Kottayam, India
Kottayam, India

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Abe G.,Sub Center | Erinjery Joseph J.,Karunya University
Journal of Mountain Science | Year: 2015

Regulation of streamflow by a reservoir creates a flow regime much different from the pre-impoundment period flow regime. Hydro-Electric Projects (HEPs) commissioned in the Western Ghat regions of the Kerala State, India during the last four decades caused considerable changes in the flow regimes of the rivers of the Kerala State in southwest India. In this paper, the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) approach proposed by Richter et al. (1996) is used to analyze flow regime changes in the Periyar and Muvattupuzha Rivers, due to the construction of the Idukki (1976), Idamalayar (1987) and Lower Periyar (1997) HEPs in the high ranges of the Western Ghats. Normal rainfall years (annual rainfall values within mean ± 0.75 standard deviation limits) are only considered in the analysis to focus on hydrologic alterations due to human activities. The mean hydrologic alteration in the Periyar River (deviation from the pre-development hydrologic indicator values) after commissioning of three HEPs is 35%. Inter-basin water transfer after power generation from the Idukki HEP resulted in a higher discharge in the adjacent Muvattupuzha River, leading to considerable changes in the hydro-environment (mean hydrologic alterations varying between 57 to 63%). IHA parameters showing hydrologic alterations above the 67th Percentile were further analyzed. For each of the pre-construction hydrologic parameters ± 1 standard deviation from the mean is set as the upper and lower management target limits. The values of each IHA parameter beyond these targets are considered as non-attainment. Considerable hydrologic alterations are observed, especially for low flows in both basins. Inter-basin transfer induced larger changes in flow parameters compared to intra-basin regulations. The study shows that under a proper water release and diversion scheme, the non-attainment of IHA parameters (values fall beyond the target limits) can be reduced. The findings of the study will be greatly beneficial to regional water management and restoration of an eco-environmental system in the humid tropical region. © 2015, Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


George C.,Sub Center | Jayakumar K.V.,CWRDM | James E.J.,Karunya University
Meteorological Applications | Year: 2012

Changes in streamflow in the Meenachil river basin, Kerala, are assessed at two upstream gauging stations located at Palai and Cheripad and one downstream gauging station at Peroor to understand changes in flows due to upstream urbanization. An increase of 14% in the population and 46% in the number of housing units have been observed in the entire study area during the last two decades, indicating increase in urbanization. Time series analysis of 29 years data shows an increasing trend at Peroor at 2.8% per year for total flow and 5.2% for peak flow, which indicates the effect of urban land use. There has been a decreasing trend in the flows at 2% at the upstream gauging stations of the river basin. The frequency of occurrence of flows are observed to be increasing at Peroor due to urbanization which brings down vegetation, enhances the impervious area and contributes to fast draining of stormwater. The decrease in both the flow and its frequency of occurrence at the upstream stations are due to the increase in area under plantation crops and also the soil and water conservation works attempted in the area. © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society.


Celine G.,Sub Center | James E.J.,Karunya University
International Journal of Environmental Research | Year: 2015

The impacts of land cover change on the hydrologic cycle from local to regional scales are not fully understood with regard to humid tropical river basins of Kerala, India. This study provides an approach to identify the effects of land cover changes on streamflowof a river basin in the humid tropical zone of Kerala, India using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT).The SWAT model was calibrated and validated for two river gauging stations for a period of 18 years (1987 – 2004).The model performed well for predicting the streamflow in Meenachil river basin under changing landcover conditions. The study carried for temporal variation of the surface runoff and evapotranspiration showed that more water is lost by evapotranspiration from the rubber plantation than that from the mixed crop cultivated landscapes. This supports the popular saying of the local people that rubber plantations act as “water pumps”. © 2015, University of Tehran. All rights reserved.


