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Milano, Italy

Caselli G.,Roehampton University | Ferretti C.,Centro Alcologico | Leoni M.,University of Parma | Rebecchi D.,Studi Cognitivi | And 2 more authors.
Addiction | Year: 2010

Aims To investigate the role of depression and rumination in predicting drinking status (absence or presence of alcohol use) and level of alcohol use at 3, 6 and 12 months following a brief course of cognitive-behavioural therapy for alcohol abuse. Methods A total of 80 out-patients with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse completed measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory), rumination (Ruminative Responses Scale) and alcohol use (Quantity-Frequency Scale). Results These indicated that rumination predicted drinking status and level of alcohol use at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. The contribution of rumination was independent of depression and initial level of alcohol use. Conclusions The results confirm that rumination is an important prospective predictor of drinking status and level of alcohol use in alcohol abusers and highlight the potential relevance of targeting rumination in the treatment of alcohol abuse. © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

Spada M.M.,London South Bank University | Giustina L.,Servizio Tossicodipendendenze | Rolandi S.,University of Pavia | Fernie B.A.,Kings College London | Caselli G.,Studi Cognitivi
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy | Year: 2015

Background: Preliminary research has indicated that general facets of metacognition are associated with problem gambling. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether specific facets of metacognition play a role in explaining gambling initiation and perseveration in individuals presenting with gambling disorder. Aim: To investigate: (1) the presence of metacognitive beliefs about gambling; (2) the goal of gambling, and its start and stop signals; and (3) the perceived impact of gambling on self-consciousness. Method: Ten individuals with a diagnosis of gambling disorder were assessed using metacognitive profiling, a semi-structured interview. Results: Findings indicated that all participants endorsed both positive and negative metacognitive beliefs about gambling. The primary goal of gambling was to relieve economic hardship and improve cognitive-emotional state. All participants reported that they did not know when this goal was achieved. Start signals for gambling included the ideas and feelings that gambling could solve problems and sensations that it might be the right time to win. The stop signal for gambling, for all participants, was running out of money. All participants also reported a perceived reduction in self-consciousness during a gambling episode. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence that specific facets of metacognition play a role in gambling disorder. © British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies 2014.

Caselli G.,Studi Cognitivi | Spada M.M.,London South Bank University
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2014

Introduction: The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the construct of desire thinking and test a metacognitive model of desire thinking and craving, based on the work of Spada, Caselli and Wells (2012; 2013), which aims to explain the perseveration of desire thinking. Method: We conducted two studies involving four clinical samples (total N = 493) and a community sample (N = 494) presenting with different addictive behaviors. The relationships among variables were examined by testing the fit of path models within each sample. Results: In the model presented it was proposed that positive metacognitions about desire thinking are associated with, in turn, imaginal prefiguration and verbal perseveration, marking the activation of desire thinking. Verbal perseveration is then associated to negative metacognitions about desire thinking and craving denoting the pathological escalation of desire thinking. Finally, a direct association between positive metacognitions about desire thinking and negative metacognitions about desire thinking would mark those occasions where target-achieving behaviour runs as an automatized schemata without the experience of craving. Results indicated a good model fit in the clinical sample and a variation in the model structure in the community sample. Conclusion: These findings provide further support for the application of metacognitive theory to desire thinking and craving in addictive behaviors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Spada M.M.,London South Bank University | Caselli G.,Studi Cognitivi | Nikcevic A.V.,Kingston University | Wells A.,University of Manchester
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2015

Background: Over the last twenty years metacognitive theory has provided a novel framework, in the form of the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model, for conceptualizing psychological distress (Wells & Matthews, 1994, 1996). The S-REF model proposes that psychological distress persists because of unhelpful coping styles (e.g. extended thinking and thought suppression) which are activated and maintained as a result of metacognitive beliefs. Objective: This paper describes the S-REF model and its application to addictive behaviors using a triphasic metacognitive formulation. Discussion: Evidence on the components of the triphasic metacognitive formulation is reviewed and the clinical implications for applying metacognitive therapy to addictive behaviors outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Spada M.M.,London South Bank University | Caselli G.,Studi Cognitivi | Slaifer M.,University of Pavia | Nikcevic A.V.,Kingston University | Sassaroli S.,Studi Cognitivi
Social Science Computer Review | Year: 2014

This study investigated the role of desire thinking in predicting problematic Internet use (PIU) independently of weekly Internet use, anxiety, depression, and craving for Internet use. A sample of 250 Internet users completed the following self-report instruments: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Internet Use Craving Scale, Desire Thinking Questionnaire, and Internet Addiction Test. The sample was then divided into two subgroups: problematic Internet users (n = 90) and nonproblematic Internet users (n = 140). Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that all variable scores were significantly higher for problematic Internet users than nonproblematic Internet users. A logistic regression analysis indicated that imaginal prefiguration was a predictor of classification as problematic Internet user over and above weekly Internet use, anxiety, depression, and craving for Internet use. A hierarchical regression analysis, on the combined sample, indicated that both verbal perseveration and imaginal prefiguration predicted PIU independently of weekly Internet use, anxiety, depression, and craving for Internet use. These results add to the argument that the construct of desire thinking is relevant in understanding of addictive behaviors including PIU. © The Author(s) 2013.

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