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Meerut, India

The Hedgehog signaling pathway is one of the major regulators of cell growth and differentiation during embryogenesis and early development. It is mostly quiescent in adults but inappropriate mutation or deregulation of the pathway is involved in the development of cancers. Therefore; recently it has been recognized as a novel therapeutic target in cancers. Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and medulloblastomas are the two most common cancers identified with mutations in components of the hedgehog pathway. The discovery of targeted Hedgehog pathway inhibitors has shown promising results in clinical trials, several of which are still undergoing clinical evaluation. Vismodegib (GDC-0449), an oral hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor has reached the farthest in clinical development. Initial clinical trials in basal cell carcinoma and medulloblastoma have shown good efficacy and safety and hence were approved by U.S. FDA for use in advanced basal cell carcinomas. This review highlights the molecular basis and the current knowledge of hedgehog pathway activation in different types of human cancers as well as the present and future prospects of the novel drug vismodegib. Source

Kapil R.,Subharti Medical College | Bhavsar H.K.,Cancer Society Medical College | Madan M.,Subhartipuram
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2015

Aim: Hand hygiene has now been recognised as one of the most effective intervention to control the transmission of infections in a hospital and education is an important tool to ensure its implementation. In order to convince the users and as a part of education, it is important to generate evidence on the role of hand hygiene in reducing the bacterial fl ora on their hands. The present study was undertaken in a tertiary care hospital to demonstrate the presence of bacterial fl ora on the hands of healthcare workers (HCW) in different categories, to teach them proper hand hygiene technique using alcohol-based hand rub and determine the outcome for reduction of bacteria. Materials and Methods: A total sample size of 60 subjects including resident doctors, medical students, nurses and hospital attendants were included in the study after obtaining informed consent. Each person was educated on the technique of hand hygiene with alcohol-based hand rub and hand impressions were cultured before and after hand hygiene. All the subjects were also given a questionnaire to assess their perception on hand hygiene. The WHO posters on proper hand hygiene were displayed in the appropriate areas of the hospital in addition, as an educational tool. Results: Majority (42 out of 60) of the HCWs had bacterial count up to 100 colonies or more on both hands before the application of hand rub while working in the hospital. After use of alcohol hand rub with a proper hand hygiene technique, it was found that the percentage reduction was 95-99% among doctors and nurses, 70% among hospital attendants and 50% among sanitary attendants. Staphylococcus aureus was present on the hands of eight persons of which three were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that transient bacteria are present on the hands of HCWs but majority could be removed by proper hand hygiene, which needs continuous education to be effective. It also shows that active education by demonstrating the proper hand hygiene technique and direct observation of the practices, though demanding, are ideal to understand the attitudes and practices of HCWs and helps in planning implementation strategies. Source

Singh P.,Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Government Institute of Medical Science and Research | Chaturvedi A.,Subharti Medical College
Indian Journal of Palliative Care | Year: 2015

Quality of life (QoL) encompasses the physical, psychosocial, social and spiritual dimensions of life lived by a person. Cancer pain is one of the physical component has tremendous impact on the QoL of the patient. Cancer pain is multifaceted and complex to understand and managing cancer pain involves a tool box full of pharmacological and non pharmacological interventions but still there are 50-70% of cancer patients who suffer from uncontrolled pain and they fear pain more than death. Aggressive surgeries, radiotherapy and chemotherapy focus more on prolonging the survival of the patient failing to realize that the QoL lived also matters equally. This paper reviews complementary and alternative therapy approaches for cancer pain and its impact in improving the QoL of cancer patients. © 2015, Medknow Publications. All rights reserved. Source

Mittal C.,Subharti Medical College | Gupta S.C.,S N Medical College
Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: Tuberculosis is a communicable disease requiring prolonged treatment. The therapeutic regimens as recommended by WHO have been shown to be highly effective for both preventing and treating tuberculosis but poor adherence to medication is a major barrier to its global control. Aim: The aim was to elicit reasons of treatment default from a cohort of tuberculosis patients treated under Directly Observed Treatment Short course chemotherapy. Settings and design: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Agra city using the multistage simple random sampling. Materials and Methods: A total of 900 patients attending DOTS centres of the selected designated microscopy centers (DMCs) were included in the study from January 2007 onward. The information was obtained from treatment cards of patients and those who defaulted were further interviewed in community. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test was applied to observe the significance of association using the Epi Info software (version 6). Results: More default was observed among the age group of >45 years (22.8%), male (18.7%), business men (30.6%), and retired and unemployed patients. Other factors associated with higher default were pulmonary disease (18.2%), retreatment cases (30.6%) and category II patients (26.4%). Important reasons of default were side effects following medication (43.2%), improvement in symptoms (14.4%), and lack of time (13.5%). No relief in symptoms and lack of awareness were other important reasons. Conclusions: Noncompliance was found to be mainly due to side effects of medicines, lack of time, and unawareness. So educating the patient about various aspects of tuberculosis and some measures to decrease side effects are of utmost importance. Source

Srivastava A.,Subharti Medical College | Niranjan A.,Subharti Medical College
Journal of Minimal Access Surgery | Year: 2010

In recent years, laparoscopic surgery has gained popularity in clinical practice. The key element in laparoscopic surgery is creation of pneumoperitoneum and carbon dioxide is commonly used for insufflation. This pneumoperitoneum perils the normal cardiopulmonary system to a considerable extent. Every laparoscopic surgeon should understand the consequences of pneumoperitoneum; so that its untoward effects can be averted. Pneumoperitoneum increases pressure on diaphragm, leading to its cephalic displacement and thereby decreasing venous return, which can be aggravated by the position of patient during surgery. There is no absolute contraindication of laparoscopic surgery, though we can anticipate some problems in conditions like obesity, pregnancy and previous abdominal surgery. This review discusses some aspects of the pathophysiology of carbon dioxide induced pneumoperitoneum, its consequences as well as strategies to counteract them. Also, we propose certain guidelines for safe laparoscopic surgery. Source

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