Thomas J.,Kerala University | Joseph S.,Kerala University | Thrivikramji K.P.,Kerala University | Abe G.,Sub Center | Kannan N.,Kerala University
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

The morphometric analysis of river basins represents a simple procedure to describe hydrologic and geomorphic processes operating on a basin scale. A morphometric analysis was carried out to evaluate the drainage characteristics of two adjoining, mountain river basins of the southern Western Ghats, India, Muthirapuzha River Basin (MRB) in the western slopes and Pambar River Basin (PRB) in the eastern slopes. The basins, forming a part of the Proterozoic, high-grade, Southern Granulite Terrain of the Peninsular India, are carved out of a terrain dominantly made of granite- and hornblende-biotite gneisses. The Western Ghats, forming the basin divide, significantly influences the regional climate (i. e., humid climate in MRB, while semi-arid in PRB). The Survey of India topographic maps (1:50,000) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission digital elevation data were used as the base for delineation and analysis. Both river basins are of 6th order and comparable in basin geometry. The drainage patterns and linear alignment of the drainage networks suggest the influence of structural elements. The Rb of either basins failed to highlight the structural controls on drainage organization, which might be a result of the elongated basin shape. The irregular trends in Rb between various stream orders suggest the influence of geology and relief on drainage branching. The Dd values designate the basins as moderate- to well-drained with lower infiltration rates. The overall increasing trend of Rl between successive stream orders suggests a geomorphic maturity of either basins and confirmed by the characteristic I hyp values. The Re values imply an elongate shape for both MRB and PRB and subsequently lower vulnerability to flash floods and hence, easier flood management. The relatively higher Rr of PRB is an indicative of comparatively steeply sloping terrain and consequently higher intensity of erosion processes. Further, the derivatives of digital elevation data (slope, aspect, topographic wetness index, and stream power index), showing significant differences between MRB and PRB, are useful in soil conservation plans. The study highlighted the variation in morphometric parameters with respect to the dissimilarities in topography and climate. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Thomas J.,Kerala University | Joseph S.,Kerala University | Thrivikramji K.P.,Kerala University | Abe G.,Sub Center
Journal of Geographical Sciences | Year: 2011

The rain shadow regions requisite a comprehensive watershed development and management plan for sustainable water resources management. The Pambar River Basin (PRB) lies on the rain shadow region of the southern Western Ghats, India, where climate showed marked intra-basin variation. A morphometric analysis was done to evaluate the drainage characteristics of PRB using topographical maps and digital elevation data. PRB was divided into eighteen 4th order basins (SB1-SB18), distributed along various climatic gradients. Lower order streams mostly dominate PRB and drainage pattern is a function of relief and structure. The terrain is highly dissected and prone to soil erosion during heavy storms and the elongated shape of PRB enables easier flood management. The influence of climate on drainage characteristics was evidently emphasized in basin morphometry. Four distinctively different classes were identified based on the morphometric similarities. The significance of morphometric analysis on the hydrological characterization is discussed and the relevance of the present study in water harvesting has been explicated. © 2011 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Singh S.P.,Sub Center | Singh P.,Sub Center | Singh S.,Sub Center
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2012

Maize is becoming the third major crop of the country after rice and wheat. Dehusking and shelling of the maize cob are done mostly by the farm women in the country. This operation is mostly performed by the traditional method. To provide options for small and hill farmers, a hand operated maize dehusker-sheller has been designed, developed, fabricated and evaluated. Farm women could easily operate the machine with right or left hand. The output capacity with the machine was about 60 kg/h at a feed rate of 80 kg un-dehusked cob per h. The dehusking efficiency was 100%, shelling efficiency 98.8% and grain breakage 0.3% at a peripheral cylinder speed of 5.6 m s-1. Two farm women (one for hand cranking and another for feeding the cob) were required during operation of the machine. Both the workers could be shifted during operation to increase the continuity in operation.


