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Nitra, Slovakia

Jaglic Z.,Veterinary Research Institute | Desvaux M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Weiss A.,University of Hohenheim | Nesse L.L.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | And 9 more authors.
Microbiology (United Kingdom)

The ability of bacteria to bind different compounds and to adhere to biotic and abiotic surfaces provides them with a range of advantages, such as colonization of various tissues, internalization, avoidance of an immune response, and survival and persistence in the environment. A variety of bacterial surface structures are involved in this process and these promote bacterial adhesion in a more or less specific manner. In this review, we will focus on those surface adhesins and exopolymers in selected foodborne pathogens that are involved mainly in primary adhesion. Their role in biofilm development will also be considered when appropriate. Both the clinical impact and the implications for food safety of such adhesion will be discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Gribincea A.,ULIM | Maximilian S.,ULIM | Prodan M.,SUA
Quality - Access to Success

We knew things were bad on Wall Street, but on Main Street it may be worse. Startling official statistics show that as a new economic recession stalks the United States, a record number of Americans will shortly be depending on food stamps just to feed themselves and their families. Critics of this model are often attacked as protectionists, tools of special interest groups, anarchists, and worse. But in fact they include some of the world's most eminent economists. The economic model that the United States exports, with the International Monetary Fund in the role of enforcer, works like this: Developing nations are supposed to open their economies wide to foreign investment - to allow their banks, public utilities, and anything else to be sold to the highest foreign bidder. They are to balance their budgets, restrict the role of government, discipline wages, and limit social outlays. All of this is intended to subject the local economy to global competitive discipline and attract foreign private capital. It sounds plausible, but there are several problems. For one thing, foreign investments are notoriously subject to fads and whims. Several otherwise sound economies in East Asia got into severe difficulty in the late 1990s after following the American recipe. Too much foreign capital poured in, and when the bubble burst, it poured right out again. The IMF then came in to shoot the wounded. Another problem is that the United States is telling these countries: "Do as I say, not as I do." When America was a developing nation in the 19th century, it had high tariffs to shelter infant industry. The government was heavily involved in economic development - everything from agriculture to radio to aircraft. The early Republic prohibited land purchases by foreign speculators. And when our economy was in trouble in the 1930s, we ceased letting dollars trade freely, and we ran huge public deficits. The New Deal worked. If there had been an IMF, it would have blacklisted the country. Source

Mosha D.B.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Vedeld P.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Kajembe G.C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Tarimo A.K.P.R.,SUA | Katani J.Z.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Water Policy

Over the past 40+ years, evolution of water institutions responsible for allocation and distribution of water has been enormous. This paper analyzes the evolution of both formal and informal water management institutions and how they affect today's processes of allocating and distributing water in farmer-managed irrigation schemes (FMISs). It also assesses how farmers translate and modify introduced formal institutions in the rights of the existing informal institution while trying to solve water management challenges based on the local conditions. In-depth and focus group data for the study were collected using a checklist of questions administered to 40 informants, one group discussion per village in Itunundu, Mboliboli, Mkula and Magombera villages, Tanzania. The basic argument of this paper is that water institutions have changed over time. Drawing from study findings, the evolution process of water institutions might be understood as an outcome of the government efforts to address emerging challenges with respect to increasing water demand and multi-use. However, institutional evolution is accompanied by some negatives outcomes, as they weaken social norms and threaten sound water management. The experiences from the irrigation schemes highlight the need to include locally evolved institutions while re-crafting formal institutions. Such interventions may well have significant outcomes for efficient, equity and power relations among water users. © IWA Publishing 2016. Source

Laisser E.L.K.,Ministry of Education and Vocational Training | Kipanyula M.J.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Msalya G.,SUA | Mdegela R.H.,SUA | And 5 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production

This study was carried out to assess the distribution, abundance of different tick genera and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle kept in selected wards of Serengeti and Tarime districts in Mara region. Adult ticks were identified and counted from half body parts of 360 animals which were extensively managed in communal land with natural pastures. Concurrently, blood samples were collected and thereafter DNA extracted and a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was done using primers specific for p104 gene to detect the presence of T. parva DNA. Ticks were identified into four groups: Amblyomma genus, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus, other species of Rhipicephalus, and Hyalomma genus. Rhipicephalus genus accounted for 71.8 % of the total ticks, whereas Amblyomma, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus and Hyalomma constituted 14.1, 14.0 and 0.1 %, respectively. There were more animals (p < 0.05) infested with ticks in Tarime district (96.1 %) than in Serengeti (61.7 %). The average counts of ticks were higher in adult animals (p < 0.05) than in young animals. The overall prevalence of T. parva was 27.7 % and was higher (p < 0.05) in Serengeti (38.3 %) than in Tarime district (16.7 %). However, all animals tested positive for T. parva did not show any clinical signs of East Coast fever (ECF), suggesting the existence of subclinical infection in Tarime zebu. These results suggest that Tarime cattle can tolerate ECF infection and are likely to serve as potential carriers of T. parva to other less-tolerant cattle breeds in mixed herds. Since Tarime cattle are preferred by most farmers with mixed herds, routine screening for T. parva is highly recommended to minimize introduction of infected cattle into an immunologically naive population. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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