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Bojan A.J.,Gothenburg University | Beimel C.,Stryker Osteosynthesis | Taglang G.,University of Strasbourg | Collin D.,Gothenburg University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2013

Background: The most common mechanical failure in the internal fixation of trochanteric hip fractures is the cut-out of the sliding screw through the femoral head. Several factors that influence this complication have been suggested, but there is no consensus as to the relative importance of each factor.The purpose of this study was to analyse the cut-out complication with respect to the following variables: patients' age, fracture type, fracture reduction, implant positioning and implant design. Methods. 3066 consecutive patients were treated for trochanteric fractures with Gamma Nails between 1990 and 2002 at the Centre de Traumatologie et de l'Orthopedie (CTO), Strasbourg, France. Cut-out complications were identified by reviewing all available case notes and radiographs. Subsequently, the data were analysed by a single reviewer (AJB) with focus on the studied factors. Results: Seventy-one cut-out complications were found (2.3%) of the 3066 trochanteric fractures. Cut-out failure associated with avascular head necrosis, pathologic fracture, deep infection or secondary to prior failure of other implants were excluded from the study (14 cases). The remaining 57 cases (1.85 %, median age 82.6, 79% females) were believed to have a biomechanical explanation for the cut-out failure. 41 patients had a basicervical or complex fracture type. A majority of cut-outs (43 hips, 75%) had a combination of the critical factors studied; non-anatomical reduction, non-optimal lag screw position and the characteristic fracture pattern found. Conclusions: The primary cut-out rate of 1.85% was low compared with the literature. A typical cut-out complication in our study is represented by an unstable fracture involving the trochanteric and cervical regions or the combination of both, non-anatomical reduction and non-optimal screw position. Surgeons confronted with proximal femoral fractures should carefully scrutinize preoperative radiographs to assess the primary fracture geometry and fracture classification. To reduce the risk of a cut-out it is important to achieve both anatomical reduction and optimal lag screw position as these are the only two factors that can be controlled by the surgeon. © 2013 Bojan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Stadelmann V.A.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Stadelmann V.A.,University of Calgary | Bretton E.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Terrier A.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2010

An obvious means to improve the fixation of a cancellous bone screw is to augment the surrounding bone with cement. Previous studies have shown that bone augmentation with Calcium Phosphate (CaP) cement significantly improves screw fixation. Nevertheless, quantitative data about the optimal distribution of CaP cement is not available. The present study aims to show the effect of cement distribution on the screw fixation strength for various cortical thicknesses and to determine the conditions at which cement augmentation can compensate for the absence of cortical fixation in osteoporotic bone. In this study, artificial bone materials were used to mimic osteoporotic cancellous bone and cortical bone of varying thickness. These bone constructs were used to test the fixation strength of cancellous bone screws in different cortical thicknesses and different cement augmentation depths. The cement distribution was measured with microCT. The maximum pullout force was measured experimentally. The microCT analysis revealed a pseudo-conic shape distribution of the cement around the screws. While the maximum pullout strength of the screws in the artificial bone only was 30±7. N, it could increase up to approximately 1000. N under optimal conditions. Cement augmentation significantly increased pullout force in all cases. The effect of cortical thickness on pullout force was reduced with increased cement augmentation depth. Indeed, cement augmentation without cortical fixation increased pullout forces over that of screws without cement augmentation but with cortical fixation. Since cement augmentation significantly increased pullout force in all cases, we conclude that the loss of cortical fixation can be compensated by cement augmentation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Hogel F.,Institute for Biomechanics | Hogel F.,Traumacenter Murnau e.V. | Gerber C.,Stryker Osteosynthesis | Buhren V.,Traumacenter Murnau e.V. | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery | Year: 2013

