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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Urban A.,University of Paris Descartes | Urban A.,Stroke Research Team | Dussaux C.,University of Paris Descartes | Dussaux C.,Stroke Research Team | And 7 more authors.
Nature Methods

Innovative imaging methods help to investigate the complex relationship between brain activity and behavior in freely moving animals. Functional ultrasound (fUS) is an imaging modality suitable for recording cerebral blood volume (CBV) dynamics in the whole brain but has so far been used only in head-fixed and anesthetized rodents. We designed a fUS device for tethered brain imaging in freely moving rats based on a miniaturized ultrasound probe and a custom-made ultrasound scanner. We monitored CBV changes in rats during various behavioral states such as quiet rest, after whisker or visual stimulations, and in a food-reinforced operant task. We show that fUS imaging in freely moving rats could efficiently decode brain activity in real time. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. Source

Chatterjee K.,Countess of Chester Hospital | Fall S.,Stroke Research Team | Barer D.,Stroke Research Team
BMC Neurology

Background: Though vascular factors may be important in the aetiology of late-life depression, it is not clear whether they have a major effect on the risk of depression after a stroke. We investigated the relationship between physiological, biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic factors and late-phase post-stroke depression in a cross-sectional case-control study.Methods: People living at home at least 9 months after a stroke were interviewed using a structured proforma. Depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, together with a Montgomery Asberg (MADRS) score ≥17. Stroke survivors of similar age and functional status but without symptoms of, or recent treatment for, depression and with MADRS score <7, were recruited as controls.Results: Stroke survivors with depression were more likely than controls to have been smokers, to have had hypertension or peripheral arterial disease, and to have had more than one stroke or multiple discrete brainscan lesions. In univariate analysis they had significantly higher blood pressure, lower Mini-Mental State (MMSE) scores, higher serum homocysteine and lower folate levels, as well as more extensive white matter and basal ganglia changes on brainscan. In logistic regression, previous hypertension (OR 3.4), peripheral vascular disease (OR 4.7), number of strokes (OR 2), MMSE score (OR 0.76) and basal ganglia changes (OR 2.2), were independently associated with depression.Conclusion: These results suggest that patients with hypertension, hyperhomocysteinaemia and other factors associated with cerebral small vessel disease, may be more susceptible to post-stroke depression. Future intervention trials should focus on such high risk groups. © 2010 Chatterjee et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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