the end of the eradication program for a C. capitata outbreak. In both studies, captures were higher in the Multilure traps than the Phase 4 traps baited with the same lure, with catches ranging from 5:1 for sterile C. capitata, and ∼10:1 to ∼100:1 for wild A. suspensa. Large scale area-wide deployment of fruit fly detection traps is costly in both materials and in the time and effort required in routine servicing. Although a simpler and cheaper trap such as the Phase 4 trap would be a welcome relief to any large scale area-wide detection programs, it must perform effectively. This is the first report of tests of fruit fly capture in Phase 4 traps conducted under of south Florida conditions.


Shelly T.E.,Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service | Epsky N.D.,Subtropical Horticultural Research Station
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2015

The aroma of various plant essential oils has been shown to enhance the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Laboratory observations revealed that male medflies show strong short-range (<10 cm) attraction to tea tree oil (TTO hereafter) derived from leaves of the Australian plant Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betch) Cheel (Myrtales: Melastomataceae). The present study was undertaken to i) compare the attractiveness of TTO with that of trimedlure (the male lure routinely used in detection surveys) in field and field cage tests and ii) assess the influence of TTO exposure on male mating success under conditions of varying dose, duration of post-exposure (i.e., pre-test) interval, and access (contact possible or not) to the TTO source. Results showed that TTO-baited traps captured 50% as many males as trimedlure-baited traps in field cages but only 8% as many males as trimedlure-baited traps in the open field. Males exposed to pure TTO or dilutions of 50% and 5% TTO in hexane had higher mating success than non-exposed control males in tests conducted 1 d after exposure. TTO-exposed males also had a mating advantage when tested 3 d after exposure and when physical contact with the TTO source was prevented. In an additional experiment, TTO exposure was found to enhance the mating competitiveness of mass-reared, sterile males in competition against wild males for copulations with wild females in tests conducted 1 or 3 d after exposure.


Epsky N.D.,Subtropical Horticultural Research Station | Gill M.A.,Subtropical Horticultural Research Station | Cha D.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Landolt P.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2014

The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, ethanol and acetic acid, alone and in combination. The flies were attracted to the wine but not to the vinegar or unbaited traps and were most strongly attracted to the combination of wine and vinegar. More flies were captured in traps baited with the combination of ethanol and acetic acid, the most abundant volatiles of wine and vinegar respectively, than in traps baited with either chemical alone or in unbaited traps. A subsequent test found that traps baited with wine plus acetic acid were as attractive as traps baited with wine plus vinegar. In this test, there was no difference in capture in unbaited traps or traps baited with ethanol plus acetic acid, and intermediate capture was obtained in traps baited with vinegar plus ethanol. These findings suggest that it may be possible to develop a synthetic chemical lure for Z. indianus that is based on volatiles from wine used in combination with acetic acid alone or in combination with other volatiles from vinegar.


Malik N.S.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Perez J.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kunta M.,Texas A&M University-Kingsville | Patt J.M.,U S Horticultural Research Laboratory | Mangan R.L.,Subtropical Horticultural Research Station
Insect Science | Year: 2014

The effects of biotic and abiotic stresses on changes in amino acids and polyamine levels in Satsuma orange (Citrus unshiu; cultivar Owari) leaves were investigated. Asian citrus psyllids Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (ACP) infestation was used to induce biotic stress while a water deficit was imposed to induce abiotic stress. Potted trees were infested by placing 50 psyllids on 3 citrus leaves enclosed in nylon mesh bags for 5 d. A parallel set of plants were kept water stressed by maintaining the soil at 20% water holding capacity for 5 d. Levels of total free amino acids were higher in water stressed and ACP infested leaves. Polyamine putrescine increased in infested leaves but not in water stressed leaves. Proline was the most abundant amino acid and its levels significantly increased by both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proline levels in infested leaves were significantly higher than the water stressed leaves. Histidine, methionine, asparagine, arginine, serine, and leucine levels also increased significantly in infested leaves, but in water stressed leaves only leucine, methionine, and threonine increased. Levels of amino acids, such as tyrosine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, and alanine, declined in infested leaves. Under water stress asparagine, phenylalanine, serine, and histidine also declined compared to controls. This indicates that while proteolysis occurred under both stresses, metabolic conversion of amino acids was different under the two stresses. In ACP infested leaves some amino acids may be used as feeding material and/or converted into secondary metabolites for defense. © 2014 Institute of Zoology.


Mangan R.L.,Crop Quality and Fruit Insects Research Unit | Mangan R.L.,Subtropical Horticultural Research Station | Thomas D.B.,Crop Quality and Fruit Insects Research Unit | Thomas D.B.,Moore Research
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014

Early research investigating attractants for the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, during the 1930s indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were carried out on populations of Mexican fruit flies from 2004 to 2011. Trapping experiments carried out at sites in the states Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi compared grape juice, reconstituted grape concentrate and powdered grape mixes, and torula yeast extract in orchards at each site. The Nuevo Leon orchard was mixed with alternate rows of pears and surrounded by alternate hosts. The San Luis Potosi site was surrounded by other orange orchards or nonhosts. Each test was run for at least 10 mo and included highest and lowest trapping periods. Results showed that grape juice captured the most total flies and had the fewest samples with zero flies. However, in the series of experiments, each product had the most captures in at least one experiment. Hydrolyzed torula was superior in one of the six experiments. In five of the tests, polyethylene glycol was tested as an additive to the grape products but never improved capture rate compared with the product without the additive. These results indicate that grape juice is superior to grape concentrate or powder and grape juice is at least equal to torula yeast hydrolysate for trapping pest populations of Mexican fruit flies in commercial citrus orchards. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

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