Background: Modern intramedullary implants provide the option to perform compression at the fracture gap in long bone fractures via a compression screw mechanism. The aim of this study was to assess if the application of interfragmentary compression in the intramedullary nailing of tibia fractures could increase the union rate and speed of fracture healing. Methods: Sixty-three patients who suffered from an AO-type 42-A3 or 42-B2 fracture that was treated by reamed intramedullary nailing between 2003 and 2008 were included in this retrospective study. Twenty-five patients were treated with dynamic interlocking without compression while 38 were treated with compression nailing. The compression load of the dynamic proximal screw was calculated by postoperative X-ray and radiographs taken four weeks after operation. Healing was assessed by radiological evaluation until the completion of bony healing or the disappearance of clinical symptoms. Nonunion was defined as the absence of radiological union and the persistence of clinical symptoms after six months. Results: Postoperative compression was applied at a mean load of 1,852 N, and 980 N remained after four weeks. In the compression group, 19 open and 19 closed fractures occurred. In the non-compression group, 25 patients were included (14 closed and 11 open cases). Active compression decreased healing time significantly. Nonunion occurred in one compression patient and three non-compression patients. Conclusion: The results show that additional compression of the fracture gap can improve healing outcome in simple transverse tibial shaft fractures treated with reamed nailing. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Born C.T.,Brown University | Karich B.,Heinrich Braun Krankenhaus | Bauer C.,Stryker Osteosynthesis | Von Oldenburg G.,Stryker Osteosynthesis | Augat P.,BG Unfallklinik Murnau
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2011

Despite continued improvement in the methods and devices used to treat intertrochanteric fractures, there remains an unacceptable amount of failures. The cut-out rate for hip screws has been recorded up to 8.3%. To evaluate the migration of different implants under physiological loads, a multiplanar biomechanical test method for hip screws was developed, the first to incorporate a simulation of the human gait cycle by an oscillating flexion/extension movement of the test device. The new method was used to compare different hip screw and blade designs with respect to their directional migration resistance. The test method generated failure modes that were consistent with those observed clinically. Under cyclic loading, the hip screws migrated predominantly in a cephalad direction. In contrast, the helical blades exhibited a distinct migration in their axial direction. The Gamma3 hip screw design showed a significantly higher migration resistance compared with other screw and helical blade designs. The results demonstrate the ability of hip screws to significantly reduce axial migration and prevent cut-out under simulated walking loads. Further, the new multiplanar test method creates a physiological environment that can be used to optimize designs for intertrochanteric fracture fixation. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

Arnoldi J.,Stryker Osteosynthesis | Arnoldi J.,Gothenburg University | Alves A.,Namsa Biomatech | Procter P.,Stryker Osteosynthesis | Procter P.,Brunel University
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2014

Background: In fracture treatment, adequate fixation of implants is crucial to long-term clinical performance. Bisphosphonates (BP), potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption, are known to increase peri-implant bone mass and accelerate primary fixation. However, adverse effects are associated with systemic use of BPs. Thus, Zoledronic acid (ZOL) a potent BP was loaded on bone screws and evaluated in a local delivery model. Whilst mid- to long-term effects are already reported, early cellular events occurring at the implant/bone interface are not well described. The present study investigated early tissue responses to ZOL locally delivered, by bone screw, into a compromised cancellous bone site. Methods. ZOL was immobilized on fibrinogen coated titanium screws. Using a bilateral approach, ZOL loaded test and non-loaded control screws were implanted into femoral condyle bone defects, created by an overdrilling technique. Histological analyses of the local tissue effects such as new bone formation and osteointegration were performed at days 1, 5 and 10. Results: Histological evaluation of the five day ZOL group, demonstrated a higher osseous differentiation trend. At ten days an early influx of mesenchymal and osteoprogenitor cells was seen and a higher level of cellular proliferation and differentiation (p < 5%). In the ZOL group bone-to-screw contact and bone volume values within the defect tended to increase. Local drug release did not induce any adverse cellular effects. Conclusion: This study indicates that local ZOL delivery into a compromised cancellous bone site actively supports peri-implant osteogenesis, positively affecting mesenchymal cells, at earlier time points than previously reported in the literature. © 2014 Arnoldi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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