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Dramicanin M.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group | Dramicanin M.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Lopez-Mendez B.,Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Unit | Lopez-Mendez B.,Novo Nordisk AS | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Structural Biology | Year: 2015

MuB is an ATP-dependent DNA-binding protein that regulates the activity of MuA transposase and delivers the target DNA for transposition of phage Mu. Mechanistic insight into MuB function is limited to its AAA+ ATPase module, which upon ATP binding assembles into helical filaments around the DNA. However, the structure and function of the flexible N-terminal domain (NTD) appended to the AAA+ module remains uncharacterized. Here we report the solution structure of MuB NTD determined by NMR spectroscopy. The structure reveals a compact domain formed by four α-helices connected by short loops, and confirms the presence of a helix-turn-helix motif. High structural similarity and sequence homology with λ repressor-like DNA-binding domains suggest a possible role of MuB NTD in DNA binding. We also demonstrate that the NTD directly mediates the ability of MuB to establish filament-filament interactions. These findings lead us to a model in which the NTD interacts with the AAA+ spirals and perhaps also with the DNA bound within the filament, favoring MuB polymerization and filament clustering. We propose that the MuB NTD-dependent filament interactions might be an effective mechanism to bridge distant DNA regions during Mu transposition. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Lallous N.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group | Grande-Garcia A.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group | Molina R.,Macromolecular Crystallography Group | Ramon-Maiques S.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications | Year: 2012

CAD is a 243 kDa eukaryotic multifunctional polypeptide that catalyzes the first three reactions of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis: glutamine-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase, aspartate transcarbamylase and dihydroorotase (DHO). In prokaryotes, these activities are associated with monofunctional proteins, for which crystal structures are available. However, there is no detailed structural information on the full-length CAD protein or any of its functional domains apart from that it associates to form a homohexamer of 1.5 MDa. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of the DHO domain of human CAD are reported. The DHO domain forms homodimers in solution. Crystallization experiments yielded small crystals that were suitable for X-ray diffraction studies. A diffraction data set was collected to 1.75 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at the SLS, Villigen, Switzerland. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.1, b = 159.3, c = 61.5 Å. The Matthews coefficient calculation suggested the presence of one protein molecule per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 48%. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography All rights reserved. Source


Grande-Garcia A.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group | Lallous N.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group | Lallous N.,Vancouver Prostate Center | Diaz-Tejada C.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group | Ramon-Maiques S.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group
Structure | Year: 2014

Upregulation of CAD, the multifunctional protein that initiates and controls the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines in animals, is essential for cell proliferation. Deciphering the architecture and functioning of CAD is of interest for its potential usage as an antitumoral target. However, there is no detailed structural information about CAD other than that it self-assembles into hexamers of ∼1.5 MDa. Here we report the crystal structure and functional characterization of the dihydroorotase domain of human CAD. Contradicting all assumptions, the structure reveals an active site enclosed by a flexible loop with two Zn2+ ions bridged by a carboxylated lysine and a third Zn coordinating a rare histidinate ion. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional assays prove the involvement of the Zn and flexible loop in catalysis. Comparison with homologous bacterial enzymes supports a reclassification of the DHOase family and provides strong evidence against current models of the architecture of CAD. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ruiz-Ramos A.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group | Lallous N.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group | Lallous N.,Vancouver Prostate Center | Grande-Garcia A.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group | Ramon-Maiques S.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications | Year: 2013

Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) catalyzes the synthesis of N-carbamoyl-l-aspartate from carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate in the second step of the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. In prokaryotes, the first three activities of the pathway, namely carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPSase), ATCase and dihydroorotase (DHOase), are encoded as distinct proteins that function independently or in noncovalent association. In animals, CPSase, ATCase and DHOase are part of a 243kDa multifunctional polypeptide named CAD. Up-regulation of CAD is essential for normal and tumour cell proliferation. Although the structures of numerous prokaryotic ATCases have been determined, there is no structural information about any eukaryotic ATCase. In fact, the only detailed structural information about CAD is that it self-assembles into hexamers and trimers through interactions of the ATCase domains. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of the ATCase domain of human CAD is reported. The recombinant protein, which was expressed in bacteria and purified with good yield, formed homotrimers in solution. Crystallization experiments both in the absence and in the presence of the inhibitor PALA yielded small crystals that diffracted X-rays to 2.1Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals appeared to belong to the hexagonal space group P6322, and Matthews coefficient calculation indicated the presence of one ATCase subunit per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 48%. However, analysis of the intensity statistics suggests a special case of the P21 lattice with pseudo-symmetry and possibly twinning. © 2013 International Union of Crystallography. Source


Ruiz-Ramos A.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group | Velazquez-Campoy A.,University of Zaragoza | Velazquez-Campoy A.,Aragon Institute for Health Research IIS Aragon | Grande-Garcia A.,Structural Bases of Genome Integrity Group | And 2 more authors.
Structure | Year: 2016

CAD, the multienzymatic protein that initiates and controls de novo synthesis of pyrimidines in animals, associates through its aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) domain into particles of 1.5 MDa. Despite numerous structures of prokaryotic ATCases, we lack structural information on the ATCase domain of CAD. Here, we report the structure and functional characterization of human ATCase, confirming the overall similarity with bacterial homologs. Unexpectedly, human ATCase exhibits cooperativity effects that reduce the affinity for the anti-tumoral drug PALA. Combining structural, mutagenic, and biochemical analysis, we identified key elements for the necessary regulation and transmission of conformational changes leading to cooperativity between subunits. Mutation of one of these elements, R2024, was recently found to cause the first non-lethal CAD deficit. We reproduced this mutation in human ATCase and measured its effect, demonstrating that this arginine is part of a molecular switch that regulates the equilibrium between low- and high-affinity states for the ligands. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source

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