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Le H.H.,Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research | Le H.H.,Polymer Service GmbH Merseburg | Hamann E.,Styron Deutschland GMBH | Ilisch S.,Styron Deutschland GMBH | And 3 more authors.
Polymer (United Kingdom) | Year: 2014

The present work highlighted the effect of commonly used processing and curing additives on the wetting and dispersion kinetics of filler like silica and carbon black (CB) in some examples using the methods like the wetting concept and online measured electrical conductance. The adsorption of additives and mono-functional silane on silica surface increases the wetting speed of silica in single compound of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds. In rubber blend, for instance NBR/NR, the extent of filler surface fraction wetted by each blend component is strongly dependent on the additive/silica and silane/silica ratio r. A model based on the surface tension data of rubber components and filler (Z-model) was used for prediction of the selective filler wetting at a thermodynamic equilibrium state. By combining the experimental results from the wetting concept and theoretical prediction from the Z-model the silica surface tension changed during mixing can be characterized. It quantitatively describes the deactivation of the silanol groups on the silica surface by adsorbed additives. The effect of adsorption of additives on filler dispersion was exemplarily demonstrated on CB filled SBR compounds by means of the method of online measured electrical conductance. The influence of additives on the CB dispersion in low styrene-content SBR mixtures is much more pronounced than that in high styrene-content SBR mixtures. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Le H.H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Osswald K.,Merseburg University of Applied Sciences | Ilisch S.,Styron Deutschland GMBH | Hoang X.T.,Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials Science | Year: 2012

In this study, the phase-specific localization of filler in NBR/NR blends was characterized by means of the selective extraction method and wetting concept. A strong dependence of silica localization on the filler loading was found. A model based on thermodynamic data was proposed for a quantitative prediction of filler localization in rubber blends. The filler localization can be described by a master curve demonstrating a characteristic behavior in dependence on the filler surface tension data of blend components and filler. The effect of filler loading on the silica localization is sufficiently explained by this model by taking into consideration the deactivation of the silanol groups on the silica surface by adsorbed curing additives. Using the master curve, the surface tension of filler affected by curing additives and silane addition can be estimated that may be useful for evaluation and comparison of the effect of different coupling agents. Surface tension values of different fillers were estimated by means of the master curve and they lie in the same order compared to those reported in literature. A potential transfer of filler within a rubber blend can be also quantitatively predicted. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source


Le H.H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Parsekar M.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Ilisch S.,Styron Deutschland GMBH | Henning S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials | And 10 more authors.
Macromolecular Materials and Engineering | Year: 2014

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are mixed into SBR/NR and SBR/IR blends using a wet mixing process. The phase specific localization of CNTs in rubber blends is predicted theoretically using surface energy data of blend components and determined experimentally by means of the wetting concept. Almost all CNTs are found to be localized in the SBR matrix of SBR/IR blends due to the better affinity of CNTs to SBR than to IR. In contrast, a high CNT loading localized in the NR phase of SBR/NR blends results from the presence of phospholipids in NR. Electrical and mechanical properties of the rubber blends depend strongly on CNT localization. A lower CNT loading in SBR matrix of SBR/NR blends imparts a better wet grip and lower rolling resistance to tire tread compounds. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Le H.H.,Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research | Le H.H.,Polymer Service GmbH Merseburg | Abhijeet S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Ilisch S.,Styron Deutschland GMBH | And 16 more authors.
Polymer (United Kingdom) | Year: 2014

The aim of the present work is to evidence the role of the linked phospholipids of natural rubber (NR) in the rubber-carbon nanotube (CNT) interactions in rubber composites. Three rubbers namely NR, deproteinized NR (DPNR) and a synthetic rubber isoprene (IR) were used as matrix for CNTs. The selective wetting of CNTs in miscible NR/IR and DPNR/IR blends was investigated by means of the modified wetting concept based on Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) analysis of the rubber-filler gel of blends. It revealed that the surface of CNTs is entirely wetted by NR or DPNR molecules, respectively, but not by IR. This result emphasizes that proteins do not influence the affinity between NR and CNTs, while the linked phospholipids interact with CNT surface through cation-π linkage. This linkage acts as anchor point supporting NR molecules to wet CNT surface effectively. The modified wetting concept can be used for characterization of selective wetting of different fillers in blends consisting of miscible rubber components. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Le H.H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Ilisch S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Hamann E.,Styron Deutschland GMBH | Keller M.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Radusch H.-J.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Rubber Chemistry and Technology | Year: 2011

The effect of curing additives on the dispersion kinetics of carbon black (CB) in styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds was investigated by means of the method of the online measured electrical conductance. Addition of curing additives such as stearic acid and diphenylguanidine (DPG) accelerates the CB dispersion process significantly. The viscosity of the rubber matrix was not changed after their addition. The addition of stearic acid and DPG may alter the filler-filler interaction that consequently leads to faster dispersion processes. The obtained difference in morphologies of SBR mixtures containing stearic acid and DPG, respectively, are caused by their different infiltration behavior, which may lead to different dispersion mechanisms. Addition of ZnO could not improve the dispersion process of CB because of its limited interaction with CB. Sulfur and N-cyclohexylbenzothiazole-2-sulfenamide decelerate the CB dispersion process. The strong effect of the rubber microstructure such as styrene content and molecular weight on the CB dispersion in SBR mixtures without additives was found and discussed by taking into consideration the known dispersion mechanisms. The influence of addition of curing additives on the CB dispersion in low styrene-content SBR mixtures is much more pronounced than that in high styrene-content SBR mixtures. Source

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