PubMed | Structural Biology Program and., Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Radiology.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry | Year: 2015
B7-H3 (CD276) is both an inhibitory ligand for natural killer cells and T cells and a tumor antigen that is widely expressed among human solid tumors. Anti-B7-H3 mouse monoclonal antibody 8H9 has been successfully used for radioimmunotherapy for patients with B7-H3(+) tumors. We present the humanization, affinity maturation, and epitope mapping of 8H9 based on structure determination, modeling, and yeast display methods. The crystal structure of ch8H9 Fab fragment was solved to 2.5- resolution and used as a template for humanization. By displaying the humanized 8H9 single chain Fv (scFv) on the surface of yeast, the affinity was matured by sequential random mutagenesis and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Six mutations (three in the complementarity-determining region and three in the framework regions) were identified and incorporated into an affinity-matured humanized 8H9 construct (hu8H9-6m) and an affinity-matured chimeric 8H9 construct (ch8H9-6m). The hu8H9-6m scFv had a 160-fold improvement in affinity (0.9 nm KD) compared with parental hu8H9 scFv (144 nm KD). The IgG formats of ch8H9-6m and hu8H9-6m (nanomolar to subnanomolar KD) had 2-9-fold enhancements in affinity compared with their parental forms, potent in vitro antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (0.1-0.3 g/ml EC50), and high tumor uptake in mouse xenografts. Based on in silico docking studies and experimental validation, the molecular epitope of 8H9 was determined to be dependent on the FG loop of B7-H3, a region critical to its function in immunologic blockade and unique among anti-B7-H3 antibodies published to date.
PubMed | Structural Biology Program and.
Type: | Journal: Annual review of biophysics | Year: 2014
Attachment of ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) to cellular proteins regulates numerous cellular processes including transcription, the cell cycle, stress responses, DNA repair, apoptosis, immune responses, and autophagy, to name a few. The mechanistically parallel but functionally distinct conjugation pathways typically require the concerted activities of three types of protein: E1 Ubl-activating enzymes, E2 Ubl carrier proteins, and E3 Ubl ligases. E1 enzymes initiate pathway specificity for each cascade by recognizing and activating cognate Ubls, followed by catalyzing Ubl transfer to cognate E2 protein(s). Under certain circumstances, the E2 Ubl complex can direct ligation to the target protein, but most often requires the cooperative activity of E3 ligases. Reviewed here are recent structural and functional studies that improve our mechanistic understanding of E1-, E2-, and E3-mediated Ubl conjugation.