Berankova D.,Centrum pro Kognitivni Poruchy |
Berankova D.,Stredoevropsky Technologicky Institute MU |
Krulova P.,Centrum pro Kognitivni Poruchy |
Mrackova M.,Stredoevropsky Technologicky Institute MU |
And 9 more authors.
Ceska a Slovenska Neurologie a Neurochirurgie | Year: 2015
Aim: The aim of this study was to provide benchmark normal values for Addenbrooke's cognitive examination (ACE-R) and its domains for the Czech population. Methods: The study included 143 healthy subjects (89 women and 54 men) aged 55-89 years, without brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, severe hearing or visual impairment and without a psychiatric disease, with MMSE above 27 points. Participants were interviewed in detail to ascertain any previous brain injury history and to determine the level of self-sufficiency in daily living activities. Individuals with a history of brain injury or impaired self-sufficiency were excluded from the study. ACE-R values and values for its domains in men and women were compared with Mann-Whitney test and values for the four age and education groups were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. P-values were corrected for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction. Results: Cut-off scores were set at 2nd and 7th percentile. Negative correlation with age (p < 0.001, r = -0.43) and positive correlation with education (p < 0.001, r = 0.41) were statistically significant for the overall test performance and also for the performance in individual cognitive domains except for the Attention and orientation domain. The effect of sex was not statistically significant. The cut-off score for the total score in Addenbrooke's cognitive examination for all subjects aged 55-89 years is 74 points at the 2nd percentile and 79 points at the 7th percentile. Conclusion: The study suggests cut-off scores for the Czech population of ACE-R and provides the basis for the development of Czech norms for this test.
Bursova S.,Neurologicka Klinika |
Bursova S.,Stredoevropsky Technologicky Institute MU |
Vlckova E.,Neurologicka Klinika |
Vlckova E.,Stredoevropsky Technologicky Institute MU |
And 8 more authors.
Ceska a Slovenska Neurologie a Neurochirurgie | Year: 2012
Introduction: At present, evaluation of intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) from skin biopsies represents one of the most important methods for diagnosing neuropathic pain and sensory neuropathies, particularly in small-fiber neuropathy patients. The aim of the study was to analyze the effects physiological variables may have on IENFD values and to establish valid IENFD normal limits for distal calf region. Furthermore, we evaluated the IENFD values from anterolateral proximal thigh samples in a pilot study with a small group of healthy individuals. Patients and methods: Skin biopsies from the distal calf were obtained from a group of 74 healthy individuals (39 men, 35 women, age: median 54.5 years, range 27-84 years). IENFD was established in all the samples using the indirect immunofluorescence method. The effect of age and gender on IENFD values was evaluated and age-stratified normal values were derived in subgroups of patients aged 20-40, 40-60 and 60+ years. In addition, IENFD values obtained from proximal thigh skin biopsies of 14 individuals were compared to the distal samples. Results: Significant age-related decrease in IENFD values and non-significant trend to higher IENFD values in women were found in distal skin biopsy samples. Lower normal limits in the respective age subgroups were set at 5.5-5.1-1.9 fibers per 1 mm in men and 6.1-5.2-3.1, respectively, in women. Compared to the distal samples, proximal IENFD values were significantly higher. Conclusion: In a group of healthy volunteers, a significant effect of age and non-significant trend towards an effect of gender on IENFD values was found. Therefore, age-stratified and gender-specific normal values should be used when evaluating IENFD in distal skin biopsy samples. Comparison of these findings to proximal thigh samples confirms significant proximo-distal gradient of IENFD values.