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Crespo Leon F.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agrario Y Alimentario Imida | Saez Llorente J.L.,Subdireccion General de Sanidad e Higiene Animal y Trazabilidad | Reviriego Gordejo F.J.,European Commission | Rodriguez Ferri E.F.,University of Leon | Duran Ferrer M.,Laboratorio Central Of Sanidad Animal
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2012

Caprine and ovine brucellosis is one of the most serious and complex animal health problems faced by Veterinary Services in countries where the disease is endemic. Various geographical factors and the nature of the disease itself influence its epidemiology, encouraging widespread distribution and, at the same time, impeding the ability of animal health programmes to prevent, control and eradicate it. Although strategies against brucellosis have traditionally been based on two specific tools (namely, vaccination of the at-risk population and testing and slaughter of animals which are suspected of or test positive for the disease), other complementary tools of a technical or administrative nature should also be considered. Experience in the European Union has shown that these tools are necessary to guarantee sustainable progress and success against this disease. However, these complementary tools have not always received sufficient attention during the strategic planning and subsequent implementation of animal health programmes, with consequent reductions in efficiency. The aim of this article is to review these complementary tools, in order to facilitate their adoption and use by official Veterinary Services, according to the resources available. Source


Guta S.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Guta S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Casal J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Garcia-Saenz A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 5 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

In order to assess risk factors related to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) persistence, a case-control study, comparing persistent versus transient bTB infected beef farms from Central and Southern Spain, was conducted. Farms were matched by herd size and geographical location (county). A questionnaire administered by personal interview was conducted on 150 herds (80 controls and 70 cases) from Andalucia and Castilla La Mancha regions. The questionnaire included questions related to the personnel involved in routine diagnostics, structure of the farm and of the herd, management, presence of other domestic species and of wildlife reservoirs.According to the results of our study, farms with large pasture areas and bTB infected neighbors had more difficulties in eradicating the disease, and therefore, were more likely to suffer a persistent bTB infection. The odds of bTB persistence were between 1.2 and 5.1 (i.e., 95% confidence interval of the OR) times higher in those herds that had a neighbor infected herd. Farms with large pasture areas had odds between 1.2 and 12.7 (i.e., 95% confidence interval of the OR) times higher of having a persistent bTB episode than farms with small pasture areas. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Garcia-Saenz A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Saez M.,University of Girona | Saez M.,CIBER ISCIII | Napp S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 7 more authors.
Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology | Year: 2014

In this study we analyzed the space-time variation of the risk of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle between 2006 and 2011. The results indicated that at country level, there were no significant temporal changes between years, but, at county level bTB evolution was more heterogeneous. In some counties, between some years, the prevalence and the incidence of the disease was higher as compared to the global rate in the rest of the counties of Spain.The analysis of potential risk factors indicated that both, a large number of movements from counties with high incidence (>1%), and presence of bullfighting cattle herds increased bTB risk. Red deer abundance, number of goats and number of mixed cattle-goat farms were not significantly associated with the prevalence/incidence of bTB. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Torres G.,Subdireccion General de Sanidad e Higiene Animal y Trazabilidad | Ciaravino V.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Ascaso S.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Flores V.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Romero L.,Subdireccion General de Sanidad e Higiene Animal y Trazabilidad
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

Early detection of an infectious disease incursion will minimize the impact of outbreaks in livestock. Syndromic surveillance based on the analysis of readily available data can enhance traditional surveillance systems and allow veterinary authorities to react in a timely manner.This study was based on monitoring the number of cattle carcasses sent for rendering in the veterinary unit of Talavera de la Reina (Spain). The aim was to develop a system to detect deviations from expected values which would signal unexpected health events. Historical weekly collected dead cattle (WCDC) time series stabilized by the Box-Cox transformation and adjusted by the minimum least squares method were used to build the univariate cycling regression model based on a Fourier transformation. Three different models, according to type of production system, were built to estimate the baseline expected number of WCDC.Two types of risk signals were generated: point risk signals when the observed value was greater than the upper 95% confidence interval of the expected baseline, and cumulative risk signals, generated by a modified cumulative sum algorithm, when the cumulative sums of reported deaths were above the cumulative sum of expected deaths.Data from 2011 were used to prospectively validate the model generating seven risk signals. None of them were correlated to infectious disease events but some coincided, in time, with very high climatic temperatures recorded in the region. The harvest effect was also observed during the first week of the study year.Establishing appropriate risk signal thresholds is a limiting factor of predictive models; it needs to be adjusted based on experience gained during the use of the models. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the predictions epidemiological interpretation of non-specific risk signals should be complemented by other sources of information.The methodology developed in this study can enhance other existing early detection surveillance systems. Syndromic surveillance based on mortality monitoring can reduce the detection time for certain disease outbreaks associated with mild mortality only detected at regional level. The methodology can be adapted to monitor other parameters routinely collected at farm level which can be influenced by communicable diseases. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


CABAL A.,Complutense University of Madrid | PORRERO M.C.,Complutense University of Madrid | DE LA CRUZ M.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | SAEZ J.L.,Subdireccion General de Sanidad e Higiene Animal y Trazabilidad | And 5 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2016

Prevention of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) foodborne outbreaks is hampered by its complex epidemiology. We assessed the distribution of virulence genes (VGs), main serogroups/serotypes for public health [haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS)-related], antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns in a collection of STEC isolates obtained from cattle hide (n = 149) and faecal (n = 406) samples collected during a national survey conducted in Spain in 2011 and 2013. Isolates were cultured using McConkey and CT-SMAC agar after enrichment, and confirmed as STEC by PCR. STEC prevalence in hides (15·4%) was higher than in faeces (10·7%) and O157:H7 was more frequent in the former (2·7% vs. 0·99%). Non-O157 HUS-related serogroups were present albeit at low frequencies. The non-O157 isolates were more heterogeneous than O157:H7 in their VG patterns, with 25/64 presenting VGs from both STEC and enterotoxigenic pathotypes (hybrid isolates). Of the STEC isolates, 62·5% were resistant at least to one antimicrobial, and no differences in AMR between O157:H7 and non-O157 were detected. All isolates had different profiles by PFGE and did not form a cluster. Overall, our results demonstrated that STEC in the cattle reservoir is still a matter of concern for human health due to the presence of HUS-related serogroups, the occurrence of certain VGs, AMR and the additional risks that hybrid isolates may pose, and thus warrants further investigation. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 Source

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