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Bhopal, India

George C.,Sub Center | Jayakumar K.V.,CWRDM | James E.J.,Karunya University
Meteorological Applications

Changes in streamflow in the Meenachil river basin, Kerala, are assessed at two upstream gauging stations located at Palai and Cheripad and one downstream gauging station at Peroor to understand changes in flows due to upstream urbanization. An increase of 14% in the population and 46% in the number of housing units have been observed in the entire study area during the last two decades, indicating increase in urbanization. Time series analysis of 29 years data shows an increasing trend at Peroor at 2.8% per year for total flow and 5.2% for peak flow, which indicates the effect of urban land use. There has been a decreasing trend in the flows at 2% at the upstream gauging stations of the river basin. The frequency of occurrence of flows are observed to be increasing at Peroor due to urbanization which brings down vegetation, enhances the impervious area and contributes to fast draining of stormwater. The decrease in both the flow and its frequency of occurrence at the upstream stations are due to the increase in area under plantation crops and also the soil and water conservation works attempted in the area. © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society. Source

Celine G.,Sub Center | James E.J.,Karunya University
International Journal of Environmental Research

The impacts of land cover change on the hydrologic cycle from local to regional scales are not fully understood with regard to humid tropical river basins of Kerala, India. This study provides an approach to identify the effects of land cover changes on streamflowof a river basin in the humid tropical zone of Kerala, India using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT).The SWAT model was calibrated and validated for two river gauging stations for a period of 18 years (1987 – 2004).The model performed well for predicting the streamflow in Meenachil river basin under changing landcover conditions. The study carried for temporal variation of the surface runoff and evapotranspiration showed that more water is lost by evapotranspiration from the rubber plantation than that from the mixed crop cultivated landscapes. This supports the popular saying of the local people that rubber plantations act as “water pumps”. © 2015, University of Tehran. All rights reserved. Source

Singh S.P.,Sub Center | Singh P.,Sub Center | Singh S.,Sub Center
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America

Maize is becoming the third major crop of the country after rice and wheat. Dehusking and shelling of the maize cob are done mostly by the farm women in the country. This operation is mostly performed by the traditional method. To provide options for small and hill farmers, a hand operated maize dehusker-sheller has been designed, developed, fabricated and evaluated. Farm women could easily operate the machine with right or left hand. The output capacity with the machine was about 60 kg/h at a feed rate of 80 kg un-dehusked cob per h. The dehusking efficiency was 100%, shelling efficiency 98.8% and grain breakage 0.3% at a peripheral cylinder speed of 5.6 m s-1. Two farm women (one for hand cranking and another for feeding the cob) were required during operation of the machine. Both the workers could be shifted during operation to increase the continuity in operation. Source

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