Das A.K.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Kumar S.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Kumar S.,Molecular Genetics Laboratory | Mishra A.K.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

The study aimed to estimate genetic parameters of immunocompetent traits in Rhode Island Red (RIR) chicken. Five to six weeks aged pedigreed RIR chicks of a selected (79 chicks) and a control (74 chicks) line maintained at the Central Avian Research Institute were immunized against 1% (v/v) SRBC suspension. Sera collected on 5th day post immunization were analyzed through haemagglutination (HA) test to assess humoral immune response. Serum lysozyme and immunoglobulin-G (IgG) concentrations were assessed through agarose lysoplate and single radial immunodiffusion assay. The data were analyzed by least squares analysis of variance. The least squares mean estimates of serum lysozyme and IgG were significantly influenced by sires in the selected line, but any estimate was not affected by sex in any line. The selected line had more serum lysozyme than the control line, which contained more HA titre and serum IgG. The traits were heritable at a range of 0.105 to 0.398, and correlated with a low to high range (0.134 to 0.552) of genetic correlations and least to low range (0.007 to 0.170) of phenotypic correlations. The information generated could be important while selecting birds for improvement in general immune responsiveness.


Das A.K.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Kumar S.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Kumar S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Rahim A.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

This investigation aimed to study association between microsatellites and layer performances in Rhode Island Red selected line chicken. Genomic DNA samples isolated from the 12 randomly selected birds were investigated at 24 microsatellite loci. The microsatellite alleles were separated on 6% urea-PAGE and their molecular sizes were estimated. Locus specific alleles were identified according to their sizes, and their association with layer performance traits was assessed by least squares analysis of variance. Analysis revealed that age at sexual maturity of the birds had significant influence of 180bp/190bp and 184bp/196bp microsatellite genotypes in MCW0075 locus. Egg weight at 28th week of age was significantly associated with 210bp/244bp, 216bp/216bp, 216bp/238bp, 222bp/244bp genotypes in MCW0005; and 173bp/173bp, 175bp/175bp, 177bp/177bp in MCW0014. Egg production upto 40 weeks of age was also significantly associated with some genotypes in MCW0044 (133bp/151bp, 136bp/ 160bp), ADL0102 (136bp/166bp, 146bp/174bp, 166bp/166bp) and ADL0158 (178bp/214bp, 184bp/184bp, 184bp/ 214bp, 184bp/222bp). MCW0051 (90bp/118bp, 105bp/118bp, 118bp/118bp), MCW0014 (173bp/173bp, 175bp/ 175bp, 177bp/177bp) and ADL0176 (200bp/200bp, 200bp/236bp, 202bp/202bp) demonstrated significant influences on body weight at 40th week of age. Findings suggested faster genetic progress in RIR flocks by adapting microsatellite genotype based selection.


Thomas J.,Kerala University | Abe G.,Sub Center
International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering | Year: 2013

Soil moisture is a decisive parameter which determines the vegetation growth and it is an important variable for understanding and predicting a range of hydrological processes. The spatio-temporal heterogeneity of soil moisture is mainly the result of numerous factors such as topography, climate, soil properties, vegetation, landuse, agricultural practices and it is very complicated to identify the relative importance of these factors because of their mutual and multiple influences on soil moisture. Two upland micro watersheds with Elletaria Cardamomum and Eucalyptus globulus plantations were selected for study. Though, the region experiences enormous quantity of rainfall, the non-monsoon period creates a severe stress on the soil moisture regime. The influence of landuse/land cover on the soil moisture variability was analyzed by monitoring the soil moisture variation at 0.30, 0.60 and 0.90 m depths in space and time. Soil moisture measurements were performed at a total of 45 locations in both the catchemnts during the non-monsoon period, 2004. The soil moisture was found to be spatially heterogeneous within the micro watersheds. The reduction of soil moisture in the foot of hill slopes was significantly lower than that in the top and mid regions of the catchment. There is an important role for precipitation in the temporal variation of soil moisture. The percentage reduction of soil moisture was significantly higher at the 0.30 and 0.60 m layers, where the root distribution is maximum. The soil moisture utilization of Eucalyptus globulus plantations was high, where topography also a major factor and the interrelations between variables is complex. This study provides an insight into the implications for hydrological modeling and land management of the region. © 2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY.

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