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Ulloa-Aguirre A.,Studium Consortium for Research and Training in Reproductive science SCORTS | Ulloa-Aguirre A.,National Health Research Institute | Dias J.A.,Studium Consortium for Research and Training in Reproductive science SCORTS | Dias J.A.,New York State Department of Health | And 8 more authors.
Methods in Enzymology | Year: 2013

The follitropin or follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and is mainly expressed in specific cells in the gonads. As any other GPCR, the newly synthesized FSHR has to be correctly folded and processed in order to traffic to the cell surface plasma membrane and interact with its cognate ligand. In this chapter, we describe in detail the conditions and procedures used to study outward trafficking of the FSHR from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. We also describe some methods to analyze phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment, internalization, and recycling of this particular receptor, which have proved useful in our hands for dissecting its downward trafficking and fate following agonist stimulation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Ulloa-Aguirre A.,Studium Consortium for Research and Training in Reproductive science sCORTS | Ulloa-Aguirre A.,University of Medical Sciences of Costa Rica | Reiter E.,Studium Consortium for Research and Training in Reproductive science sCORTS | Reiter E.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors | And 8 more authors.
Advances in Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Constitutively active mutants (CAMs) of gonadotropin receptors are, in general, rare conditions. Luteinizing hormone-choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) CAMs provoke the dramatic phenotype of familial gonadotropin-independent isosexual male-limited precocious puberty, whereas in females, there is not yet any identified phenotype. Only one isolated follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) CAM (Asp567Gly) has so far been detected in a single male patient, besides other FSHR weak CAMs linked to pregnancy-associated ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome or to impaired desensitization and internalization. Several animal models have been developed for studying enhanced gonadotropin action; in addition to unraveling valuable new information about the possible phenotypes of isolated FSHR and LHCGR CAMs in women, the information obtained from these mouse models has served multiple translational goals, including the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic targets as well as the prediction of phenotypes for mutations not yet identified in humans. Mutagenesis and computational studies have shed important information on the physiopathogenic mechanisms leading to constitutive activity of gonadotropin receptors; a common feature in these receptor CAMs is the release of stabilizing interhelical interactions between transmembrane domains (TMDs) 3 and 6 leading to an increase, with respect to the wild-type receptor, in the solvent accessibility at the cytosolic extension of TMDs 3, 5, and 6, which involves the highly conserved Glu/Asp-Arg-Tyr/Trp sequence. In this chapter, we summarize the structural features, functional consequences, and mechanisms that lead to constitutive activation of gonadotropin receptor CAMs and provide information on pharmacological approaches that might potentially modulate gonadotropin receptor CAM function. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Studium Consortium for Research and Training in Reproductive science sCORTS
Type: | Journal: Methods in enzymology | Year: 2013

The follitropin or follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and is mainly expressed in specific cells in the gonads. As any other GPCR, the newly synthesized FSHR has to be correctly folded and processed in order to traffic to the cell surface plasma membrane and interact with its cognate ligand. In this chapter, we describe in detail the conditions and procedures used to study outward trafficking of the FSHR from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. We also describe some methods to analyze phosphorylation, -arrestin recruitment, internalization, and recycling of this particular receptor, which have proved useful in our hands for dissecting its downward trafficking and fate following agonist stimulation.

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