Meerut, India

Subharti University
Meerut, India
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Singh S.,CMS Government Girls Polytechnic Daurala | Singh S.,Subharti University | Tiwari A.,Bag Energy Research Society | Al-Helal I.M.,King Saud University | Avasthi D.V.,Subharti University
Solar Energy | Year: 2015

The PV research community and industry has major focus on the new advancement and improvement on power efficiency of PV systems. An attempt has been made to model and optimize the parameter of hybrid single channel photovoltaic thermal (PVT) module. In this paper it has been observed that there are many parameters that affect the electrical efficiency of a hybrid single channel PVT module like thickness of the glass and tedlar, temperature of the inlet flow, and solar cell temperature. All equations for solar cell and thermal collector have been derived. By using genetic algorithms (GAs), thermal efficiency and electrical efficiency of the system may be optimized. All the parameters that are used in genetic algorithms are the parameters that could be changed, and the non changeable parameters, like solar radiation cannot be used in the algorithm. It has been observed that the GAs are very efficient technique to estimate the design parameters of hybrid single channel PVT module. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Singh S.,CMS Government Girls Polytechnic Daurala | Singh S.,Subharti University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2016

The work has been carried out in two steps; firstly the parameters of hybrid dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal module has been optimized using a fuzzyfied genetic algorithm. During the course of optimization, overall exergy efficiency is considered as an objective function and different design parameters of the proposed module have been optimized. Fuzzy controller is used to improve the performance of genetic algorithms and the approach is called as a fuzzyfied genetic algorithm. In the second step, the performance of the module has been analyzed for four cities of India such as Srinagar, Bangalore, Jodhpur and New Delhi. The performance of the module has been evaluated for daytime 08:00 AM to 05:00 PM and annually from January to December. It is to be noted that, an average improvement occurs in electrical efficiency of the optimized module, simultaneously there is also a reduction in solar cell temperature as compared to un-optimized module. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Singh S.,CMS Government Girls Polytechnic Daurala | Singh S.,Subharti University | Agarwal S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Tiwari G.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Chauhan D.,Jagannath University
Solar Energy | Year: 2015

The aim of this paper is to investigate an improvement in the efficiency of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system with the help of Genetic Algorithm (GA) with multi-objective functions for New Delhi, India climatic condition. There are several parameters influencing efficiency of PVT system which inter alia include length and depth of the channel, velocity of air fluid flowing into the channel, thickness of the tedlar and glass, temperature of inlet fluid. All these parameters have been considered to optimize the efficiency of the PVT system. An attempt has also been made to model and optimize the parameters of glazed hybrid single channel PVT module considering the two objective functions separately which are: (i) the overall exergy efficiency (ii) the overall thermal efficiency. Using GA, both of the above objective functions are separately optimized and analyzed for each of the two cases: namely, Case-I: Improvement in exergy and thermal efficiency when overall exergy efficiency is optimized and Case-II: Improvement in exergy and thermal efficiency when overall thermal efficiency is optimized. The variables used in GA are those that could be varied, keeping parameters like solar radiation, ambient temperature unchanged in the algorithmic calculation. The electrical and thermal efficiencies after optimization were found 14.15%, 11.88% and 14.08%, 19.48% respectively. Similarly the overall exergy and thermal efficiency are 14.87% and 56.54% respectively for both the cases. It has been observed that there is improvement in overall exergy efficiency and overall thermal efficiency by 4.6% and 13.14% respectively during the optimization process. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Kumar S.,Subharti University
Nepalese journal of ophthalmology : a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal of the Nepal Ophthalmic Society : NEPJOPH | Year: 2013

It is known that the computer users develop the features of dry eye. To study the cytological changes in the conjunctiva using conjunctival impression cytology in computer users and a control group. Fifteen eyes of computer users who had used computers for more than one year and ten eyes of an age-and-sex matched control group (those who had not used computers) were studied by conjunctival impression cytology. Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) results in the control group were of stage 0 and stage I while the computer user group showed CIC results between stages II to stage IV. Among the computer users, the majority ( > 90 %) showed stage III and stage IV changes. We found that those who used computers daily for long hours developed more CIC changes than those who worked at the computer for a shorter daily duration. © NEPjOPH.

Arora M.K.,Subharti University | Singh U.K.,Subharti University
Current Drug Targets | Year: 2014

Excessive production of reactive oxygen species is an important mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of diabetes associated macrovascular and microvascular complications including diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by glomerular enlargement, early albuminuria and progressive glomerulosclerosis. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is multi-factorial and the precise mechanisms are unclear. Hyperglycemia-mediated dysregulation of various pathways either enhances the intensity of oxidative stress or these pathways are affected by oxidative stress. Thus, oxidative stress has been considered as a central mediator in progression of nephropathy in patients with diabetes. In this review, we have focused on current perspectives in oxidative stress signaling to determine common biological processes whereby diabetes-induced oxidative stress plays a central role in progression of diabetic nephropathy. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Bansal V.,Subharti University | Singh S.,Subharti University | Garg N.,Subharti University | Dubey P.,Subharti University
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2014

This clinical and radiographic study investigated the use of transport distraction osteogenesis in unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis patients. Six patients aged between 4 and 8 years were selected for the study; the mean preoperative maximal inter-incisal opening (MIO) was 3.5 mm without lateral and protrusive mandibular movements. The ankylotic mass along with the posterior border of the ascending ramus was exposed via 'lazy-S' incision. A gap arthroplasty was performed, followed by a 'reverse L' osteotomy on the posterior border of the ramus. In-house manufactured extraoral distraction devices were used for this prospective study. Follow-up clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out for 13-27 months after completion of the activation period. After a mean follow-up of 19 months, the mean MIO was 29.1 mm and the lateral and protrusive movements changed from none to slight. Cone beam computed tomography images of all patients showed remodelled neocondyle created by transport distraction osteogenesis with no statistically significant differences observed for average cancellous bone density, trabecular number, and trabecular spacing between the neocondyle of the operated side (test) and the condyle of the non-operated side (control). Neocondyle formation by transport distraction osteogenesis using the in-house distraction device is a promising treatment option for TMJ reconstruction in ankylosis patients. © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

Jayant S.,Bharat Institute of Technology | Sharma B.M.,Bharat Institute of Technology | Bansal R.,Subharti University | Sharma B.,Amity University | Sharma B.,Conscience Research
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2016

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that pervasively affects the population across the world. Currently, there is no effective treatment available for this and existing drugs merely slow the progression of cognitive function decline. Thus, massive effort is required to find an intended therapeutic target to overcome this condition. The present study has been framed to investigate the ameliorative role of selective modulator of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), 1-phenylisatin in experimental AD condition. We have induced experimental AD in mice by using two induction models viz., intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) + d-galactose. Morris water maze (MWM) and attentional set shifting test (ASST) were used to assess learning and memory. Hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red staining were used to examine the structural variation in brain. Brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and glutathione), nitric oxide levels (nitrites/nitrates), acetyl cholinesterase activity, myeloperoxidase and calcium levels were also estimated. i.c.v. STZ as well as AlCl3 + d-galactose have impaired spatial and reversal learning with executive functioning, increased brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, cholinergic activity, inflammation and calcium levels. Furthermore, these agents have also enhanced the burden of Aβ plaque in the brain. Treatment with 1-phenylisatin and donepezil attenuated i.c.v. STZ as well as AlCl3 + d-galactose induced impairment of learning-memory, brain biochemistry and brain damage. Hence, this study concludes that CB2 receptor modulation can be a potential therapeutic target for the management of AD. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Kumar A.,Subharti University | Kumar Singh U.,Subharti University | Chaudhary A.,Subharti University
Future Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Honokiol (3,5-di-(2-propenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-2,2-diol) is a natural bioactive neolignan isolated from the genus Magnolia. In recent studies, honokiol has been observed to have anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and GABA-modulating properties in vitro and in preclinical models. Honokiol and its analogs target multiple signaling pathways including NF-κB, STAT3, EGFR, mTOR and caspase-mediated common pathway, which regulate cancer initiation and progression. Honokiol and its targets of action may be helpful in the development of effective analogs and targeted cancer therapy. In this review, recent data describing the molecular targets of honokiol and its analogs with anticancer and some other bioactivities are discussed. © 2013 Future Science Ltd.

Agrawal S.,Subharti University | Gupta D.,Subharti University
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Background: There are multiple studies showing the effect of severe heat stress on systemic functions. Severe heat stress has been known to affect almost every organ in the body. It is well proved that liver is the organ which is severely affected by heat stress and the biochemical, morphological, and morphometric changes of liver following severe heat stress are well documented. But, the effect of repetitive heat stress of moderate level on the liver has not been studied extensively. Aims & Objective: In the present study, the effect of repetitive heat stress of moderate level was assessed on biochemical [Serum Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT); Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT); and Alkaline phosphatase (ALKP)], morphological, and morphometric changes of liver of adult albino male rats (wistar strain). Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were subjected to repetitive heat stress for 4 hours daily, at 37 ± 0.5°C in a Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) incubator (relative humidity 65 - 82%) for 2, 5, and 10 consecutive days. Biochemical assessment (SGPT, SGOT, and ALKP) was done on blood collected from left ventricle of beating heart of rats. Morphometric and morphological studies were conducted under light microscope on paraffin sections (H&E) of liver from control and experimental animals. The morphometric analysis was done by intersection - point counting method, using simple square lattice test system. Results: The serum levels of liver enzymes were elevated in all heat exposed animals (statistically significant in five and ten days exposed animals) in comparison to controls. Morphological changes of anisocytosis at some sites, disruption of cell plates in lobules, mild Kupffer cell hyperplasia were present in rats exposed to heat for two consecutive days. After five days heat exposure ballooning degeneration, single cell necrosis along with small foci of necrosis disrupting cell plates in lobules, and sinusoidal compression were noticed. Kupffer cell hyperplasia was observed. At various sites, hepatocytes showed regenerative changes as binucleate cells and anisocytosis. After 10 days exposure, changes became more marked. The volume density of hepatocytes (Vvh) and numerical density of hepatocytes (Nvh) increased with the increase in heat exposure, despite increasing degenerative changes, confirming regenerative power of liver by hepatocyte proliferation. The increasing numerical density of Kupffers cells on area (Nak) indicated progressive liver damage. Conclusion: All the observations confirmed that exposure to repetitive heat stress, even of moderate level, leads to liver damage.

Arora M.K.,Subharti University | Singh U.K.,Subharti University
Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Diabetes mellitus is known to trigger retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy, a long-term major microvascular complication of uncontrolled hyperglycemia, affects a large population worldwide. Recent findings suggest that numerous pathways are activated during the course of diabetes mellitus and that these pathways individually or collectively play a role in the induction and progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, clinical strategies targeting these pathways to manage diabetic nephropathy remain unsatisfactory, as the number of diabetic patients with nephropathy is increasing yearly. To develop ground-breaking therapeutic options to prevent the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease is mandatory. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the underlying mechanisms and downstream pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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